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Ukaan (also Ikan, Anyaran, Auga, or Kakumo) is a poorly described Niger–Congo language or dialect cluster of uncertain affiliation.[3][4]Roger Blench suspects, based on wordlists, that it may be closest to the (East) Benue–Congo languages (or, equivalently, the most divergent of the Benue–Congo languages). Blench (2012) states that "noun-classes and concord make it look Benue-Congo, but evidence is weak."[5]

Ukaan
Native toNigeria
RegionOndo State, Ekiti State, Kogi State
Native speakers
(18,000 cited 1973)[1]
Dialects
  • Ukaan proper
  • Igau
  • Ayegbe (Iisheu)
  • Iinno (Iyinno)
Language codes
ISO 639-3kcf
Glottologukaa1243[2]

Contents

VarietiesEdit

The name Anyaran is from the town of Anyaran, where it is spoken. Ukaan has several divergent dialects: Ukaan proper, Igau, Ayegbe (Iisheu), Iinno (Iyinno), which may only have one-way intelligibility in some cases.

Roger Blench (2005)[6] considers Ukaan to consist of at least 3 different languages, and notes that Ukaan varieties spoken in Auga, Ikaan, and Ishe all have different lexemes.

Salffner (2009: 27)[7] lists the following four dialects of Ukaan.

  • Ikaan: spoken in Ikakumo and Ikakumo (Edo State)
  • Ayegbe: spoken in Ise
  • Iigau or Iigao: spoken in Auga
  • Iino: spoken in Ayanran

DistributionEdit

Ethnologue lists the following locations where Ukaan is spoken.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ukaan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ukaan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition" (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2009-04-03.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "HRELP – Projects". Retrieved 2009-04-03.
  5. ^ Roger Blench, Niger-Congo: an alternative view
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2005. The Ukaan language: Bantu in south-western Nigeria?
  7. ^ Salffner, Sophie. 2009. Tone in the phonology, lexicon and grammar of Ikaan. Doctoral dissertation, University of London.

External linksEdit