Ukaan (also Ikan, Anyaran, Auga, or Kakumo) is a poorly described Niger–Congo language or dialect cluster of uncertain affiliation.Roger Blench suspects, based on wordlists, that it may be closest to the (East) Benue–Congo languages (or, equivalently, the most divergent of the Benue–Congo languages). Blench (2012) states that "noun-classes and concord make it look Benue-Congo, but evidence is weak."
|Region||Ondo State, Ekiti State, Kogi State|
|(18,000 cited 1973)|
Speakers refer to their language as Ùkãã or Ìkã.
The name Anyaran is from the town of Anyaran, where it is spoken. Ukaan has several divergent dialects: Ukaan proper, Igau, Ayegbe (Iisheu), Iinno (Iyinno), which may only have one-way intelligibility in some cases.
Salffner (2009: 27) lists the following four dialects of Ukaan.
- Ikaan: spoken in Ikakumo and Ikakumo (Edo State)
- Ayegbe: spoken in Ise
- Iigau or Iigao: spoken in Auga
- Iino: spoken in Ayanran
Ethnologue lists the following locations where Ukaan is spoken.
- Ondo State: Akoko North-East LGA
- Edo State: Akoko Edo LGA
- Kogi State: Ijumu LGA (Anyaran, Auga, and Ishe towns)
Proto-Ukaan has been reconstructed by Abiodun (1999).
- List of Proto-Ukaan reconstructions (Wiktionary)
- Ukaan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ukaan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition" (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2009-04-03.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "HRELP – Projects". Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Roger Blench, Niger-Congo: an alternative view
- Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
- Blench, Roger. 2005. The Ukaan language: Bantu in south-western Nigeria?
- Salffner, Sophie. 2009. Tone in the phonology, lexicon and grammar of Ikaan. Doctoral dissertation, University of London.
- Abiodun, Michael Ajibola. 1999. A comparative phonology and morphology of Ukaan dialects of Old Akoko division. Doctoral dissertation. University of Ilorin.
- ELAR archive of Farming, food and yam: language and cultural practices among Ikaan speakers
- Roger Blench: Aika (Ukaan) materials
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