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Oko, also known as Ogori-Magongo and Oko-Eni-Osayen, is a dialect cluster spoken in Nigeria. It appears to form a branch of the "Nupe–Oko–Idoma" (noi) group of Niger–Congo languages. Most Oko speakers also speak Yoruba as a second language. The language is spoken in and around the towns of Ogori and Magongo in southwestern Kogi State, close to the Ondo and Edo state borders.

Oko
Ogori-Magongo
Native toNigeria
RegionKogi State
Native speakers
40,000 (2006)[1]
Niger–Congo
Dialects
  • Oko
  • Eni
  • Osayen
Language codes
ISO 639-3oks
Glottologokoe1238[2]

Contents

DistributionEdit

According to Ethnologue, Oko is spoken in:

VarietiesEdit

Oko is a dialect cluster consisting of (Ethnologue):

  • Oko (Ogori, Uku)
  • Osayen (Magongo, Osanyin)
  • Eni

Below is a list of Ọkọ–Eni–Ọsayẹn language cluster names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[3]

Language Alternate spellings Other names (location-based) Speakers
Ọkọ Uku, Oko Ogori (town name), Gori 4,000 (1970??)
Ọsayẹn Osanyin, Ọsayɛn Magongo (town name) 3,000 (1970??)
Eni 3,000 (1970??)

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Voiceless plosive p t k k͡p
Voiced plosive b d g ɡ͡b
Voiceless fricative f s h
Voiced fricative z
Voiceless affricate t͡ʃ
Voiced affricate d͡ʒ
Trill r
Approximant l j w

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a

Each vowel also has a nasal equivalent.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Oko at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Oko-Eni-Osayen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  4. ^ Atoyebi, Joseph Dele. 2009. A Reference Grammar of Oko. Umuneke-Okpala, Nigeria: Leipzig University Press.