Kainji languages

The Kainji languages are a group of about 60 related languages spoken in west-central Nigeria. They form part of the Central Nigerian (Platoid) branch of Benue–Congo.

Kainji
Geographic
distribution
Kainji Lake, Nigeria
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
Subdivisions
  • Lake
  • core Kainji
Glottologkain1275
Map of the Kainji languages.svg
The Kainji languages shown within the Middle Belt of central Nigeria

DemographicsEdit

Four of the most widely spoken Kainji languages are Tsuvadi (150,000), Cishingini and Tsishingini (100,000 each)—all from the Kambari branch; and Clela (C'lela, Lela) (100,000), of the Northwest Kainji branch. In total, there were about one million speakers of Kainji languages (1990s estimate) in Nigeria.

HistoryEdit

Proto-Kainji is estimated by Blench (2012) to be 3,000 to 4,000 years old. Its broken distribution today is likely due to the historical northward expansion of the Nupoid languages.[1]

MorphologyEdit

Proto-Kainji nominal prefixes:[2]

  • *mV- for liquids and other mass nouns
  • *u- for person, *ba- for people
  • *kV- for diminutive and perhaps also augmentative; also found in some Plateau languages

ClassificationEdit

The most divergent of the Kainji languages are Reshe, Laru and Lopa, which may form a branch together. Subclassification of the other branches is not yet clear. A bipartite division between East Kainji and West Kainji is no longer maintained, with West Kainji now being paraphyletic.

Blench (2018)Edit

Most recent Kainji classification by Blench (2018:64):[2]

Blench (2012)Edit

Blench's (2012) classification is:[1]

McGill (2012)Edit

A revised classification of the Kainji languages by McGill (2012) splits Kainji into the Lake and Central branches.[3]

Kainji

Gerhardt (1983)Edit

Classification of Plateau 1a (now West Kainji) and Plateau 1b (now East Kainji) languages by Gerhardt (1983),[4] based on Maddieson (1972):[5]

Plateau 1a
  • Laru-Lopa
  • Reshe
  • Kambari cluster
  • Ngwoi, Kamuku cluster, Bassa-Kontagora, Ashaganna
  • Bassa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kuta, Gurmana, Pongo, Baushi, Ura, Bassa-Kwomu
  • Dakarkari, Duka, Pəku-Kəri-Wipsi cluster, Lyase
Plateau 1b
  • Kuda-Chamo, Butu-Ningi, Gyema, Taura, Lemoro-Sanga, Janji, Shani, Buji-Ibunu-Jere-Gus, Anaguta
  • Kuzamaini, Kurama, Rumaya, Ruruma, Binawa, Kono, Surubu
  • Kaivi, Kiballo, Kitimi, Kinuku, Dungi, Gure-Kahugu
  • Amo

Names and locationsEdit

Below is a comprehensive list of Kainji language names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[6]

Note: West Kainji is geographical rather than genealogical.

Group Primary locations
Distributions of Kainji groups[6]
East Kainji Kauru LGA, Kaduna State and Bassa LGA, Plateau State
West Kainji Rafi LGA, Niger State and Zuru and Yauri LGAs, Kebbi State (Kainji Lake area)

East KainjiEdit

West KainjiEdit

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Hɨpɨna Baushi Supana Tihɨpɨna Vihɨpɨna pl. Ahɨpɨna Niger State, Rafi LGA, Supana town
Mɨn Baushi Tiimɨn Vʷinyi Mɨn pl. Ayi Mɨn Bauchi Guda, Kukoki (name of largest town) Niger State, Rafi LGA, 27 villages in 8 chiefships
Ndәkә Baushi Shena may be a dialect Madaka Tundәkә Vundәkә pl. Andәka Niger State, Rafi LGA, Madaka town
Rubu Baushi Niger State, Rafi LGA, Rubu town
Wãyã Baushi Wayam Tũwãyã Vũwãyã pl. Ãwãyã Niger State, Rafi and Shiroro LGAs, Wayam town
Samburu Baushi Niger State, Rafi LGA, Samburu town no data
Gurmana Eastern estimated more than 3,000 (1989) Niger State, Shiroro LGA. Gurmana town and nearby hamlets
Cipu Kambari Kumbashi, Tikula, Ticihun, Tirisino, Tidipo, Tizoriyo, Tiddodimo Cicipu Tocipu Acipa, Achipa, Achipawa, Atsipawa Tәcәp Tochipo Tә–Sәgәmuk Bucepo sg., Ucɛpo pl. Bu–Sәgәmuk sg. 3,600 (1949 G&C) Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA; Niger State, Mariga and Rafi LGA, Kaduna State Birnin Gwari LGA
Damakawa (extinct) Kambari Damakawa Tidama’un (Cicipu name) 500-1000 ethnic population, but language now has only a few rememberers Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA, villages of Inguwar Kilo and Marandu The dubious reliability of some of the data and the possibility of Cipu loans makes the classification of Damakawa slightly uncertain.
Kambari I cluster Kambari Kambari I Kamberi with Kambari II: 67,000 (1952 W&B); 100,000 (1973 SIL) Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGAs; Kebbi State, Zuru and Yauri LGAs; Niger State, Borgu LGA
Agaɗi Kambari Kambari I Tsɨgaɗi Kakihum Niger State, Mariga LGA
Avaɗi Kambari Kambari I Abadi, Evadi Tsɨvaɗi Ibeto Niger State, Magama LGA
Baangi Kambari Kambari I Baangi ciBaangi sg. vuBaangi, pl. aBaangi Bangawa (Hausa) estimate more than 5,000 (1989) Niger State, Kontagora LGA, Ukata town and nearby villages; probably also into adjacent Kebbi State, Yauri LGA
Tsishingini Kambari Kambari I Cishingini, Tsishingini Mashingini pl. Ashingini Salka Niger State, Magama LGA
Yumu Kambari Kambari I Yumu, Osisi Niger State, Borgu LGA, at Yumu and Osisi
Kambari II cluster Kambari Kambari II Kamberi with Kambari I: 67,000 (1952 W&B); 100,000 (1973 SIL) Niger State, Magama LGA; Kebbi State, Zuru and Yauri LGAs; Kwara State, Borgu LGA
Agaushi Kambari Kambari II Cishingini Auna Niger State, Magama LGA; Kebbi State, Yauri LGA
Akimba Kambari Kambari II Tsɨkimba Akimba Auna, Wara Niger State, Rijau, Magama LGA; Kebbi State, Yauri LGA
Cishingini, Nwanci Kambari Kambari II Cishingini, Ngwәci Cishingini, Tsɨwәnci Mawunci sg. Ŋwәnci pl. Agwara Agara’iwa Niger State, Borgu, Magama LGA; Kebbi State, Yauri LGA
Zubazuba Kamuku Gamazuba Igwama, Mariga LGA, Niger State
Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki cluster Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Kamuku Niger State, Chanchagga, Rafi and Mariga LGAs
Cinda Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Oxford Primary Maths 1 (1988?) Jinda, Majinda Tucindә sg. Bucindә pl. Cindә Niger State, Mariga, Rafi, Kusheriki LGAs, Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA
Regi Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Turegi sg. Buregi pl. Regi Niger State, Mariga, Rafi, Kusheriki LGAs, Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA
Kuki Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Azana, Akubyar Tiyar [town name not a language] TuKuki BuKuki pl. Kuki Kamuku Niger State, Mariga, Rafi, Kusheriki LGAs, Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA
Kwacika (extinct) Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Tukwacika sg. Bukwacika pl. Kwacika There was only one elderly speaker in the 1980s; hence, it is almost certainly extinct Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA
Kwagere Kamuku Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki Niger State, Chanchagga, Rafi and Mariga LGAs
Basa-Gurara–Basa-Benue–Basa-Makurdi cluster Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gurara–Basa-Benue–Basa-Makurdi
Basa-Gurara Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gurara–Basa-Benue–Basa-Makurdi Basa-Kwali Federal Capital Territory, Yaba and Kwali LGAs, along the Gurara river
Basa-Benue Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gurara–Basa-Benue–Basa-Makurdi Basa RuBasa TuBasa Abacha, Abatsa Basa-Komo, Basa-Kwomu (not recommended) 30,000 (1944-50 HDG); 100,000 (1973 SIL) Kogi State, Bassa, and Ankpa LGAs, Nasarawa State, Nasarawa LGA
Basa-Makurdi Kamuku–Basa Benue State, Makurdi LGA, several villages on the north bank of the Benue, northwest of Makurdi no data
Basa-Gumna–Basa-Kontagora cluster (extinct?) Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gumna–Basa-Kontagora (extinct?)
Basa-Gumna (extinct) Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gumna–Basa-Kontagora (extinct?) Gwadara-Basa, Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna Only 2 known semi-speakers in 1987. The population known as Basawa speaks only Hausa. Probably now extinct Niger State, Chanchaga LGA
Basa-Kontagora (extinct) Kamuku–Basa Basa-Gumna–Basa-Kontagora (extinct?) Fewer than 10 speakers in 1987. Probably now extinct Niger State, Mariga LGA, N.E. of Kontagora
Basa-Gurmana Kamuku–Basa Kɔrɔmba more than 2,000 speakers (1987) Niger State, border of Rafi and Chanchaga LGAs, Kafin Gurmana
Rogo Kamuku–Basa Cinda-Regi-Rogo-Kuki TɔRɔgɔ BɔRɔgɔ sg. Rɔgɔ pl. Ucanja Kamuku Niger State, Rafi and Kusheriki LGAs, around Ucanja town, 30 km northwest of Kagara.
Fungwa Kamuku–Basa Tufungwa Afungwa Ura, Ula 900 (1949 H.D. Gunn) Niger State, Rafi LGA, at Gulbe, Gabi Tukurbe, Urenciki, Renge and Utana
Hùngwә̀ryə̀ Kamuku–Basa Dialects: Bitbit (Kwabitu), Lәklәk (Karaku), Jinjin (Makangara), Wũswũs (Karaiya), Tәmbәrjә (Tambere) Cәhungwә̀ryə̀, Tʷə̀hungwә̀ryə̀ [ʨə̀hungwә̀ryə̀] Bùhùngwə̀ryə̀ sg., ə̀hùngwə̀ryə̀ pl. Ngwoi, Ngwe, Ungwe, Ingwe, Nkwoi, Ngwai, Ungwai, Hungworo 1000 (1949 HDG), 5000 (2007 est.) Niger State, Rafi, Kusheriki LGA, around Kagara and Maikujeri towns
Shama–Sambuga cluster Kamuku–Basa Shama–Sambuga Tushama sg. Bushama, pl. Ushama Kamuku Niger State, Rafi LGA
Shama Kamuku–Basa Shama–Sambuga Tushama Bushama sg. Ushama pl. Niger State, Rafi LGA, Ushama [=Kawo] town. 15 km northwest of Kagara
Sambuga (extinct) Kamuku–Basa Shama–Sambuga Possibly extinct (2008) Niger State, Rafi LGA, Sambuga town. 10 km northwest of Kagara
Shen Lake Laro, Laru Laruwa 1,000 (1992 est.) Niger State, Borgu LGA
Rop Lake Lupa, Lopa Kirikjir Djiri Lopawa 960 (NAT 1950); 5,000 (1992 est.) Niger State, Borgu LGA, Kebbi State, Yauri LGA. At least 6 villages on the east shore of Kainji Lake plus two others on the western shore.
Tsupamini Lake Lopa Lopanci Lopawa 960 (NAT 1950); 5,000 (1992 est.). Global estimate with Rop Niger State, Borgu LGA, Kebbi State, Yauri LGA. At least 6 villages on the east shore of Kainji Lake plus two others on the west shore.
Reshe Lake Birәmi (South), Bәmәmәdu (Northwest), Bәpalame (Northeast). Harris (1930:321) claims a ‘secret dialect’ called Tsudalupe which = Bәmәmәdu. Tsure Ja Tsureshe Bareshe Gunganci Gungawa, Yaurawa 15,000 (1931 G&C); 30,000 (1973 SIL) Kebbi State, Yauri LGA; Niger State, Borgu LGA
Hun–Saare Northern Western (sSaare) (around Dukku), Eastern (tHun) (around Rijau), Tungan Bunu Ethun tHun, sSaare Hunnɛ Duka Dukanci 19,700 (1949 Gunn and Conant); 30,000 (1980 UBS) Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA; Niger State, Rijau LGA
Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun cluster Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun The name ut-Main has been adopted by various members of this cluster as a cover term for these languages, but whether it will be widely adopted remains to be seen. Fakanci, Fakkanci 12,300 (1949 G&C) Kebbi State, Zuru and Wasagu LGAs, west of Dabai
Kag Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun tKag sg. woo Kag, pl. Kagne Faka, Fakai (town name), Fakanci, Fakkanci Pәku–Nu (cLela name) Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, Mahuta and Fakai areas
Fer Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun tFer sg. wasFer, pl. asFer Kukum Wipsi–Ni (cLela name) Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, around Kukum town
Jiәr Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun tJiәr sg. wauJiәr, pl. aJiәr Gelanci Serim Gelawa, Geeri–ni Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, around Bajidda; Rijau LGA, Niger State
Kәr Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun tKәr sg. wauKәr, pl. Kәrne Kela, Adoma Kelanci Kilinci Keri–Ni Kelawa Kebbi State, Zuru and Wasagu LGAs, north of Mahuta but south of the Kag river
Koor Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun t–ma–Koor sg. wauKoor, pl. aKoor Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, around Bakara
Ror Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun Dialect used for language development ǝt–ma–Ror sg. wauRor, pl. aRor Tudawa d–Gwan Kebbi State, Zuru LGA around Birnin Tudu
Us Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun Us have no specific dialect but speak like the Ror tUs sg. wauUs, pl. aUs, asUs Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, west of Fakai
Zuksun Northern Kag–Fer–Jiir–Kar–Koor–Ror–[Us]–Zuksun tZuksun sg. wauZuksun, pl. aZuksun Zusu Wipsi–ni Kebbi State, Zuru LGA around Tungan Kuka, south of Fakai
Wuri-Gwamhyә–Mba Northern Gwamfi wa–Gwamhi sg. a–Gwamhi pl. and wa–Wuri sg. a–Wuri pl. Banganci Lyase–ne Dәknu Bangawa for Gwamhi Two peoples with one language Kebbi State, Wasagu LGA; Gwamhi around Danko town and Wuri around Maga town The term Wurkum is applied to the Kyak, Banda, Kulung, Kwonci, Maghdi, Kholok, Mingang, Pero, Piya, and Nyam group, several of which remain to be investigated.
cLela Northwestern Zuru, Ribah cLela (Clela, C–Lela), Lelna Kәlela sg., Lelna pl. Chilala Dakarci Lalawa, Dakarkari, Dakkarkari, Kalla–Kalla, Cala–Cala 47,000 (1949 G&C); 69,000 (1971 Welmers) Kebbi State, Zuru, Sakaba and Wasagu LGAs; Niger State, Rijau LGA. Around Zuru town
Rin Shiroro Awәgә is sometimes classified as a dialect of Rin, but it may in fact be a distinct but vanishing language spoken by one Rin clan. Tә̀rĩ́, Tarin sg. Bùrĩ,́ pl. Arĩ ́ Arringeu, Pongu, Pongo, Pangu 3,675 (1949 HDG); >20,000 (1988) Niger State, Rafi LGA, near Tegina Despite the indigenous name, forms of Pangu are preferred by the community for publications purposes.

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[7]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Western, Reshe Reshe (Tsureshe) tsúnnɛ̀ rìsə̄ tàtswā nāʃẽ́ tɔ̃̄ tēnzɔ̄ tànsã̄ dálànzɔ̀ tānāʃẽ́ úpwà
Western, Basa Bassa hĩn jèbí tàtɔ néʃì táná tʃìhin tʃéndʒe tɔndatɔ tʃíndʒìʃì uḿpwá
Western, Duka C'lela tʃĩ́ ʔílɨ̀ tɨ́ːt͡ʃù náːsé tã́ t͡ʃíhĩ̀ tã̀ʔílɨ̀ (5 + 2) jɨ́ːɾù dóːɾè ʔóːpá
Western, Duka ut-Ma'in tʃɘ̄ːn jɘ̄ːr tɘ̄t náːs tán ʃìʃìn tàʔèr (5 + 2) ? éːr dʒʷɘ̄ːr ɔ̄p
Western, Kambari Tsishingini (Kambari) íyyán ìɾɛ̀ tàʔàtsú nə́ʃín táːwún tə̀ːlí tʃìndɛ̀ɾɛ́ kùnlə̀ kùttʃí kùppá
Western, Kamuku Western Acipa (Cicipu) tôː jápù tâːtù nósì tã̂u tóɾíhĩ̀ tíndàjà kùrílːò kùtítːí ùkúpːà
Western, Kamuku Cinda (Kamuku) ĩ́jɑ́ ⁿdə́ɰə̀ tɑ́tɔ̀ nə́ʃì tɑ́ɑ̀ tə́nə́hì tə́ndə́ɰə̀ tə́ntɑ́tɔ̀ tə́ndə́ʃì òpɑ́
Western, Kamuku Fungwa (Cifungwa) ń / biké jógò tátù nɔ́ʃì tʃíjĩ̀ tĩ́dòlò tĩ́dátù tĩ́díʃì húpɛ́
Western, Kamuku Hungworo (Hungwere) ĩ́ːjə̃́ ʔʲə̃̂d͡ʒə̀ tât̼ɔ̀ ùnə́sĩ̀ sàtá ūt̼únìhĩ̄ ūtə́ndə̀ɾʲə̄ ūtátàt̼ɔ̄ (2 x 4) ? ūtə́nə̀sĩ̄ īkópʲè
Western, Kamuku Pongu (Pangu) hĩ́ː ɾêːnù tâːtù nə̃́ːʃĩ̀ tʃíníhì tə̃́ndə́ɾə̀ tə̃́ndáːtù tṹndúʃì úpwá
Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Anaguta (Iguta) dínkā rɛ̀ːpú tààrū / tàːrū nàːnzī ʃùːbì twàːsì súnāːrí ùrū tɔ̀rbɔ̀ būtúːrú
Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru Gure (Gbiri-Niraɡu) pi:ʃem piːbɑː piːtær piːnɑːz piːʃiː piːtæ ʃi piːsundæriː piːkunæs piːturuːriː kiʃiːæbɑː / nikpiːrinætʃeti
Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru Kurama (Akurmi) nìdíi tɨɽyá tɨtáaɽɔ tɨnáazɛ úʃii útasɛ úsúndèɽì úɽiɽé ùtáɽá níkúɽí

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2012). "The Kainji languages of northwestern and central Nigeria" (PDF). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  2. ^ a b Blench, Roger M. 2018. Nominal affixing in the Kainji languages of northwestern and central Nigeria. In John R. Watters (ed.), East Benue-Congo: Nouns, pronouns, and verbs, 59–106. Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1314323
  3. ^ McGill, Stuart. 2012. The Kainji languages. Ms, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 30 August 2012.
  4. ^ Gerhardt, Ludwig. 1983. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Sprachen des Nigerianischen Plateaus. Glückstadt: Verlag J. J. Augustin.
  5. ^ Maddieson, Ian. 1972. The Benue-Congo Languages of Nigeria. Sheet 1 and 2: Plateau. Mimeographed paper. Ibadan.
  6. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  7. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

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