Enugu State (Igbo: Ȯra Enugu) is a state in the South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria, bordered to the north by the states of Benue and Kogi, Ebonyi State to the east and southeast, Abia State to the south, and Anambra State to the west. The state takes its name from its capital and largest city, Enugu. The city acquired township status in 1917 and was called Enugwu-Ngwo. Due to the rapid expansion towards areas owned by other indigenous communities, it was renamed Enugu in 1928.

Enugu State
Flag of Enugu
Seal of Enugu
Coal City State, Wawa State[1]
Igbo: Ọrā nke Ama ichekù
Location of Enugu in Nigeria
Location of Enugu in Nigeria
Coordinates: 6°30′N 7°30′E / 6.500°N 7.500°E / 6.500; 7.500
Country Nigeria
Date created27 August 1991
 • BodyGovernment of Enugu State
 • GovernorPeter Mbah (PDP)
 • Deputy Governor(PDP)
 • LegislatureEnugu State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsE: Kelvin Chukwu (LP)
N: Okechukwu Ezea (LP)
W: Osita Ngwu (PDP)
 • RepresentativesList
 • Total13,161 km2 (5,081 sq mi)
 • Rank29 of 36
 (2006 Census)[2]
 • Total3,267,837
 • Estimate 
 • Rank22 of 36
 • Year2021
 • Total$9.35 billion[4]
34th of 36
 • Per capita$1,802[4]
34th of 36
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
Dialing Code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG-EN
HDI (2018)0.634[5]
medium · 10th of 37

Of the 36 states, Enugu is the 29th largest in area and 22nd most populous with an estimated population of over 4.4 million as of 2016.[6][7] Geographically, the state is divided between the Niger Delta swamp forests in the far south and the drier Guinean forest–savanna mosaic with some savanna in the rest of the state. Other important geographical features are the Udi-Nsukka Plateau and Ekulu River, which flows through the city of Enugu.

Modern-day Enugu State has been inhabited for years by various ethnic groups, primarily the Igbo people with minorities of Idoma and Igala peoples in Etteh Uno a community in Igbo Eze North Local Government Area. In the pre-colonial period, what is now Enugu State was a part of the medieval Kingdom of Nri and the Arochukwu-based Aro Confederacy before the latter was defeated in the early 1900s by British troops in the Anglo-Aro War. After the war, the British incorporated the area into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, which was later merged into British Nigeria in 1914; after the merger, Enugu became a symbol of anti-colonial resistance after the 1949 massacre of striking coal miners[8] in the Iva Valley.[9]

After independence in 1960, the area of what is now Enugu was a part of the post-independence Eastern Region until May 1967 when the region was split and the area became part of the East Central State. Less than two months afterwards, the former Eastern Region attempted to secede in the three-year long Nigerian Civil War with what is now Enugu State as a part of the secessionist state of Biafra. The city of Enugu was named the Biafran capital until October 1967 when it was captured by federal forces; the rest of the state was hard-fought over but much of it fell by June 1968. At the war's end and the reunification of Nigeria, the East Central State was reformed until 1976 when Anambra State (including what is now Enugu) was formed by the Murtala Muhammed regime. Fifteen years afterwards, Anambra State was divided with the eastern part being broken off to form the new Enugu State; in 1996, part of Enugu State's east was removed to form a part of the new Ebonyi State.[10]

Economically, Enugu State is based around trading, manufacturing mainly plastic manufacturing (but recently, China opened a factory called Dongfeng) and services along with agriculture, mainly of yams, rice, cocoyam, oil palm, and cassava. A key minor industry was mining, especially of coal in the Udi Hills around the city of Enugu. Enugu State has the tenth highest Human Development Index in the country and is considered the heart of Igboland, the cultural region of ethnically Igbo areas.[11]

Geography edit

Enugu State is one of the states in the eastern part of Nigeria located at the foot of the Udi Plateau. The state shares borders with Abia State for about 25 km to the south, Ebonyi State to the east, Benue State to the northeast for 84 km, Kogi State to the northwest for 112 km (70 miles) and Anambra State to the west for 139 km (86 miles).[12]

Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State, is on the railroad from Port Harcourt, 150 miles (240 km) south-southwest, and at the intersection of roads from Aba, Onitsha, and Abakaliki. It is approximately 4 hours drive away from Port Harcourt, where coal shipments exited Nigeria. Enugu is also located within an hour's drive from Onitsha, one of the biggest commercial cities in Africa and two hours' drive from Aba, another very large commercial city, both of which are trading centres in Nigeria. The average temperature in this city is cooler to mild ~17°C (60°F) in its cooler months and gets warmer to hot in its warmer months ~28°C (upper 80°F).

Enugu has good soil-land and climatic conditions all year round, sitting at about 223 metres (732 ft) above sea level, and the soil is well drained during its rainy seasons. The mean temperature in Enugu State in the hottest month of February is about 87.16 °F (30.64 °C), while the lowest temperatures occur in the month of November, reaching 60.54 °F (15.86 °C). The lowest rainfall of about 0.16 cubic centimetres (0.0098 cu in) is normal in February, while the highest is about 35.7 cubic centimetres (2.18 cu in) in July.[13]

Climate edit

Enugu state has a Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The city's yearly temperature is 28.27°C (82.89°F) and it is -1.19% lower than Nigeria's averages. Enugu typically receives about 158.57 millimeters (6.24 inches) of precipitation and has 192.73 rainy days (52.8% of the time) annually.[14]

History edit

The name of the state was derived from its capital city, Enugu. The word "Enugu" (from Enu Ugwu) means "the top of the hill". The first European settlers arrived in the area in 1909, led by a British mining engineer named Albert Kitson. In his quest for silver, he discovered coal in the Udi Ridge which is why the state is regarded as coal city state. The Colonial Governor of Nigeria Frederick Lugard took a keen interest in the discovery, and by 1914 the first shipment of coal was made to Britain. As mining activities increased in the area, a permanent cosmopolitan settlement emerged, supported by a railway system. Enugu acquired township status in 1917 and became strategic to British interests. Foreign businesses began to move into Enugu, the most notable of which were John Holt, Kingsway Stores, the British Bank of West Africa and the United Africa Company.

From Enugu, the British administration was able to spread its influence over the Southern Province of Nigeria. The colonial past of Enugu is today evidenced by the Georgian building types and meandering narrow roads within the residential area originally reserved for the whites, an area which is today called the Government Reserved Area (GRA).

From being the capital of the Southern Provinces, Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region (now divided into nine States), the capital of the now defunct Federal Republic of Biafra, thereafter, the capital of East Central State, Anambra State, (old) Enugu State, and now the capital of the present Enugu State through a process of state creation and diffusion of administrative authority.[15]

Politics edit

The State Government and the Local Government are the two levels of government in Enugu State and in all other states of Nigeria. Peter Mbah is the current executive governor of Enugu State. He was elected by the people in April 2023 and was sworn in on 29 May 2023 [16] Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi is the immediate past governor succeeding Sullivan Chime.[17] Chime was elected by the people of Enugu State in April 2007[18] and was sworn into office on 29 May 2007.[19] The governor is above a group of commissioners who he has placed as heads of ministries that oversee various portfolios such as Health and Housing; both the governor and the commissioners form the Executive Council of Enugu State. Government House, Enugu is where the government of the state is based.

Electoral system edit

The electoral system of each state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two -third of the State local government Areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government areas.[20]

Local government areas edit

Enugu State consists of 17 Local Government Areas.[21] They are:

Economy edit

Economically, the state is predominantly rural and agrarian, with a substantial proportion of its working population engaged in farming, although trading (18.8%) and services (12.9%) are also important.[22][23] In the urban areas trading is the dominant occupation, followed by services. A small proportion of the population is also engaged in manufacturing activities, with the most pronounced among them located in Enugu, Oji, Ohebedim and Nsukka. The state boasts of a number of markets especially at each of the divisional headquarters, prominent of which is the Ogbete Main market in the State capital, Enugu. There is also one of the largest grains market East of the Niger, the Orie Orba Market which plays host to most farmers from the North Central States of Benue, Kogi, Nassarawa and Plateau who use the market to dispose their produce for consumers in South-East and South-Southern Nigeria. Every four days, grains and other farm produce are found in large quantities and at highly competitive prices.[24][25]

Natural resources edit

The following Natural Resources are found in Enugu State:

Energy edit

Electricity supply is relatively stable in Enugu and its environs. The Oji River Power Station (which used to supply electricity to all of Eastern Nigeria) is located in Enugu State. With the deregulation of electricity generation in Nigeria and the privatisation of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), it is hoped the State Government would assist private investors to negotiate the take over and reactivation of the Oji Power Station. This is more so with the proximity of the Enugu coal mines to the power station, a driving distance of about 20 minutes. There are also traces of crude oil in Ugwuoba, in the same Oji-River Local Government area of the state. The state will also negotiate with investors interested in investing in the coal mining in Enugu. The coal industry used to be one of the biggest employers of labour in the state and the state is looking to attract investors in the industry.

Education edit

Every community in Enugu State has at least one Primary/Elementary school and one Secondary school, funded and run by State Government. There are also large numbers of private nursery, primary and secondary schools in Enugu State.

Nigeria's first indigenous university, (University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)), is located in Enugu State.[28] The state also hosts the Enugu State University of Science & Technology (ESUT), Institute of Management and Technology (IMT),[29] Federal Cooperative College, Oji River (FCCO);[30] Enugu State College of Education Technical, Enugu;[31] Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Renaissance University, Ugbawka; Command Day Secondary School Enugu, Federal Government College Enugu, Federal School of Dental Technology & Therapy, College of Immaculate Conception, Enugu,[32] Queen's School Enugu a Prominent high school for girls in the Eastern region;[33] St. Theresa's College, Nsukka; Special Science Boys' Secondary School Agbani, Nkanu West L.G.A; [St. Patrick's Secondary School], Emene, Bigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu;[34] Awgu County College, Nenwe; Community Secondary School, Ugbo-Okpala, Ugbo; Corpus Christi College, Achi, Royal Crown Academy, Nsukka, Enugu State, Enugu]; Our Saviour Institute of Science and Technology, Enugu; and the Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,[35] Seat of Wisdom Secondary School Trans Ekulu Enugu, Osisatech boys secondary school. There are also a host of private computer schools and training centres concentrated in Enugu and Nsukka. There are also notable private Tertiary Institutions in Enugu such as Caritas University, a Catholic university founded by a Catholic Priest: Father Edeh,[36] and Renaissance University.[37]

Healthcare edit

The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) is located in Enugu State,[38] as is the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital and College of Medicine, which is located in the capital city, Enugu. In addition to numerous private hospitals and clinics in the state, there are seven District Hospitals at Enugu –Urban, Udi, Agbani, Awgu, Ikem, Enugu-Ezike, and Nsukka – and at least one health centre or cottage hospital in every one of the 17 Local Government Areas and 39 Development Centres in the state. The University of Nigeria Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) is also located in Enugu.[39]

Among the notable Medical Institutions in Enugu are Niger Foundation Hospital[40] and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (Popularly known as Park Lane)[41]

Transport edit

Three Federal Highways:

Other major highways include:

  • the Enugu Ezike-Obolo Rd northwest from A3 at Obolo,
  • the Obolo-Idah Rd west from A3 at Obolo and north via Enugu-Ezike and Unadu to Kogi State at Akpanya,
  • the Obolo-Afor-Nkalagu Rd southeast from A3 at Obolo via Obolo Eke to Ebonyi State near Eha Amufu,
  • the Nsukka-Onitsha Rd southwest from Nsukka to Anambra State at Adani as the Adani Rd,
  • the Ekwegbe-Effokwo Rd north from A3 in Enugu to A3 in Opi as the Amangwu Rd,
  • the Enugu Rd north from A3 in Opi to Nsukka,
  • the Enugu-Otukpo Rd south from A3 at Opi to Idedu as the Nsukka Rd,
  • the Mbalaze-Udi Rd east from Idedu via Ozalla on the A3, Agbani, Amagunze and Iheuokpara to Ebonyi State as the Omomiko or Isu-Ndiagu-Amagunze Rd,
  • the Udi-Ngwo Rd east from A232 near Ojinato via Oji River to Idedu as the Mbalazw-Udi or Old Enugu-Onitsha Rd.


the Cape Gauge Eastern Line is 240 km from Port Harcourt to Enugu which connects with Aba and Umuahia.


Akanu Ibiam International Airport, closed for renovation February-December 2010

Religion edit

St Theresa Catholic Cathedral, Nsukka

Enugu State is predominantly Christians.[42] There are few adherents of traditional religion, and people from Northern and Western Nigeria practices Islam and Pentecostalism.[43][44]

Churches edit

The churches in Enugu State include Catholic, Anglican, and Pentecostal churches — both Orthodox and unorthodox. The Catholic Cathedral is Holy Ghost Cathedral located close to Ogbete Main Market. The Catholic Church comprises three suffragan dioceses of the Archdiocese of Onitsha: Enugu (1962) with 206 parishes under Bishop Callistus Chukwuma Valentine Onaga (2009) [1], Nsukka (1990) with 193 parishes under Bishop Godfrey Igwebuike Onah (2013) [2], and Awgu (2005) with 48 parishes under Bishop John Ifeanyichukwu Okoye, (2005). [3]

The Anglican Cathedral is Cathedral Church of Good Shepherd located at 11 Achi St, Independence Layout. The Anglican Province of Enugu under Archbishop Emmanuel Chukwuma (2014) includes the Dioceses of Enugu North under Bishop Sosthenes Ikechukwu Eze (2007), Awgu/Aninri (2007) under Bishop Benson Chukwunweike (2020), Eha-Amufu under Bishop Daniel Christian Nkemjika Olinya, Nike (2007) under Bishop Christian Onyia (2019), Nsukka under Bishop Aloysius Agbo (2008), Oji River under Bishop Amos Madu (2014) and Udi under Bishop Chjioke Aneke.

Enugu State also has numerous Pentecostal churches like Assemblies of God Church,[45] Redeemed Christian Church of God,[46] House on the Rock,[47] Dominion City,[48] Dunamis, Winners Chapel, Christ Embassy, etc.

Demographics edit

Enugu State had a population of 3,267,837 people at the census held in 2006 (estimated at over 3.8 million in 2012). It is home of the Igbo of southeastern Nigeria and a few Idoma/Igala people in Ette (Igbo-Eze North) of Enugu State, Nigeria.

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Williams, Lizzie (2008). Nigeria: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-84162-239-2.
  2. ^ "Population by State and Sex" (PDF). population.gov.ng. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2011.
  3. ^ "Enugu State: Subdivision". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  4. ^ a b Okeowo, Gabriel; Fatoba, Iyanuoluwa, eds. (13 October 2022). "State of States 2022 Edition" (PDF). Budgit.org. BudgIT. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  6. ^ State, Enugu (18 August 2015). "About Enugu state". Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Population 2006-2016". National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  8. ^ Onyeakagbu, Adaobi (12 April 2022). "Ever heard about the massacred souls that haunt Iva Valley in Enugu?". Pulse ng. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  9. ^ Agunbiade, Tayo. "Remembering Margaret Ekpo and the Enugu strike massacre". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  10. ^ "This is how the 36 states were created". Pulse.ng. 24 October 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Indices". Global Data Lab. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  12. ^ "Enugu | state, Nigeria | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  13. ^ "Enugu | state, Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Enugu, NG Climate Zone, Monthly Weather Averages and Historical Data". tcktcktck.org. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
  15. ^ Enugu State, Government (2019). "About Enugu State. THE COAL CITY STATE". www.enugustate.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  16. ^ "UN commends Ugwuanyi's investment in peace, security". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 11 September 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  17. ^ "Enugu: 22 years of unbroken democracy and Ugwuanyi's giant strides". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 29 May 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  18. ^ Nwokwor, Uderi (14 December 2007). "AC's argument on substitution of Enugu deputy governorship candidate". The Daily Sun. Sun News.
  19. ^ Nzomiwu, Emmanuel (4 May 2010). "Chime Avoids Workers Again". Daily Independent. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  20. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (27 September 2022). "Next President, Govs must get two thirds spread says INEC". Leadership.
  21. ^ "Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics". Archived from the original on 1 May 2010.
  22. ^ "About – Enugu Coalition Of Business and Professional Association". Enugu Coalition of Business Professional Association. 2022.
  23. ^ Obodoechina, Okechukwu E. (February 2015). "Effectiveness of Direct Resource Delivery Policy to Crop Farmers: A Case of Fadama III Project in Enugu State, Nigeria". Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies. 4 (2): 49–60. Archived from the original on 27 June 2022.
  24. ^ South East Region Economic Development Company (2017). "Enugu State". Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  25. ^ "Enugu State". SENDEF. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  26. ^ "Nigerian Coal Corporation". 2018.
  27. ^ "Natural Resources – Welcome To The Embassy of Nigeria". Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  28. ^ "University of Nigeria, Nsukka". The Nigeria Higher Education Foundation. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  29. ^ "IMT Enugu – ...experience the unique culture of learning". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  30. ^ "About FCCO – Federal Cooperative College, Oji River". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  31. ^ Academy, Samphina (2 March 2019). "Courses in Enugu State College Of Education, Technical". Samphina Academy. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  32. ^ "About Us | College of the Immaculate Conception, Enugu". www.cicenugu.com.ng. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  33. ^ "About Queens Sch". NAAQSE USA. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  34. ^ "Bigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu – ...You Shall Be My Witnesses". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  35. ^ "Home". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  36. ^ "Caritas University Amorji-Nike Enugu". www.caritasuni.edu.ng. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  37. ^ "Welcome to Renaissance University". www.rnu.edu.ng. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  38. ^ "UNTH – The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  39. ^ "History : Department of Veterinary Teaching Hospital | FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE". vet.ui.edu.ng. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  40. ^ "nfh". www.nfh.org.ng. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  41. ^ "ESUTH | Parklane". www.esuth.org. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  42. ^ Anierobi, Christopher; Obasi, Cletus O. (2021). "Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Toward Involving the Church in Addressing Pro-Poor Urban Housing Challenges in Enugu, Nigeria". SAGE Open. 11 (3). doi:10.1177/21582440211040123.
  43. ^ Anierobi, Christopher; Obasi, Cletus O. (2021). "Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Toward Involving the Church in Addressing Pro-Poor Urban Housing Challenges in Enugu, Nigeria". SAGE Open. 11 (3). doi:10.1177/21582440211040123.
  44. ^ Nkwo, Peter O. (31 December 2009). "Partnering with Christian Religious Leaders to Increase Contraceptive Coverage: A Viable Option in Enugu Nigeria". The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 14 (2).
  45. ^ "Assemblies of God (USA) Official Web Site | AG". ag.org. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  46. ^ "RCCG – The Official Website Of The Redeemed Christian Church of God". Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  47. ^ "HOTR Enugu (Word House) | Home". www.hotrenuguwordhouse.org.ng. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  48. ^ "Dominion City". www.dominioncity.cc. Retrieved 12 October 2021.

External links edit