Demographics of New Zealand
The demographics of New Zealand encompass the gender, ethnic, religious, geographic, and economic backgrounds of the 4.8 million people living in New Zealand. New Zealanders, informally known as "Kiwis", predominantly live in urban areas on the North Island. The five largest cities are Auckland (with one-third of the country's population), Christchurch (in the South Island, the largest island of the New Zealand archipelago), Wellington, Hamilton and Tauranga. Few New Zealanders live on New Zealand's smaller islands. Waiheke Island (near Auckland) is easily the most populated smaller island with 9,770 residents, while Great Barrier Island, the Chatham and Pitt Islands and Stewart Island each have populations below 1,000. New Zealand is part of a realm and most people born in the realm's external territories of Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue are entitled to New Zealand passports. In 2006, more people who identified themselves with these islands lived in New Zealand than on the Islands themselves.
Population pyramid taken from the 2013 census
|Population||4,841,000 (Stats NZ 2017 estimate)|
|Density||18.1/km2 (46.9/sq mi)|
|Growth rate||2.1% (Stats NZ projection)|
|Birth rate||12.43 per 1000 pop.|
|Death rate||6.95 per 1000 pop.|
|• male||79.9 years|
|• female||83.4 years|
|Fertility rate||1.81 births per woman|
|Infant mortality rate||3.87 per 1000 live births|
|Net migration rate||14.72 per 1000 pop.|
|65 and over||14.9%|
|Under 15||1.05 males/female|
|15–64 years||0.97 males/female|
|65 and over||0.87 males/female|
|Major ethnic||European 70.2%|
The majority of New Zealand's population is of European descent (70 percent), with the indigenous Māori being the largest minority (16.5 percent), followed by Asians (15.3 percent), and non-Māori Pacific Islanders (9.0 percent). This is reflected in immigration, with most new migrants coming from Britain and Ireland, although the numbers from Asia are increasing. The largest Māori tribe (iwi) is Ngāpuhi with 125,601 people or 18.8 percent of the Māori population. Auckland is the most ethnically diverse region in New Zealand with 43.0 percent identifying as Europeans, 28.5 percent as Asian, 11 percent as Māori, 15.5 percent as Pacific Islanders, and 2 percent as Middle Eastern, Latin American or African (MELAA). The ethnicity of the population aged under 18 years is considerably more diverse than the population aged 65 years or older. Recent increases in interracial marriages have resulted in more people identifying with more than one ethnic group.
English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language are the official languages, with English predominant. New Zealand English is mostly non-rhotic and sounds similar to Australian English, with a common exception being the centralisation of the short i. The Māori language has undergone a process of revitalisation and is spoken by 4 percent of the population. New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99 percent and over half of the population aged 15–29 hold a tertiary qualification. In the adult population 14.2 percent have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4 percent have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4 percent have no formal qualification. As of the 2018 census, 37% percent of the population identify as Christians, with Hinduism and Buddhism being the largest minority religions. New Zealand has no state religion and almost half of the population (48.5 percent) is irreligious.
Farming is a major occupation in New Zealand, although more people are employed as sales assistants. Most New Zealanders earn wage or salary income, with a median personal income in 2013 of NZ$28,500.
While the demonym for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "Kiwi" is commonly used both internationally and by locals. The name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, which is the national symbol of New Zealand. The Māori loanword "Pākehā" usually refers to New Zealanders of European descent, although some reject this appellation, and some Māori use it to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders. Most people born in New Zealand or one of the realm's external territories (Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue) before 2006 are New Zealand citizens. Further conditions apply for those born from 2006 onwards.
In June 2018, New Zealand has an estimated population of 4,841,000, up from the 4,027,947 recorded in the 2006 census. According to Statistics New Zealand estimates, population is increasing at a rate of 1.4–2.0% per year and is projected to rise to 5.01–5.51 million in 2025.
The median child birthing age was 30 and the total fertility rate is 2.1 births per woman in 2010. In Māori populations the median age is 26 and fertility rate 2.8. In 2010 the age-standardised mortality rate was 3.8 deaths per 1000 (down from 4.8 in 2000) and the infant mortality rate for the total population was 5.1 deaths per 1000 live births. The life expectancy of a New Zealand child born in 2014-16 was 83.4 years for females, and 79.9 years for males, which is among the highest in the world. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline. In 2050 the median age is forecast to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older rising from 18 percent to 29 percent. (The number of people aged 65 and over increased by 22 percent between the 2006 and 2013 censuses.) During early migration in 1858, New Zealand had 131 males for every 100 females, but following changes in migration patterns and the modern longevity advantage of women, females came to outnumber males in 1971. As of 2012 there are 0.99 males per female, with males dominating under 15 years and females dominating in the 65 years and older range.
Historical total fertility ratesEdit
The following figures show the total fertility rates since the first years of British colonisation.
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||5.25||5.07||5.29||5.12||4.96||5.06|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||5.16||4.84||4.73||5.16||5.51||5.75||5.65||5.65||5.61||5.67|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||5.45||5.29||5.22||5.37||5.39||5.59||5.53||5.62||5.4||5.46|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||5.09||5||4.86||4.81||4.6||4.44||4.3||4.18||4.03||3.94|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||3.89||3.73||3.68||3.66||3.59||3.53||3.48||3.45||3.37||3.43|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||3.53||3.47||3.57||3.61||3.65||3.63||3.66||3.68||3.66||3.51|
|Total Fertility Rate in New Zealand||3.48||3.55||3.5||3.48||3.39||3.48||3.44||3.14||2.87||3.36|
|Vital statistics since 1921|
|Population[n 1]||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Total fertility rate[n 2]|
Current vital statisticsEdit
New Zealand has a growing population, as measured:
- Births from January to September 2018 = 43,803
- Births from January to September 2019 = 44,868
- Deaths from January to September 2018 = 25,056
- Deaths from January to September 2019 = 25,974
- Natural growth from January to September 2018 = 18,747
- Natural growth from January to September 2019 = 18,894
New Zealand's population density is relatively low, at 18.1 per square kilometre (46.9 per square mile) (June 2018 estimate). The vast majority of the population live on the main North and South Islands, with New Zealand's major inhabited smaller islands being Waiheke Island (9,770), the Chatham and Pitt Islands (680), and Stewart Island (381). Over three-quarters of the population live in the North Island (76.5 percent), with one-third of the total population living in the Auckland Region. This region is also the fastest growing, accounting for 46 percent of New Zealand's total population growth. Most Māori live in the North Island (86.0 percent), although less than a quarter (23.8 percent) live in Auckland. New Zealand is a predominantly urban country, with 87.2 percent of the population living in an urban area. About 73.7 percent of the population live in the 17 main urban areas (population of 30,000 or more) and 54.4 percent live in the four largest cities of Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Hamilton.
Approximately 14 percent of the population live in four different categories of rural areas as defined by Statistics New Zealand. About 18 percent of the rural population live in areas that have a high urban influence (roughly 12.9 people per square kilometre), many working in the main urban area. Rural areas with moderate urban influence and a population density of about 6.5 people per square kilometre account for 26 percent of the rural population. Areas with low urban influence where the majority of the residents work in the rural area house approximately 42 percent of the rural population. Remote rural areas with a density of less than 1 person per square kilometre account for about 14 percent of the rural population.
Before local government reforms in the late 1980s, a borough council with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city. The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so there was little difference between the urban area and the local government area. In 1989, all councils were consolidated into regional councils (top tier) and territorial authorities (second tier) which cover a much wider area and population than the old city councils. Today a territorial authority must have a predominantly urban population of at least 50,000 before it can be officially recognised as a city. The 20 largest urban areas are listed below:
Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.
- One birth every 8 minutes
- One death every 16 minutes
- One net migrant every 37 minutes
- Net gain of one person every 12 minutes
- 4,545,627 (July 2018 est.)
- 4,510,327 (July 2017 est.)
- Age structure
- 0–14 years: 19.62% (male 457,071 /female 434,789)
- 15–24 years: 13.16% (male 307,574 /female 290,771)
- 25–54 years: 39.58% (male 902,909 /female 896,398)
- 55–64 years: 12.06% (male 266,855 /female 281,507)
- 65 years and over: 15.57% (male 327,052 /female 380,701) (2018 est.)
- 0–14 years: 19.69% (male 454,982/female 432,877)
- 15–24 years: 13.35% (male 309,707/female 292,586)
- 25–54 years: 39.82% (male 900,374/female 895,615)
- 55–64 years: 11.89% (male 261,097/female 275,151)
- 65 years and over: 15.25% (male 318,089/female 369,849) (2017 est.)
- Median age
- total: 38.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 62nd
- male: 37.2 years
- female: 39 years (2018 est.)
- total: 37.9 years
- male: 37.1 years
- female: 38.8 years (2017 est.)
- Total fertility rate
- 2.01 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 116th
- 2.02 children born/woman (2017 est.)
- Mother's mean age at first birth
- 27.8 years (2009 est.)
- Population growth rate
- 0.77% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 133rd
- 0.79% (2017 est.)
- Birth rate
- 13.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 145th
- 13.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
- Death rate
- 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 106th
- 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
- Net migration rate
- 2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 44th
- Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 81.4 years (2018 est.)
- male: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
- female: 83.6 years (2018 est.)
- Infant mortality rate
- total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 183rd
- male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
- female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
- urban population: 86.5% of total population (2018)
- rate of urbanization: 1.01% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)
- Dependency ratios
- total dependency ratio: 52.9
- youth dependency ratio: 30.5
- elderly dependency ratio: 22.4
- potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
- Sex ratio
- at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 0–14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 15–24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
- 25–54 years: 1 male(s)/female
- 55–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
- total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
- School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
- total: 19 years
- male: 18 years
- female: 20 years (2014)
- Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
- total: 12.7% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 104th
- male: 12.4% (2017 est.)
- female: 13% (2017 est.)
|United Kingdom (nfd)||14,601||0.31|
East Polynesians were the first people to reach New Zealand about 1280, followed by the early European explorers, notably James Cook in 1769 who explored New Zealand three times and mapped the coastline. Following the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 when the country became a British colony, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and Australia. Due to restrictive policies, limitations were placed on non-European immigrants. During the gold rush period (1858–1880s) large number of young men came from California and Victoria to New Zealand goldfields. Apart from British, there were Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Italians and many Chinese. The Chinese were sent special invitations by the Otago Chamber of Commerce in 1866. By 1873 they made up 40 percent of the diggers in Otago and 25 percent of the diggers in Westland. From 1900 there was also significant Dutch, Dalmatian, and Italian immigration together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa. Following the Great Depression policies were relaxed and migrant diversity increased. In 2008–09, a target of 45,000 migrants was set by the New Zealand Immigration Service (plus a 5,000 tolerance).
Just over 25 percent of New Zealand's population at the 2013 census was born overseas, up from 23 percent in 2006 and 20 percent in 2001. Over half (51.6 percent) of New Zealand's overseas-born population lives in the Auckland Region, including 72 percent of the country's Pacific Island-born population, 64 percent of its Asian-born population, and 56 percent of its Middle Eastern and African- born population. In the late 2000s, Asia overtook the British Isles as the largest source of overseas migrants; today around 32 percent of overseas-born New Zealand residents were born in Asia (mainly China, India, the Philippines and South Korea) compared to 26 percent born in the UK and Ireland. The number of fee-paying international students increased sharply in the late 1990s, with more than 20,000 studying in public tertiary institutions in 2002.
To be eligible for entry under the skilled migrant plan applicants are assessed by an approved doctor for good health, provide a police certificate to prove good character and speak sufficient English. Migrants working in some occupations (mainly health) must be registered with the appropriate profession body before they can work within that area. Skilled migrants are assessed by Immigration New Zealand and applicants that they believe will contribute are issued with a residential visa, while those with potential are issued with a work to resident visa. Under the work to residency process applicants are given a temporary work permit for two years and are then eligible to apply for residency. Applicants with a job offer from an accredited New Zealand employer, cultural or sporting talent, looking for work where there has been a long-term skill shortage or to establish a business can apply for work to residency.
While most New Zealanders live in New Zealand, there is also a significant diaspora abroad, estimated as of 2001 at over 460,000 or 14 percent of the international total of New Zealand-born. Of these, 360,000, over three-quarters of the New Zealand-born population residing outside of New Zealand, live in Australia. Other communities of New Zealanders abroad are concentrated in other English-speaking countries, specifically the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada, with smaller numbers located elsewhere. Nearly one quarter of New Zealand's highly skilled workers live overseas, mostly in Australia and Britain, more than any other developed nation. However many educated professionals from Europe and lesser developed countries have recently migrated to New Zealand. A common pathway for New Zealanders to move to the UK is through a job offer via the Tier 2 (General) visa, which grants a 3-year initial stay in the country and can later be extended with three more years. After 5 years the person can apply for permanent residency. Another popular option is the UK Working Holiday visa, also known as "Youth Mobility Scheme" (YMS), which grants New Zealanders 2-year rights to live and work in the UK.
New Zealand is a multiethnic society, and home to people of many different national origins. Originally composed solely of the Māori who arrived in the thirteenth century, the ethnic makeup of the population later became dominated by New Zealanders of European descent. In the nineteenth century, European settlers brought diseases for which the Māori had no immunity. By the 1890s, the Māori population was approximately 40 percent of its size pre-contact. The Māori population increased during the twentieth century, though it remains a minority.
At the latest census in 2018, 70.2 percent identified as European, 16.5 percent as Māori, 15.1 percent as Asian, 8.1 percent as Pacific peoples, and 1.2 percent as Middle-Eastern, Latin American, and African (MELAA). Most New Zealanders are of English, Scottish, and Irish ancestry, with smaller percentages of other European ancestries, such as Dutch, Dalmatian, French, German and Scandinavian. Auckland was the most diverse region with 43.0 percent identifying as European, 28.5 percent as Asian, 11 percent as Māori, 15.5 percent as Pacific Islanders and 1% as NZ MELAA.
All major ethnic groups except European increased when compared with the 2013 census, in which 74 percent identified as European, 14.6 percent as Māori, 11.8 percent as Asian, and 7.4 percent of Pacific Islander origin.  The European grouping significantly decreased from 80.0 percent of the population in 2001 to 70.2 percent in 2013, and a likely cause of this is due to heightened immigration from Asia.
As recorded in the 2013 census, the largest Māori iwi is Ngāpuhi with 125,601 people (or 18.8 percent of people of Māori descent). Since 2006, the number of people of Māori descent stating Ngāpuhi as their iwi increased by 3,390 people (2.8 percent). The second-largest was Ngāti Porou, with 71,049 people (down 1.2 percent from 2006). Ngāi Tahu was the largest in the South Island and the third-largest overall, with a count of 54,819 people (an increase of 11.4 percent from 2006). A total of 110,928 people (or 18.5 percent) of Māori descent did not know their iwi (an increase of 8.4 percent compared with 2006). A group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture. The Moriori population was decimated, first, by disease brought by European sealers and whalers and, second, by Taranaki Māori, with only 101 surviving in 1862 and the last known full-blooded Moriori dying in 1933. The number of people identifying as having Moriori descents increased from 105 in 1991 to 945 in 2006, but decreased to 738 in 2013.
Recent increases in interracial marriages has resulted in the New Zealand population of Māori, Asian and Pacific Islander descent growing at a higher rate than those of European descent. In 2013, 11.2 percent of people identified with more than one ethnic group, compared with 10.4 percent in 2006. The ethnic diversity of New Zealand is projected to increase. Europeans (including "New Zealanders") will remain the largest group, although it is predicted to fall to 70 percent in 2026. Due to the 2018 census having the percentage of the European population at 70.2%, it's likely that prediction will change. The Asian, Pacific and Māori groups are the fastest growing and will increase to 3.4 percent, 10 percent and 16 percent, respectively. In 2013, the ethnicity of the population aged under 18 years was 71 percent European, 25 percent Māori, 13 percent Pacific, 12 percent Asian, and 1 percent MELAA. The population aged 65 years or older consisted of 87.8 percent European, 5.6 percent Māori, 4.7 percent Asian and 2.4 percent Pacific.
|Ethnicity||2001 census||2006 census||2013 census||2018 census|
|New Zealand European||2,696,724||75.2||2,381,076||61.7||2,727,009||68.0||3,013,440|
|South African European||14,913||0.4||21,609||0.6||28,656||0.7||37,155|
|European (not further defined)||23,598||0.7||21,855||0.6||26,472||0.7||34,632|
|Cook Islands Māori (not further defined)||51,486||1.4||56,895||1.5||61,077||1.5||80,532|
|Chinese (not further defined)||100,680||2.8||139,731||3.6||163,101||4.1||231,387|
|Indian (not further defined)||60,213||1.7||97,443||2.5||143,520||3.6||221,916|
|Middle Eastern/Latin American/African||24,084||0.7||34,743||0.9||46,953||1.2|
|Total people stated||3,586,644||3,860,163||4,011,399||4,699,755|
|Not elsewhere included||150,702||4.0||167,784||4.2||230,646||5.4|
The maps below (taken from 2013 census data) show the percentages of people in each census area unit identifying themselves as European, Māori, Asian, or Pacific Islander (as defined by Statistics New Zealand). As people could identify themselves with multiple groups, percentages are not cumulative.
English has long been entrenched as a de facto national language due to its widespread use. In the 2018 census, 95.4 percent of respondents spoke English, down from 96.1 percent in 2013. The New Zealand English dialect is mostly non-rhotic with an exception being the Southern Burr found principally in Southland and parts of Otago. It is similar to Australian English and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the accents apart. In New Zealand English the short i (as in kit) has become centralised, leading to the phrase fish and chips sounding like "fush and chups" to the Australian ear. The words rarely and really, reel and real, doll and dole, pull and pool, witch and which, and full and fill can sometimes be pronounced as homophones. Some New Zealanders pronounce the past participles grown, thrown and mown using two syllables, whereas groan, throne and moan are pronounced as one syllable. New Zealanders often reply to a question or emphasise a point by adding a rising intonation at the end of the sentence.
Initially, the Māori language (te reo Māori) was permitted in native schools to facilitate English instruction, but as time went on official attitudes hardened against any use of the language. Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language in schools and work places and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. The language underwent a revival beginning in the 1970s, and now more people speak Māori. The future of the language was the subject of a claim before the Waitangi Tribunal in 1985. As a result, Māori was declared an official language in 1987. In the 2013 census, 21.3 percent of Māori people—and 3.7 percent of all respondents, including some non-Māori people—reported conversational fluency in the language.[n 3] There are now Māori language immersion schools and two Māori Television channels, the only nationwide television channels to have the majority of their prime-time content delivered in Māori. Many places have officially been given dual Māori and English names in recent years.
Samoan is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.2 percent), followed by "Northern Chinese" (including Mandarin; 2.0 percent), Hindi (1.5 percent) and French (1.2 percent). A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are multilingual.
Education follows the three-tier model, which includes primary schools, followed by secondary schools (high schools) and tertiary education at universities or polytechnics. The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked New Zealand's education as the seventh highest in 2009. The Education Index, published with the UN's 2014 Human Development Index and based on data from 2013, listed New Zealand at 0.917, ranked second after Australia.
Primary and secondary schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16 with most children starting at 5. Early leaving exemptions may be granted to 15-year-old students that have been experiencing some ongoing difficulties at school or are unlikely to benefit from continued attendance. Parents and caregivers can home school their children if they obtain approval from the Ministry of Education and prove that their child will be taught "as regularly and as well as in a registered school". There are 13 school years and attending state (public) schools is nominally free from a person's fifth birthday until the end of the calendar year following their 19th birthday.
The academic year in New Zealand varies between institutions, but generally runs from late January until mid-December for primary and secondary schools and polytechnics, and from late February until mid-November for universities. New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99 percent, and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification.[n 4] In the adult population 14.2 percent have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4 percent have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4 percent have no formal qualification.
|Religious affiliation in New Zealand (2018)|
|Affiliation[n 5]||% of New Zealand population|
|Other Christian[n 6]||20.23|
|Object to answering||6.66|
New Zealand does not have a state religion, but the principal religion is Christianity. As recorded in the 2018 census, about 38 percent of the population identified themselves as Christians,[n 6] although regular church attendance is estimated at 15 percent. Another 48.5 percent indicated that they had no religion (up from 41.9 percent in 2013 and 34.7 percent in 2006) and around 7.5 percent affiliated with other religions.
The indigenous religion of the Māori population was animistic, but with the arrival of missionaries from the early nineteenth century most of the Māori population converted to Christianity. In the 2013 census, 2,595 Māori still identify themselves as adhering to traditional Māori beliefs. The largest Christian denominations are Anglicanism (6.7 percent of the population), Roman Catholicism (6.3 percent), Presbyterianism (4.7 percent). There are also significant numbers of Christians who identify themselves with Methodist, Pentecostal, Baptist and Latter-day Saint churches, and the New Zealand-based Rātana church has adherents among Māori. Immigration and associated demographic change in recent decades has contributed to the growth of minority religions, especially Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam.
New Zealand's early economy was based on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber. During the 1880s agricultural products became the highest export earner and farming was a major occupation within New Zealand. Farming is still a major employer, with 75 000 people indicating farming as their occupation during the 2006 census, although dairy farming has recently taken over from sheep as the largest sector. The largest occupation recorded during the census was sales assistant with 93,840 people. Most people are on wages or salaries (59.9 percent), with the other sources of income being interest and investments (24.1 percent) and self-employment (16.6 percent).
In 1982 New Zealand had the lowest per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank. In 2010 the estimated gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita was roughly US$28,250, between the thirty-first and fifty-first highest for all countries.[n 7] The median personal income in 2006 was $24,400. This was up from $15,600 in 1996, with the largest increases in the $50,000 to $70,000 bracket. The median income for men was $31,500, $12,400 more than women. The highest median personal income were for people identifying with the European or "other" ethnic group, while the lowest was from the Asian ethnic group. The median income for people identifying as Māori was $20,900. In 2013, the median personal income had risen slightly to $28,500.
Unemployment peaked above 10 percent in 1991 and 1992, before falling to a record low of 3.7 percent in 2007 (ranking third from twenty-seven comparable OECD nations). Unemployment rose back to 7 percent in late 2009. In the June 2017 quarter, unemployment had fallen to 4.8 percent. This is the lowest unemployment rate since December 2008, after the start of the global financial crisis, when it was 4.4 percent. Most New Zealanders do some form of voluntary work, more women volunteer (92 percent) than males (86 percent). Home ownership has declined since 1991, from 73.8 percent to 66.9 percent in 2006.
- For 1921-2000, population in the table means population on 1 January on the year.
For 2001 onwards, population in the table means the average (mean) of the quarterly population figures for the year.
- In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population with the result that the population reduces.
- In 2015, 55 percent of Māori adults (aged 15 years and over) reported some knowledge of te reo Māori. Of these speakers, 64 percent use Māori at home and 50,000 can speak the language "very well" or "well".
- Tertiary education in New Zealand is used to describe all aspects of post-school education and training. Its ranges from informal non-assessed community courses in schools through to undergraduate degrees and advanced, research-based postgraduate degrees.
- This table includes all people who stated each religious affiliation, whether as their only religious affiliation or as one of several. Where a person reported more than one religious affiliation, they were counted in each applicable group.
- Including churches designated as "Māori Christian", such as the Rātana church.
- PPP GDP estimates from different organisations vary. The International Monetary Fund's estimate is US$27,420, ranked 32. The CIA World Factbook estimate is $28,000, ranked 51. The World Bank's estimate is US$29,352, ranked 31.
- "National Population Estimates: At 30 June 2016". Statistics New Zealand. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- "Births and deaths: Year ended December 2017". Statistics New Zealand. 19 February 2018.
- "Life expectancy". Statistics New Zealand. 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "2018 Census totals by topic" (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet). Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Languages spoken". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- "2018 Census population and dwelling counts | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "2018 Census totals by topic – national highlights | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Total Personal Income". Statistics New Zealand. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Dalby, Simon (September 1993). "The 'Kiwi disease': geopolitical discourse in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the South Pacific". Political Geography. 12 (5): 437–456. doi:10.1016/0962-6298(93)90012-V.
- Callister, Paul (2004). "Seeking an Ethnic Identity: Is "New Zealander" a Valid Ethnic Category?" (PDF). New Zealand Population Review. 30 (1&2): 5–22.
- Misa, Tapu (8 March 2006). "Ethnic Census status tells the whole truth". New Zealand Herald.
- "Draft Report of a Review of the Official Ethnicity Statistical Standard: Proposals to Address the 'New Zealander' Response Issue". Statistics New Zealand. April 2009. Archived from the original (pdf) on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- Ranford, Jodie. "'Pākehā', Its Origin and Meaning". Māori News. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- "Am I a New Zealand Citizen?". New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2018 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-18 (2017 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- "QuickStats About New Zealand's Population and Dwellings". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "National population projections: 2016(base)–2068" (Press release). Statistics New Zealand. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- "Births and Deaths: Year ended December 2010". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 29 August 2009. Cite journal requires
- "QuickStats 2013 about people aged 65 and over" (PDF). Statistics New Zealand. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Sex ratios". Population Statistics Unit, Statistics New Zealand Statistics House.
- "Sex Ratio". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
- Data from 1921 to 2000 were taken from: "Developed Countries Demography". Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
Population data from 2001 onwards were taken from: "Table: Estimated Resident Population (Mean Quarter Ended) by Sex (1991+) (Qrtly-Mar/Jun/Sep/Dec)". Stats NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa. 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
Other data from 2001 onwards were taken from: "Births and deaths: Year ended December 2017". Stats NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Population". Stats New Zealand - Infoshare. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about Māori". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Appendix 2: Rural Area Population Statistics". Ministry of Economic Development. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- McLintock, A. H., ed. (2009) . "Borough and City Status". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Davidson, Kate (28 July 2014). "Is Nelson really a city?". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010)". Statistics New Zealand. 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Local Government Act 2002 No 84 (as at 01 July 2017), Public Act 16 Cities". New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "New Zealand Population 2018", World Population Review
- "World Factbook EUROPE : NEW ZEALAND", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
- "2018 Census totals by topic – national highlights | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- Socidad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva (SOPEMI) (2000). Trends in international migration: continuous reporting system on migration. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. pp. 276–278.
- Diggers, Hatters and Whores.p 197-198. Eldred-Grigg. Random House. 2011.
- Walrond, Carl (21 September 2007). "Dalmatians". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "New Zealand Peoples". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Hoadley, Stephen (2004). "Our immigration policy: rationality, stability, and politics: Stephen Hoadley discusses New Zealand's approach to the vexed question of immigration controls". New Zealand International Review. 29 (2): 14. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – data tables". Statistics New Zealand. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Birthplace and people born overseas". 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Butcher, Andrew; McGrath, Terry (2004). "International Students in New Zealand: Needs and Responses" (PDF). International Education Journal. 5 (4).
- "Requirements for the Skilled Migrant Category". Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Overview of the Skilled Migrant Category". Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "New Zealand Work to Residence Visa". New Zealand Visa Bureau. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Residence from Work – quick check". Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- John Bryant and David Law (September 2004). "New Zealand's Diaspora and Overseas-born Population: The diaspora". New Zealand Treasury. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
- Collins, Simon (March 2005). "Quarter of NZ's brightest are gone". New Zealand Herald.
- Winkelmann, Rainer (2000). "The labour market performance of European immigrants in New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s". The International Migration Review. 33 (1): 33–58. doi:10.2307/2676011. JSTOR 2676011. Journal subscription required
- Bain 2006, p. 44.
- "UK visa options for New Zealand citizens". Visa First Migration Agency.
- "Ethnic group (detailed single and combination) by age group and sex, for the census usually resident population count, 2013 (RC, TA)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- Pool, Ian (July 2012). "Death rates and life expectancy - Effects of colonisation on Māori". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Pool, Ian (5 May 2011). "Population change - Māori population change". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- "2018 Census population and dwelling counts | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- Hearn, Terry (25 March 2015). "English". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Wilson, John (25 March 2015). "Scots". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Phillips, Jock (25 March 2017). "Irish". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "History of immigration". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 8 February 2005. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "2018 Census population and dwelling counts | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Auckland Profile - Initial results from the 2013 Census" (PDF). Auckland Council. May 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Clark, Ross (1994). "Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence". In Sutton, Douglas (ed.). The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123–135.
- Davis, Denise; Solomon, Māui (September 2007). "The impact of new arrivals". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Denise Davis and Māui Solomon (4 March 2009). "Moriori – Facts and figures'". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Iwi individual profiles: Moriori". Statistics New Zealand. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Gillian Smeith and Kim Dunstan (June 2004). "Ethnic Population Projections: Issues and Trends". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
- "2013 Census information by variable". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "2006 Census: QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Ethnic groups in New Zealand". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Ethnic composition of the population". Ministry of Social Development. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Population, ages and ethnicities of children" (PDF). Office of the Children's Commissioner. June 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Woolf, Amber-Leigh (20 August 2015). "Petition to make English an official language in New Zealand". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- Kortmann et al. 2004, p. 605.
- Hay, Maclagan & Gordon 2008, p. 14.
- Crystal 2003.
- Kortmann et al. 2004, p. 582, 589, 592, 610.
- Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. (2002). International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 4th ed. London: Arnold., p 24.
- Kortmann et al. 2004, p. 611.
- Crystal 2003, p. 355.
- Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Bicultural New Zealand". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Māori Language Week – Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- Squires, Nick (May 2005). "British influence ebbs as New Zealand takes to talking Māori". The Telegraph. Great Britain.
- "Waitangi Tribunal claim – Māori Language Week". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. July 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Māori language speakers". Statistics New Zealand. 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Ngā puna kōrero: Where Māori speak te reo – infographic". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- "Māori Television Launches 100 percent Māori Language Channel". Māori Television. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 No 18 (as at 30 June 2008), Public Act. New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "Figure 1: Comparing countries' and Economies' performance" (PDF). Programme for International Student Assessment OECD.
- "Human Development Reports - Education Index". UNDP. 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Dench, Olivia (July 2010). "Education Statistics of New Zealand: 2009". Education Counts. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Early leaving exemptions". Ministry of Education. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Types of school". Ministry of Education website. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- "Fees". Ministry of Education. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- "The World Factbook – New Zealand". CIA. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- "Educational attainment of the population". Education Counts. 2006. Archived from the original (xls) on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- O'Halloran, Kerry (2014). Religion, Charity and Human Rights. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. ISBN 9781107020481.
- Table 28, 2013 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables.
- Opie, Stephen (June 2008). Bible Engagement in New Zealand: Survey of Attitudes and Behaviour (PDF). Bible Society of New Zealand. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- "QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Religious affiliation". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Wagstrom, Thor (2005). "Broken Tongues and Foreign Hearts". In Brock, Peggy (ed.). Indigenous Peoples and Religious Change. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 71 and 73. ISBN 978-90-04-13899-5.
- Morris, Paul (May 2011). "Diverse religions". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- "2006 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables". 2006 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original (XLS) on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2010. In tables 28 (Religious Affiliation) and 19 (Languages Spoken by Ethnic Group)
- "Quick Stats About culture and Identity— 2006 Census" (PDF). Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
- "Historical evolution and trade patterns". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1966. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Peden, Robert (October 2009). "Sheep farming – Importance of the sheep industry". Te Arā – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Occupation for the Employed Census Usually Resident Population Count" (xml). Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "QuickStats About Incomes: Sources of income". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Evans, N. "Up From Down Under: After a Century of Socialism, Australia and New Zealand are Cutting Back Government and Freeing Their Economies". National Review. 46 (16): 47–51.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "GDP – per capita (PPP)". The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "GDP per capita (current US$)". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "QuickStats About Incomes: Personal Income". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "QuickStats About Incomes: Personal Income by Sex". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "QuickStats About Incomes: Personal income by ethnic group". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Unemployment". 2010 Social report. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Unemployment: the Social Report 2016 – Te pūrongo ōranga tangata". Ministry of Social Development. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- Bascand, Geoff (February 2011). "Household Labour Force Survey: December 2010 quarter – Media Release". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Labour Market Statistics: June 2017 quarter". Statistics New Zealand. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "QuickStats About Unpaid Work". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "QuickStats About Housing: Dwelling ownership". New Zealand Statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Bell, Daphne, ed. (2005). New to New Zealand: a guide to ethnic groups in New Zealand (3rd ed.). Reed Books. ISBN 978-0-790-00998-8.
- Bain, Carolyn (2006). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-535-2.
- Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53033-0.
- Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008). Dialects of English: New Zealand English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1.
- Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar; Burridge, Kate; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (2004). A handbook of varieties of English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5.
- 2013 Census QuickStats, Statistics New Zealand, 2013, ISBN 978-0-478-40864-5
This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.