Congregation Shearith Israel
The Congregation Shearith Israel (Hebrew: קהילת שארית ישראל Kehilat She'arit Yisra'el "Congregation Remnant of Israel") – often called The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue – is the oldest Jewish congregation in the United States. It was established in 1654 and until 1825 was the only Jewish congregation in New York City.
|Congregation Shearith Israel|
Congregation Shearith Israel at Central Park West
|Location||2 West 70th Street|
|Municipality||New York City|
|Direction of façade||East|
The Orthodox synagogue, which follows the liturgy known as Sephardic, is located on Central Park West at 70th Street, on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. The congregation's current Neoclassical building was occupied in 1897.
Founding and synagogue buildingsEdit
The first group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews were twenty-three refugees from Dutch Brazil who arrived in New Amsterdam in September 1654. After being initially rebuffed by anti-Semitic Director of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant, Jews were given official permission to settle in the colony in 1655. This marks the founding of the Congregation Shearith Israel. Despite their permission to stay in New Amsterdam they continued to face discrimination and were not given permission to worship in a public synagogue for some time (throughout the Dutch period and into the British). The Congregation did, however, make arrangements for a cemetery beginning in 1656.
It was not until 1730 that the Congregation was able to build a synagogue of its own; it was built on Mill, now William, Street in lower Manhattan. The Mill Street synagogue was said to have had access to a nearby spring which it used as a mikveh. Before 1730, as is evidenced from a map of New York from 1695, the congregation worshipped in rented quarters on Beaver Street and subsequently on Mill Street. Since 1730 the Congregation has worshipped in five synagogues:
- Mill Street, 1730
- Mill Street re-built and expanded, 1818
- 60 Crosby Street, 1834
- 19th Street, 1860
- West 70th Street, 1897 (present building.)
Birthing of major Jewish institutionsEdit
As the American Reform Judaism made headway and changes on the synagogue scene in the late 19th century, many rabbis critical of the Reform movement looked for ways to strengthen traditional synagogues. Shearith Israel, and its rabbi, Henry Pereira Mendes, was at the fore of these efforts. Rabbi Mendes cofounded the American Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) in 1886, in order to train traditional rabbis. Shearith Israel was the first home to the school. In JTS's earliest days, it taught and researched rabbinics similarly to traditional yeshivas, in contrast to the Reform Hebrew Union College. It is not certain whether at the time JTS hewed very closely to existing yeshiva style, but significant deviations would be out of character with Shearith Israel and Rabbi Mendes.
Twelve years later, in 1896, Mendes was acting president of JTS, and promoted the formation of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (commonly known as the OU, the Orthodox Union), a synagogue umbrella group that provided an alternative to the Reform movement's Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
As JTS grew, it needed better financing and a full-time head. The seminary moved to its own building, and Mendes was replaced by Solomon Schechter. However, Schechter developed a less traditional ideology, which became the basis for Conservative Judaism (called Masorti outside North America). The split was not great initially, and there was a great deal of cooperation between the Orthodox and Conservative camps, but, over time, the divide became clearer, and Schechter formed the United Synagogue of America (now the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, or USCJ) to promote synagogue affiliation with his conservative-but-unorthodox ideology. Shearith Israel stayed in the Orthodox camp, eventually repudiating its association with its offspring, JTS.
In a sense, then, Shearith Israel was the birthplace of three of the largest and most significant Jewish religious organizations in America: JTS, the OU, and USCJ. Shearith Israel remains a member of one of the three: the Orthodox Union.
- Benjamin Wolf
- Gershom Mendes Seixas: The Hazzan of the Congregation and an ardent American patriot who moved the Congregation to Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary War.
- Jacques Judah Lyons
- Henry Pereira Mendes
- David de Sola Pool
- Louis B. Gerstein
- Marc D. Angel
- Hayyim Angel
- Meir Y. Soloveichik
- Luis Moises Gomez
- Moses Raphael Levi (1665–1728)
- Saul Moreno d. 1682
- Saul Pardo (1657–1702)
- Abraham Haim de Lucena (1703–1725)
- Moses Lopez de Fonseca (??–1736)
- David Mendes Machado (1736–1747)
- Benjamin Pereira (1748–1757)
- Isaac Cohen da Silva (1757–1758 and 1766–1768)
- Joseph Jessurun Pinto (1758–1766)
- Gershom Mendes Seixas (1768–1776 and 1784–1816)
- Isaac Touro (1780)
- Jacob Raphael Cohen (1782–1784)
- Moses Levi Maduro Peixotto (1816–1828)
- Isaac Benjamin Seixas (1828–1839)
- Jacques Judah Lyons (1839–1877)
- David Haim Nieto (1878–1886)
- Abraham Haim Nieto (1886–1901)
- Isaac A. H. de la Penha (1902–1907)
- Isaac A. Hadad (1911–1913)
- Joseph M. Corcos (1919–1922)
- James Mesod Wahnon (1921–1941)
- Abraham Lopes Cardozo (1946–1986)
- Albert Gabbai
- Phil Sherman
- Ira Rohde
Some prominent members of the Congregation have been:
- Albert Cardozo – Justice of the New York Supreme Court
- Benjamin N. Cardozo – Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1932–1937
- Judith Kaye – Chief Judge of New York, 1993–2008
- Emma Lazarus – poet
- Commodore Uriah P. Levy – the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy
- Edgar J. Nathan – Manhattan Borough President and justice of the New York Supreme Court
- Mordecai Manuel Noah – American sheriff, playwright, diplomat, and journalist
- Isaac Pinto – prepared the first Jewish prayer book published in America, which was also the first English translation of the Siddur
- Jack Rudin – real estate developer
- Arthur Tracy – singer and actor
- First Shearith Israel Graveyard
- Jewish history in Colonial America
- Touro Synagogue (Newport, Rhode Island), the oldest synagogue building in the U.S. was thought to be owned by Congregation Shearith Israel. The claim was rejected by a federal district court in a recent legal suit, but was overturned in favor of Shearith Israel by the First Circuit Court of Appeals in Boston, in a decision written by retired Supreme Court Justice David Souter. Jehudat Israel petitioned for certiorari in the U.S. Supreme Court. On March 2, 2019, the Supreme court denied certiorari, effectively allowing the decision in favor of Congregation Shearith Israel to stand.
- Oldest synagogues in the United States
- Marcus, Jacob R. "Early American Jewry: The Jews of New York, New England, and Canada, 1649–1794." Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1951. Vol. I, pp. 3, 20–23
- Congregation Shearith Israel Archived February 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Building Report, International Survey of Jewish Monuments. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- Dyer, Albion Morris (1895). "Points in the First Chapter of New York Jewish History". Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society. American Jewish Historical Society. pp. 54–55.
- "The Orthodox Union Story, chs. 5–6". Ou.org. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- From the Beginning... Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Phillips, N. Taylor (1897). "The Congregation Shearith Israel An Historical Review". American Jewish Historical Quarterly. American Jewish Historical Society. pp. 126–129.
- De Sola Pool, David and Tamar (1955). An Old Faith in the New World: Portrait of Shearith Israel, 1654–1954. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. pp. 158–186.
- Malone, Scott (May 16, 2016) "Rhode Island Congregation Wins $7M Shul vs. Shul Legal Battle Over Shearith Israel" The Forward
- "- The Washington Post". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- Congregation Jeshuat Israel v. Congregation Shearith Israel, No. 18-530 (S.Ct. March 2, 2019). Text