Demographics of East Timor

This article is about the demographic features of the population of East Timor, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Timor-Leste population pyramid in 2020
East Timor demographic change
East Timor's population (1861-2011).

Vital statisticsEdit

UN estimates [1]Edit

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 21 000 15 000 5 000 46.5 34.3 12.2 6.44 264.4
1955–1960 22 000 15 000 7 000 46.0 30.9 15.1 6.35 241.6
1960–1965 24 000 15 000 9 000 45.9 28.0 17.8 6.37 220.7
1965–1970 25 000 15 000 11 000 44.2 25.2 19.0 6.16 201.1
1970–1975 25 000 14 000 11 000 40.0 22.2 17.8 5.54 183.3
1975–1980 21 000 18 000 3 000 33.0 28.2 4.9 4.31 253.4
1980–1985 27 000 14 000 14 000 44.0 22.0 22.0 5.39 183.5
1985–1990 30 000 14 000 16 000 42.1 19.3 22.7 5.21 161.0
1990–1995 35 000 13 000 23 000 44.5 15.9 28.6 5.69 129.0
1995–2000 39 000 11 000 28 000 46.1 12.9 33.2 7.01 100.6
2000–2005 37 000 9 000 28 000 40.4 10.0 30.4 6.96 78.9
2005–2010 42 000 9 000 33 000 39.4 8.7 30.7 6.53 66.8
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and BirthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[2]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2003 52.1 7.8 50.5 7.4
2009–2010 33.2 5.7 (5.1) 33.1 4.9 (4.2) 33.2 6.0 (5.4)
2016 26.8 4.2 (3.5) 28.4 3.5 (3.0) 26.2 4.6 (3.8)

Fertility rate by municipalityEdit

Aileu Municipality and Ainaro Municipality have the highest fertility rate with 5.5 children per woman, followed by Ermera Municipality with 5.4 children per woman.[3]

Municipality Fertility rate in 2004 Fertility rate in 2010 Fertility rate in 2015 Decline between 2004 and 2015
  Dili 6.7 5.3 3.9   2.8
  Liquiçá 7.1 6.2 5.1   2.0
  Covalima 7.0 5.6 4.7   2.3
  Manufahi 7.3 5.6 4.9   2.4
  Manatuto 6.7 5.6 4.6   2.1
  Aileu 8.4 7.0 5.5   3.0
  Lautém 7.7 6.4 5.2   2.5
  Bobonaro 6.9 5.9 4.7   2.2
  Baucau 6.9 5.8 4.7   2.2
  Viqueque 6.3 5.3 4.6   1.7
  Ermera 8.2 6.9 5.4   2.8
  Ainaro 8.3 6.4 5.5   2.8
  Oecusse (SAR) 6.9 5.2 4.2   2.7
  Timor-Leste 7.2 5.9 4.7   2.5

Between 2014/15, around 43.5% of the births occurred in a health facility, up from 36.3% in 2010/11. This percentage varies widely from 77.5% in Dili Municipality to only 15.1% of all births in Ermera Municipality.

Life expectancy at birth[4]Edit

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.

Period Life expectancy
in Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 30.0 1985–1990 46.5
1955–1960 32.5 1990–1995 50.5
1960–1965 35.0 1995–2000 57.0
1965–1970 37.5 2000–2005 61.5
1970–1975 40.0 2005–2010 66.4
1975–1980 31.2 2010–2015 67.7
1980–1985 39.9

Population pyramids[5]Edit

Census (11/07/2015)

Census (11/07/2015) :

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 601 112 582 531 1 183 643 100
0-4 77 896 72 410 150 306 12.70
5-9 80 377 75 705 156 082 13.19
10-14 80 721 75 548 156 269 13.20
15-19 69 839 67 033 136 872 11.56
20-24 52 759 54 244 107 003 9.04
25-29 45 486 47 464 92 950 7.85
30-34 35 934 36 461 72 395 6.12
35-39 24 245 24 645 48 890 4.13
40-44 29 097 26 779 55 876 4.72
45-49 25 044 22 274 47 318 4.00
50-54 18 661 16 776 35 437 2.99
55-59 14 436 12 867 27 303 2.31
60-64 13 864 14 516 28 380 2.40
65-69 14 611 16 427 31 038 2.62
70-74 8 949 9 204 18 153 1.53
75-79 4 862 5 009 9 961 0.84
80-84 2 399 2 798 5 197 0.44
85+ 1 932 2 281 4 213 0.36
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 238 994 223 663 462 657 39.09
15-64 329 365 323 059 652 334 55.11
65+ 32 753 35 809 68 562 5.79

Median ageEdit

In 2015 the median age of the population was 19.6 years old. The population living in rural areas is slightly younger (19.0) compared to the population living in urban areas (20.6). Ainaro Municipality has the lowest median age with 17.3 years, while Dili Municipality has the highest median age with 21.2 years.[6]

CIA World Factbook demographic statisticsEdit

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook [7]

PopulationEdit

1,242,000 (2017)

Birth rateEdit

33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rateEdit

5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

2.36% (2017 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rateEdit

total: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 68.4 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

4.97 children born/woman (2017 est)

NationalityEdit

noun: East Timorese
adjective: East Timorese

Ethnic groupsEdit

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese and European Portuguese descent.

ReligionsEdit

Roman Catholic 97.6% (2015 est.)
Protestant/Evangelical 2% (2015 est.)
Islam 0.2% (2015 est.)
Other 0.2% (2015 est.)

LanguagesEdit

Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian (constitutionally defined as a 'working language') and English (constitutionally defined as a 'working language')).
Note: There are a total of about 16 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people. The Tetum language is partially influenced by European languages, particularly Portuguese, a legacy of Portuguese rule.

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.5% (2015 est.)
male: 71.5%
female: 63.4%

After achieving independence, East Timor had a high illiteracy rate, with 55% of women and 46% of men illiterate. Approximately 18% of the adult population had achieved secondary education and approximately 1.4% of them had an academic degree or achieved other higher education, nearly all of whom resided in urban areas, primarily the capital Dili. Attempts to improve education services face challenges in the form of a lack of educated and experienced teachers. Continuing high fertility rates also translates to greater strains on the government to increase education budgets. The United Nations (UN) has assisted in rebuilding the education system increasing the number of teachers and rehabilitating many schools, leading to a rapid increase in school enrollment. However, problems remain as the quality of education was deemed secondary to the need to increase enrollment in East Timor.

Another problem faced in increasing the education levels includes the economic conditions of the population. With high proportions of the population living below the poverty line and large households with many children, the direct costs of schooling is significant for families. Lack of monetary resources to send children to school imposes greater difficulty in increasing enrollment rates in schools. In addition, parents may be disillusioned with the poor quality of education and thus may not even be interested to send their children to schools. Much remains to be done to establish a new curriculum and support it with texts and learning materials to improve the quality of education. The variety of language spoken also means a large number of children do not speak the language of instruction – Portuguese – and this causes them to be marginalised. Many teachers do not speak Portuguese.

The inaccessibility of schools with proper facilities adds to the problem of providing adequate education to the population. Schools are located far away from homes and, coupled with the poor conditions of schools, may inhibit the early enrollment of children or lead to early drop-outs. Schools in rural areas face substantial lack of facilities to render them safe. As for the schools in urban areas, significant urban migration has meant that the supply of schools in urban areas have not managed to keep up with the increasing demand; leading to overcrowding in urban schools.

Besides the problems faced at the level of the individual households and the schools, problems in the governance and management of education are also significant impediments to raising education levels in East Timor. The lack of qualified personnel in critical positions within the education ministry has meant that overall policy making, planning and management functions are restricted. Management of schools at the district level is often under-qualified due to the lack of formal training. Today therefore, East Timor faces many challenges in increasing the literacy rates of their people.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  2. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=15&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  5. ^ "Population by Age & Sex". Statistics Timor-Leste General Directorate of Statistics. Statistics Timor-Leste. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  6. ^ 2015 Timor-Leste Population and Housing Census – Data Sheet
  7. ^ "East & Southeast Asia :: TIMOR-LESTE". CIA The World Factbook.