Demographics of Macau

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Macau, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Street scene in Macau

Macau's population is 95% Chinese, primarily Cantonese and some Hakka, both from nearby Guangdong Province. The majority of the remainder are of Portuguese or mixed Chinese-Portuguese ancestry. Some Japanese, including descendants of Japanese Catholics who were expelled by shōguns, also live in Macau.

The official languages are Portuguese and Cantonese Chinese. The residents commonly (85.7%) speak Cantonese, Mandarin is spoken by 3.2% at home, about 40% are able to communicate in standard Mandarin. English and Portuguese are spoken as a first language by 1.5% and 0.6% respectively, while English is widely thought as a second language. The other popular topolect is Hokkien (Min Nan), spoken by a small percentage of the population. The creole Macanese language (Patuá or Macaista Chapado) is almost extinct.

Vital statisticsEdit

The following are data on vital statistics.[1][2]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1970 249,000 2,676 1,516 1,160 11.6 5.5 6.0 2.167
1971 246,000 2,637 1,543 1,094 10.9 5.5 5.4 1.979
1972 244,000 2,750 1,539 1,211 10.3 5.4 4.9 1.818
1973 242,000 2,686 1,410 1,276 10.0 5.4 4.6 1.679
1974 239,000 2,781 1,579 1,202 9.7 5.4 4.3 1.562
1975 237,000 2,583 1,398 1,185 9.7 5.4 4.3 1.478
1976 234,000 2,369 1,517 852 10.2 5.4 4.7 1.437
1977 232,000 2,532 1,424 1,108 11.0 5.5 5.6 1.445
1978 233,000 2,407 1,360 1,047 12.4 5.5 6.9 1.499
1979 237,000 3,019 1,504 1,515 14.1 5.6 8.5 1.591
1980 242,000 3,784 1,555 2,229 16.0 5.6 10.4 1.709
1981 248,000 4,207 1,465 2,742 18.0 5.6 12.4 1.835
1982 262,000 5,262 1,488 6,750 19.8 5.6 14.2 1.953
1983 277,000 6,168 1,514 4,654 21.3 5.6 15.8 2.046
1984 289,000 6,666 1,488 5,178 22.4 5.5 16.9 2.104
1985 291,000 7,560 1,466 6,094 22.9 5.3 17.6 2.121
1986 302,000 7,477 1,324 6,153 22.9 5.2 17.7 2.094
1987 312,000 7,565 1,321 6,244 22.4 5.0 17.3 2.031
1988 320,000 7,913 1,437 6,476 21.5 4.9 16.6 1.944
1989 330,000 7,568 1,516 6,052 20.3 4.7 15.6 1.838
1990 340,000 6,872 1,482 5,390 19.0 4.5 14.5 1.722
1991 364,000 6,832 1,335 5,497 17.6 4.4 13.2 1.605
1992 378,000 6,676 1,432 5,244 16.2 4.3 12.0 1.494
1993 390,000 6,267 1,531 4,736 14.9 4.2 10.8 1.394
1994 404,000 6,115 1,330 4,785 13.8 4.1 9.7 1.308
1995 415,000 5,876 1,351 4,525 12.8 4.0 8.8 1.236
1996 415,000 5,468 1,413 4,055 12.0 4.0 8.0 1.174
1997 419,000 5,031 1,293 3,738 11.1 3.9 7.2 1.116
1998 425,000 4,434 1,356 3,078 10.3 3.9 6.4 1.059
1999 430,000 4,148 1,374 2,774 9.6 3.9 5.7 1.002
2000 432,000 3,849 1,338 2,511 8.8 3.9 5.0 0.95
2001 436,000 3,241 1,327 1,914 8.2 3.8 4.4 0.906
2002 441,000 3,162 1,415 1,747 7.7 3.8 3.9 0.875
2003 447,000 3,212 1,474 1,738 7.5 3.8 3.7 0.86
2004 463,000 3,308 1,533 1,775 7.4 3.8 3.6 0.862
2005 484,000 3,671 1,615 2,056 7.5 3.8 3.7 0.879
2006 510,000 4,058 1,566 2,492 7.8 3.8 4.0 0.911
2007 532,000 4,537 1,545 2,992 8.2 3.7 4.5 0.953
2008 543,000 4,717 1,756 2,961 8.7 3.7 5.0 0.999
2009 533,000 4,764 1,644 3,120 9.3 3.7 5.6 1.048
2010 541,000 5,114 1,774 3,340 9.9 3.7 6.2 1.093
2011 557,000 5,852 1,845 4,007 10.4 3.7 6.8 1.131
2012 582,000 7,315 1,841 5,474 10.9 3.7 7.3 1.161
2013 608,000 6,571 1,920 4,651 11.4 3.7 7.7 1.183
2014 636,000 7,360 1,939 5,421 11.7 3.7 8.0 1.196
2015 647,000 7,055 2,002 5,053 12.0 3.8 8.2 1.203
2016 645,000 7,146 2,238 4,908 12.1 3.8 8.3 1.207
2017 653,000 6,529 2,120 4,409 10.0 3.2 6.8 1.211
2018 667,000 5,925 2,069 3,856 9.0 3.1 5.9 1.217
2019 680,000 5,979 2,282 3,697 8.9 3.4 5.5

Structure of the populationEdit

Estimates as of 1 July 2012:[3]

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 274,300 293,600 567,900 100
0–4 12,700 11,400 24,100 4.24
5–9 9,600 8,800 18,400 3.24
10–14 12,300 11,400 23,700 4.17
15–19 18,300 17,900 36,200 6.37
20–24 26,100 27,600 53,700 9.46
25–29 28,700 31,500 60,200 10.60
30–34 23,100 23,900 47,000 8.28
35–39 21,200 23,600 44,800 7.89
40–44 21,000 26,800 47,800 8.42
45–49 22,300 28,400 50,700 8.93
50–54 24,300 25,500 49,800 8.77
55–59 21,000 20,400 41,400 7.29
60–64 14,400 13,400 27,800 4.90
65–69 7,900 7,200 15,100 2.66
70–74 4,300 4,300 8,600 1.51
75–79 3,300 4,400 7,700 1.36
80–84 2,300 3,600 5,900 1.04
85+ 1,500 3,500 5,000 0.88
Age group Male Female Total %
0–14 34 600 31 600 66 200 11,66
15–64 220 400 239 000 459 400 80,89
65+ 19 300 23 000 42 300 7,45

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Macao is the territory with the world's second highest life expectancy behind Hong Kong.

Period Life expectancy in

Years

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 61.0 1985–1990 76.6
1955–1960 63.6 1990–1995 78.1
1960–1965 66.0 1995–2000 79.8
1965–1970 68.1 2000–2005 81.0
1970–1975 70.7 2005–2010 82.1
1975–1980 73.1 2010–2015 83.3
1980–1985 74.8

Source: UN World Population Prospects[4]

Ethnic groupsEdit

The following are information on ethnicity and nationalities based on data from the Statistics and Census Service.[5]

Place of birthEdit

Immigration is an essential component of the population. Results of the 2011 Population Census indicated that 326,376 (59.1% of the total population) were born outside Macau, an increase of 3.0 percentage points over the last ten years. Analysed by place of birth, 255,186 (46.2%) were born in Mainland China, down by 1.2 percentage points from 2001. 226,127 (40.9%) were born in Macau, 19,355 (3.5%) in Hong Kong and 1,835 (0.3%) in Portugal. There were more persons born in other countries or territories as the number of non-resident workers increased. Among them, 14,544 were born in the Philippines, 7,199 in Vietnam and 6,269 in Indonesia, altogether taking up 5.1% of the total population. 1,942 were born in Europe other than Portugal, 2,252 in Americas, 959 in Africa and 672 in Oceania. Analysed by age group, 85.2% of the youth population (aged 0–14) were born in Macau, and 62.9% of those aged 35 and above were born in Mainland China.

As of 2011 35,578 people in Macau were originally from Fujian province in Mainland China, making up about 25% of the Mainland China-born people. The number of Fujianese in Macau increased after the 1999 handover.[6]

NationalityEdit

Analysed by nationality, 509,788 (92.3% of the total population) were of Chinese nationality, down by 2.9 percentage points from the 2001 Census; meanwhile, only 0.9% was of Portuguese nationality, a decrease of 1.1 percentage points. These figures can be misleading, because more than a 100,000 people in Macau are holders of a Portuguese passport, making them in effect Portuguese citizens. Over the last ten years, diversity of the various components of the population is enhanced as economic development has drawn people to invest, work or study in Macau; consequently, 37,695 (6.8%) were of other nationalities, up by 4.0 percentage points, with 2.7% being Filipinos. Macau is a Chinese community and those of Chinese ethnicity totaled 510,383, an increase of 94,030 over the past ten years; however, its proportion to the total population decreased by 3.3 percentage points to 92.4%. Those of wholly or partly Portuguese ethnicity totaled 8,106, up slightly by 333 compared with 2001; its proportion to the total decreased by 0.3 percentage point to 1.5%.

Population of Macau according to ethnic group 1991–2011
Ethnic
group
1991 census 2001 census 2011 census
Number % Number % Number %
Chinese 338,191 95.1 416,353 95.7 510,383 92.4
Chinese & Portuguese 4,477 1.3 4,254 1.0 4,019 0.7
Portuguese 4,221 1.2 2,810 0.6 3,485 0.6
Chinese & non-Portuguese 1,771 0.4 1,601 0.3
Others 7,804 2.2 10,047 2.3 33,015 6.0
Portuguese & others 709 0.2 602 0.1
Total 355,693 435,235 552,503

CIA World Factbook demographic statisticsEdit

Residents' usual
language spoken at home[7]
Language Percentage of
population
Cantonese 85.7%
Mandarin 3.2%
Other
Chinese dialects
6.7%
Portuguese 0.6%
English 1.5%
Others 2.3%

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Ethnic groupEdit

Chinese 92.4%, other 7.6% (includes Macanese – mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2011 census)

PopulationEdit

624,000[8] (2014 Qtr2 est.)

Male and Female patternEdit

Male: 307,200[8] (2014 Qtr2 est.)
Female: 316,800[8] (2014 Qtr2 est.)

Age structureEdit

below age 15: 76,305 15.63%
age 20–29: 82,547 16.91%
age 30–39: 70,965 14.54%
age 40–49: 91,438 18.73%
age 49 or above: 40,349 8.27%

Infant mortality rateEdit

4.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

0.91 children born/woman (2010 est.) The lowest fertility rate in the world after Taiwan.

NationalityEdit

noun: Macau
adjective: Macanese

ReligionsEdit

Religion in Macau[9]
Religion %
Shenism
30%
Buddhism, Taoism
10%
Christianity
5%
No affiliation
50%
Others
10%
30% Shenism, 10% Buddhism or Taoism, 5% Christianity, 50% not declaring religious affiliation, 10% others (2009).[9] Another survey conducted between 2005, 2007 and 2009 has found that 30% of the population follows folk faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, 5% are Christians, and the remaining part do not declare religious adherence.[10]

LanguagesEdit

 
Portuguese and Chinese, seen on this street sign, are official languages in Macau
Portuguese and Chinese are official languages. The Chinese standard (Cantonese or Mandarin) is not specified in the law. Very few speak Portuguese.

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.2%
female: 92% (2003 est.)

Immigration and crimeEdit

Persons authorized to reside in Macau: total: 50,159 (by the end of 2005)
Non-resident workers authorized to enter Macau: total: 39,411 (by the end of 2005)
Legal immigrants from Mainland China: 1,133 (Qtr1 2006) 947 (Qtr2 2006)
No. of criminal cases: 2,634 (Qtr1 2006) 2,708 (Qtr2 2006)

HealthEdit

No. of residents per doctor (excluding dentists): 473
No. of residents per nurse: 430
No. of residents per hospital bed: 496

Main causes of deathEdit

Diseases of the circulatory system: 518 cases, 32.1%
Neoplasm: 455 cases, 28.2%
Diseases of the respiratory system: 267, cases 16.5%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Demographic Yearbooks". United Nations.
  2. ^ Statistics and Census Service http://www.dsec.gov.mo/Statistic/Demographic.aspx. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division". United Nations. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  5. ^ Results of 2011 Population Census, Macau: Statistics and Census Service (DSEC), 2012
  6. ^ "Macau: The rise and fall of an empire?". South China Morning Post. November 12, 2015. Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved August 15, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  7. ^ Global Results of By-Census 2006, Statistics and Census Service, 2007
  8. ^ a b c "Demographic Statistics for the 2nd Quarter 2014". Statistics and Census Service. 11 August 2014.
  9. ^ a b Zhidong Hao, 2011. pp. 121–122.
  10. ^ Zheng, VWT; Wan, PS. Religious beliefs and life experiences of Macao's residents 澳門居民的宗教信仰與生活經驗. On: Modern China Studies by Center for Modern China, 2010, v. 17 n. 4, p. 91-126. ISSN 2160-0295. «Drawing on empirical data obtained from three consecutive territory-wide household surveys conducted in 2005, 2007, and 2009 respectively, this paper attempts to shed light on the current religious profile of Macao residents.»

External linksEdit