Open main menu

Demographics of São Tomé and Príncipe

This article is about the demographic features of the population of São Tomé and Príncipe, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Of São Tomé and Príncipe's total population of some 201,800,[1] about 193,380 live on São Tomé and 8,420 on Príncipe. All are descended from various ethnic groups that have migrated to the islands since 1485. Six groups are identifiable:

  • Luso-Africans, or mixed-heritage, descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to the islands during the early years of settlement from Benin, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola (these people also are known as filhos da terra or "children of the land");
  • Angolares, reputedly descendants of Angolan slaves who survived a 1540 shipwreck and now earn their livelihood fishing;
  • Forros, descendants of freed slaves when slavery was abolished;
  • Serviçais, contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde, living temporarily on the islands;
  • Tongas, children of servicais born on the islands; and
  • Europeans, primarily Portuguese.
  • Asians, mostly Chinese minority, including Macanese people of mixed Portuguese and Chinese blood from Macau.

Although a small country, São Tomé and Príncipe has four national languages: Portuguese (the official language, spoken by 95% of the population), and the Portuguese-based creoles Forro (85%), Angolar (3%) and Principense (0.1%). French is also learned in schools, as the country is a member of Francophonie.

In the 1970s, there were two significant population movements—the exodus of most of the 4,000 Portuguese residents and the influx of several hundred São Toméan refugees from Angola. The islanders have been absorbed largely into a common Luso-African culture. Almost all belong to the Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, or Seventh-day Adventist churches, which in turn retain close ties with churches in Portugal. There is a small but growing Muslim population.

PopulationEdit

 
São Tomé and Príncipe's population between 1961 and 2003.

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2] the total population was 199,910 in 2016, compared to only 60,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 40.3%, 55.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.9% was 65 years or older .[3]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 60,000 32.9 63.1 4.0
1955 59,000 32.9 63.1 4.0
1960 64,000 32.9 63.2 4.0
1965 65,000 41.1 56.3 2.6
1970 74,000 46.7 48.4 4.9
1975 82,000 47.0 49.1 3.9
1980 95,000 46.6 48.6 4.8
1985 104,000 46.6 48.8 4.7
1990 116,000 46.6 49.0 4.4
1995 128,000 44.8 50.8 4.4
2000 141,000 42.6 53.1 4.3
2005 153,000 41.6 54.0 4.4
2010 165,000 40.3 55.8 3.9

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events is in São Tomé & Príncipe not available for recent years. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 3 000 1 000 2 000 47.7 21.0 26.7 6.20 124
1955-1960 3 000 1 000 2 000 47.7 18.5 29.2 6.20 112
1960-1965 3 000 1 000 2 000 47.0 16.8 30.1 6.30 99
1965-1970 3 000 1 000 2 000 42.7 13.1 29.6 6.40 88
1970-1975 3 000 1 000 2 000 40.7 13.2 27.6 6.52 80
1975-1980 4 000 1 000 3 000 41.1 11.0 30.1 6.50 70
1980-1985 4 000 1 000 3 000 40.4 11.5 28.9 6.24 66
1985-1990 4 000 1 000 3 000 38.8 10.7 28.1 5.66 63
1990-1995 5 000 1 000 3 000 37.0 9.8 27.1 5.16 61
1995-2000 5 000 1 000 4 000 35.9 9.2 26.7 4.80 58
2000-2005 5 000 1 000 4 000 34.8 8.8 26.0 4.34 55
2005-2010 5 000 1 000 4 000 32.4 8.2 24.2 3.85 52
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [4]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2012 5 173 1 287 3 886 27.6 6.9 20.7
2015 5 022 1 226 3 796
2017 5 190 1 202 3 988 26.3 6.1 20.2

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey)Edit

[5] Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2008-2009 34,5 4,9 (3,3) 32,4 4,4 (3,0) 36,7 5,5 (3,7)

Fertility data as of 2008-2009 (DHS Program):[6]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Centro 4.6 8.2 5.5
Sul 5.4 8.3 6.2
Norte 5.7 8.8 6.7
Príncipe 5.0 11.6 6.1

Life expectancyEdit

Period Life expectancy in
Years[7]
1950–1955 46.40
1955–1960   48.89
1960–1965   51.86
1965–1970   54.42
1970–1975   57.36
1975–1980   60.21
1980–1985   60.59
1985–1990   61.40
1990–1995   62.22
1995–2000   63.01
2000–2005   63.80
2005–2010   65.47
2010–2015   66.14

Other demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[8]

  • One birth every 76 minutes
  • One death every 360 minutes
  • One net migrant every 480 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 120 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[9] unless otherwise indicated.

PopulationEdit

204,454 (July 2018 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Sao Tome and Principe in 2017
0-14 years: 41.2% (male 42,825 /female 41,403)
15-24 years: 21.01% (male 21,767 /female 21,188)
25-54 years: 31.03% (male 31,218 /female 32,229)
55-64 years: 3.93% (male 3,708 /female 4,332)
65 years and over: 2.83% (male 2,545 /female 3,239) (2018 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 18.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 207th
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.1 years (2018 est.)

Birth rateEdit

31.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 32nd

Death rateEdit

6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 138th

Total fertility rateEdit

4.11 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 31st

Population growth rateEdit

1.66% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 62nd

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

19.4 years (2008/09 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rateEdit

40.6% (2014)

Net migration rateEdit

-8.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 207th

Dependency ratiosEdit

total dependency ratio: 86.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 81.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 72.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 65.7 years (2018 est.)
male: 64.3 years (2018 est.)
female: 67.1 years (2018 est.)
total population: 65.25 years
male: 63.84 years
female: 66.7 years (2000 est.)

Sex ratioEdit


at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

NationalityEdit


noun: São Toméan(s)
adjective: São Toméan

Ethnic groupsEdit

Mestiços, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), serviçais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of serviçais born on the islands) and Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

ReligionsEdit

Roman Catholic 55.7%, Adventist 4.1%, Assembly of God 3.4%, New Apostolic 2.9%, Mana 2.3%, Universal Kingdom of God 2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Other 6.2%, None 21.2%, Unspecified 1% (2012 est.)[10]

LanguagesEdit

Portuguese 98.4% (official), Forro 36.2%, Cabo Verdian 8.5%, French 6.8%, Angolar 6.6%, English 4.9%, Lunguie 1%, Other (including sign language) 2.4% [10]

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.9% (2015 est.)
male: 81.8% (2015 est.)
female: 68.4% (2015 est.)
total population: 73%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 12 years (2015)
male: 12 years (2015)
female: 13 years (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24Edit

total: 20.8% (2012 est.)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ official estimate as at 13 May 2018 by Instituto Nacional de Estatistica.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ ". Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  5. ^ "The DHS Program - Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  6. ^ "Inquérito Demográfico e Sanitário 2008-2009" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  7. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  8. ^ "Sao Tome and Principe Population 2019", World Population Review
  9. ^ "The World FactBook - Sao Tome and Principe", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ a b "Africa :: SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE". CIA The World Factbook.