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List of European Commission portfolios

A portfolio in the European Commission is an area of responsibility assigned to a European Commissioner, usually connected to one or several Directorates-General (DGs).

PortfoliosEdit

AgricultureEdit

The Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development is held by Phil Hogan and is in charge of rural issues including most notably the controversial Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which represents 44% of the EU budget. The post used to be combined with Fisheries in the Jenkins and Thorn Commissions. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Sicco Mansholt   Netherlands 1958–1972 Hallstein Commission I & II, Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission Agriculture (Vice-President)
2 Carlo Scarascia-Mugnozza   Italy 1972–1973 Mansholt Commission Agriculture
3 Pierre Lardinois   Netherlands 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission Agriculture
4 Finn Olav Gundelach   Denmark 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Agriculture-Fisheries (Vice-President)
1981–1985 Thorn Commission Agriculture
5 Poul Dalsager   Denmark Agriculture
6 Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Agriculture and Rural Development (Vice-President)
7 Ray MacSharry   Ireland 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Agriculture and Rural Development
8 René Steichen   Luxembourg 1992–1995 Delors Commission III
9 Franz Fischler   Austria 1995–1999 Santer Commission
1999–2004 Prodi Commission Agriculture and Fisheries
10 Sandra Kalniete   Latvia 2004
11 Mariann Fischer Boel   Denmark 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Agriculture and Rural Development
12 Dacian Cioloş   Romania 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
13 Phil Hogan   Ireland 2014–2019 Juncker Commission
14 Janusz Wojciechowski   Poland nominated Von der Leyen Commission Agriculture

Climate ActionEdit

The post of Commissioner for Climate Action was created in February 2010, being split from the environmental portfolio to focus on fighting climate change. The first Commissioner to take the post is Connie Hedegaard who heads the Directorate-General for Climate Action.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Connie Hedegaard   Denmark 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Climate Action
2 Miguel Arias Cañete   Spain 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Climate Action and Energy
3 Frans Timmermans   Netherlands nominated Von der Leyen Commission Climate Action

European Green Deal (Executive Vice-President)

CompetitionEdit

The Commissioner for Competition, Margrethe Vestager is the member responsible for commercial competition, company mergers, cartels, state aid, and anti-trust law. The position became the sole merger authority for the European Economic Area in September 1990. The Competition Commissioner is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission and is notable in affecting global companies.[1] For example, the commissioner has been pursued a number of high-profile cases against anticompetitive behaviour; such as the case against the merger of Sony - BMG, against Apple Inc. regarding iTunes,[2] the ongoing case against Microsoft and in particular the GE-Honeywell merger attempt in 2001.[3] In 2007, Neelie Kroes (then Competition Commissioner) was the only Commissioner to make Forbes Magazine's List of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women; she held position 59.[4]

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Hans von der Groeben   West Germany 1958–1967 Hallstein Commission I & II Competition
2 Maan Sassen   Netherlands 1967–1971 Rey Commission
3 Albert Borschette   Luxembourg 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission Competition and Regional Policy
1973–1977 Ortoli Commission Competition
4 Raymond Vouel   Luxembourg 1976–1981 Jenkins Commission
5 Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Parliamentary Relations and Competition
6 Peter Sutherland   Ireland 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Competition, social affairs and education
7 Sir Leon Brittan   United Kingdom 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Competition and financial institutions (Vice-President)
8 Karel Van Miert   Belgium 1993–1999 Delors Commission III, Santer Commission Competition (Vice-President)
9 Mario Monti   Italy 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Competition
10 Neelie Kroes   Netherlands 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
11 Joaquín Almunia   Spain 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Competition (Vice-President)
12 Margrethe Vestager   Denmark 2014 onwards (nominated) Juncker Commission, Von der Leyen Commission Competition

DevelopmentEdit

The Commissioner for Development deals with promoting sustainable development in deprived regions (such as ACP countries and the EU's OCTs). It used to include humanitarian aid. The present commissioner is Neven Mimica. The related DG is Directorate-General for Development

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Robert Lemaignen   France 1958–1962 Hallstein Commission I Overseas Development
2 Henri Rochereau   France 1962–1967 Hallstein Commission II
1967–1970 Rey Commission Development Assistance
3 Jean-François Deniau   France 1967–1970 Rey Commission Foreign Trade, Enlargement and Assistance to developing countries
1970–1972 Malfatti Commission External Relations and Development Aid
1972–1973 Mansholt Commission Foreign Affairs and Development Aid
1973 Ortoli Commission Development cooperation
4 Claude Cheysson   France 1973–1981 Ortoli Commission, Jenkins Commission Development
1981 Thorn Commission
5 Edgard Pisani   France 1981–1984
6 Lorenzo Natali   Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Cooperation, development affairs and enlargement (Vice-President)
7 Filippo Maria Pandolfi   Italy 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Science, research, development, telecommunications and innovation (Vice-President)
7 Manuel Marin   Spain 1989–1992 Cooperation, development and fisheries (Vice-President)
1993–1994 Delors Commission III Cooperation, development and humanitarian aid (Vice-President)
8 João de Deus Pinheiro   Portugal 1995–1999 Santer Commission Relations with African, Caribbean, Pacific Countries, South Africa and the Lomé Convention
9 Poul Nielson   Denmark 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Development and Humanitarian Aid
10 Joe Borg   Malta 2004
11 Benita Ferrero-Waldner   Austria 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy
12 Louis Michel   Belgium 2004–2009 Development and Humanitarian Aid
13 Karel De Gucht   Belgium 2009–2010
14 Andris Piebalgs   Latvia 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Development
15 Neven Mimica   Croatia 2014–2019 Juncker Commission International Cooperation and Development
16 Jutta Urpilainen   Finland nominated Von der Leyen Commission International Partnerhips

Digitalization and InformationsEdit

The Commissioner for the Digital Agenda, previously the Commissioner for Information Society and Media, is responsible media and information issues such as telecoms and ICT. The commissioner from 2014 is Andrus Ansip.

2004–2010 Commissioner, Viviane Reding, found a relatively popular policy in seeking to lower roaming charges of mobile phones when travelling within the EU, stating: "For years, mobile roaming charges have remained unjustifiably high. We are therefore tackling one of the last borders within Europe's internal market".[5] Her legislation to cap roaming charges was approved by the Parliament in April 2007[6] On 7 April 2006 the Commission launched the new ".eu" TLD for websites for EU companies and citizens wishing to have a non-national European internet address. This has proved popular with 2.5 being registered by April 2007. It is now the seventh most popular TLD worldwide, and third in Europe (after .de and .uk)[7]

In the previous Commission information society was linked with Enterprise (now linked with Industry).

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Fritz Hellwig   Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission Research and Technology, Distribution of Information and Joint Research Centre (Vice-President)
2 Lorenzo Natali   Italy 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Mediterranean Policy, Enlargement and Information (Vice-President)
3 Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1985–1988 Delors Commission I Industry, information technology and science and research (Vice-President)
4 Carlo Ripa di Meana   Italy Institutional reforms, information policy, culture and tourism
5 Filippo Maria Pandolfi   Italy 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Science, research, development, telecommunications and innovation (Vice-President)
6 Martin Bangemann   Germany 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Internal market, industrial affairs and ICT (Vice-President)
7 Antonio Ruberti   Italy Science, research, technological development and education (Vice-President)
(6) Martin Bangemann   Germany 1995–1999 Santer Commission Industrial affairs, Information and Telecommunications Technologies
8 Marcelino Oreja   Spain Relations with the European Parliament, Culture, Audiovisual Policy
9 Erkki Liikanen   Finland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Enterprise and Information Society
10 Olli Rehn   Finland 2004
11 Ján Figeľ   Slovakia 2004
12 Viviane Reding   Luxembourg 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Information Society and Media
13 Neelie Kroes   Netherlands 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Digital Agenda (Vice-President)
14 Andrus Ansip   Estonia 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Digital Single Market (Vice-President)
15 Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia 2019
16 Margrethe Vestager   Denmark nominated Von der Leyen Commission Europe Fit for Digital Age (Executive Vice-President)

Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and CustomsEdit

The Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs is responsible for the EU's economic affairs including the euro. In the Juncker Commission, the post also acquired responsibility for taxation and anti-fraud protection. The current Commissioner is Pierre Moscovici.

There have been calls for a strengthened economic portfolio with Ségolène Royal suggesting that there should be an economic government for the eurozone[8] and at the start of the first Barroso Commission Germany suggested an economic "super-commissioner"[9] - which could see a change in this position. That idea, however, was dropped but the Enterprise and Industry Commissioner was strengthened in response.[10]

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Robert Marjolin   France 1958–1967 Hallstein Commission I & II Economics and Finance (Vice-President)
2 Raymond Barre   France 1967–1970 Rey Commission Economic and Finance, Statistical Office (Vice-President)
1970–1972 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission Economic & Financial Affairs
3 Wilhelm Haferkamp   West Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission Economic and Finance, Credit and Investments (Vice-President)
3 Henri François Simonet   Belgium Taxation, Energy (Vice-President)
3 Finn Olav Gundelach   Denmark Internal Market, Customs Union
4 Richard Burke   Ireland 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Taxation, Consumer Affairs, Transport
4 Étienne Davignon   Belgium Internal Market, Customs Union, Industrial Affairs
4 François-Xavier Ortoli   France 1977–1985 Economic and Financial Credit and Investments (Vice-President)
Thorn Commission Economic and Financial Credit and Investments (Vice-President)
5 Christopher Tugendhat   United Kingdom 1981–1985 Budget and Financial Control, Financial Institutions and Taxation (Vice-President)
5 Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany Internal Market, Industrial Innovation, Customs Union, the Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuclear Safety
5 Lord Cockfield   United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Internal market, tax law and customs (Vice-President)
6 Henning Christophersen   Denmark Budget, financial control, personnel and administration (Vice-President)
1989–1992 Delors Commission II Economic & financial affairs and coordination of structural funds (Vice-President)
7 Christiane Scrivener   France Taxation and customs union
(6) Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1992–1994 Delors Commission III Economic and Financial Affairs (Vice-President)
(7) Christiane Scrivener   France Taxation, customs union and consumer policies
8 Yves-Thibault de Silguy   France 1995–1999 Santer Commission Economic and Financial Affairs
8 Mario Monti   Italy Internal Market, Services Customs and Taxation
9 Pedro Solbes   Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Economic and Monetary Affairs
10 Joaquín Almunia   Spain 2004
11 Siim Kallas   Estonia 2004
12 Joaquín Almunia   Spain 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Economic and Financial Affairs
12 László Kovács   Hungary Taxation and Customs Union
13 Olli Rehn   Finland 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro (Vice-President)
14 Jyrki Katainen   Finland 2014
15 Algirdas Šemeta   Lithuania 2010–2014 Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud
16 Pierre Moscovici   France 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
17 Paolo Gentiloni   Italy nominated Von der Leyen Commission Economy
17 Valdis Dombrovskis   Latvia nominated Economy that Works for People (Executive Vice-Presient)

Education, Culture, Sport and YouthEdit

The Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, Tibor Navracsics, is responsible for policies in education and training, youth, sport, civil society, culture, translation, interpretation and relations with the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

The post was enlarged since the Prodi Commission with the addition of training and multilingualism (The Directorate-General is still just Directorate-General for Education and Culture). When Romania joined the EU in 2007, multilingualism was handed over to the new Romanian commissioner. In its place the portfolio included youth, sport and civil society. Multilingualism was reintroduced in 2010 under Barroso's second Commission.

The Commission has become increasingly active in education. The ERASMUS programme, which was established in 1987, is a student exchange programme promoting mobility of students between European universities. The Bologna process aims to create a European Higher Education Area where academic qualifications can be recognised across Europe. The European Institute of Technology is a proposed research university.

The previous portfolio to the current was Culture, merged with Audiovisual policy and EP relations.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
1 Carlo Ripa di Meana   Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Institutional reforms, information policy, culture and tourism
2 Jean Dondelinger   Luxembourg 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Audiovisual and cultural affairs
3 Antonio Ruberti   Italy 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Science, research, technological development and education (Vice-President)
3 João de Deus Pinheiro   Portugal Relations with Parliament, culture and audiovisual
4 Marcelino Oreja   Spain 1995–1999 Santer Commission Relations with the European Parliament, Culture, Audiovisual Policy
5 Viviane Reding   Luxembourg 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Education and Culture
6 Dalia Grybauskaitė   Lithuania 2004
7 Ján Figeľ   Slovakia 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I Education, Training and Culture
8 Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia 2009–2010
7 Leonard Orban   Romania 2004–2010 Multilingualism
8 Androulla Vassiliou   Cyprus 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth
9 Tibor Navracsics   Hungary 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
10 Mariya Gabriel   Bulgaria nominated Von der Leyen Commission Innovation and Youth

Employment and Social AffairsEdit

The Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion is Marianne Thyssen. She is responsible for matters including those relating to employment, discrimination and social affairs such as welfare. The post has had various alterations; under the first Barroso Commission it was known as Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Lionello Levi Sandri   Italy 1967–1972 Rey Commission
Albert Coppé   Belgium 1972–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Patrick Hillery   Ireland 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Henk Vredeling   Netherlands 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Employment and Social Affairs (Vice-President)
Ivor Richard   United Kingdom 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Employment and Social Affairs
Alois Pfeiffer   West Germany 1985–1987 Delors Commission I Economic affairs and employment
Peter Schmidhuber   West Germany 1987–1989
Peter Sutherland   Ireland 1985–1989 Competition, social affairs and education
Manuel Marin   Spain 1986–1989 Competition, social affairs and education (Vice-President)
Vasso Papandreou   Greece 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Employment, industrial relations and social affairs
Pádraig Flynn   Ireland 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Social affairs and employment
1994–1994 Santer Commission Employment and Social Affairs and relations with the EESC
Anna Diamantopoulou   Greece 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Employment and Social Affairs
Stavros Dimas   Greece 2004
Vladimír Špidla   Czech Republic 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities
László Andor   Hungary 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion
Marianne Thyssen   Belgium 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Nicolas Schmit   Luxembourg nominated Von der Leyen Commission Jobs

EnergyEdit

The current Commissioner is Miguel Arias Cañete and holds responsibility for the European Union's energy policy as well as nuclear issues (Euratom). The Directorate-General for this portfolio is shared with the Commissioner for Transport as the Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport.

The EU is an active supporter of the Kyoto Protocol, which it signed alongside its member-states. In March 2007 the Union committed itself to cut CO2 emissions by 20 percent by 2020.[2] There is also a desire to reduce dependency on Russian energy supplies following the disputes between Russia and Belarus and Ukraine. (See also: Russia-Belarus energy dispute, Russia-Ukraine gas dispute.) In April 2007 five southern European countries signed a deal to build an oil pipeline from the Black Sea to Italy which will help diversify energy sources.[3]

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Wilhelm Haferkamp   West Germany 1967–1973 Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Henri François Simonet   Belgium 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Guido Brunner   West Germany 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Energy, Research, Science
Étienne Davignon   Belgium 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Industrial Affairs, Energy, Research and Science (Vice-President)
Nicolas Mosar   Luxembourg 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Energy & Euratom
Antonio Cardoso e Cunha   Portugal 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Energy, Euratom, small businesses; staff and translation
Marcelino Oreja   Spain 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Transport and energy
Abel Matutes   Spain 1994–1995
Christos Papoutsis   Greece 1995–1999 Santer Commission Energy, Euratom Supply Agency, SMEs and Tourism
Loyola de Palacio   Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration, Transport and Energy (Vice-President)
Andris Piebalgs   Latvia 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Energy
Günther Oettinger   Germany 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Energy (Vice-President)
Miguel Arias Cañete   Spain 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Climate Action and Energy
Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia Energy Union (Vice-President)
Kadri Simson   Estonia nominated Von der Leyen Commission Energy

Enlargement, European Neighbourhood Policy and External RelationsEdit

The Commissioner for Enlargement and the European Neighbourhood Policy is concerned with foreign policy towards the EU's nearest neighbours. The enlargement portfolio began to be created out of the regionalised foreign policy posts. In particular the Santer Commission post for relations with central and eastern Europe as those countries began applying to join. The Neighbourhood Policy element was created in 2004 as part of the External Relations portfolio. When that portfolio was absorbed by the High Representative in 2009, Neighbourhood Policy was transferred to Trade and then to Enlargement in 2010 under the Second Barroso Commission. The present Commissioner, as of 2014, is Johannes Hahn.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Lorenzo Natali   Italy 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Enlargement, Environment, Nuclear Safety
Wilhelm Haferkamp   Germany External Relations (Vice-President)
1981–1985 Thorn Commission
Lorenzo Natali   Italy Mediterranean Policy, Enlargement and Information (Vice-President)
1985–1989 Delors Commission I Cooperation, development affairs and enlargement (Vice-President)
Claude Cheysson   France Mediterranean policy and North-South relations
Willy De Clercq   Belgium External relations and trade policy
Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1989–1992 Delors Commission II External relations and trade policy (Vice-President)
Abel Matutes   Spain 1989–1992 Mediterranean and Latin American policy
Hans van den Broek   Netherlands 1993–1994 Delors Commission III External relations and enlargement
Leon Brittan   United Kingdom 1995–1999 Santer Commission Commercial Policy and External Relations (Vice-President)
Manuel Marin   Spain External Relations (Vice-President)
João de Deus Pinheiro   Portugal Relations with African, Caribbean, Pacific Countries
Hans van den Broek   Netherlands Relations with central and eastern Europe, CFSP and the External Service, South Africa and the Lomé Convention
Chris Patten   United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission External Relations
Günter Verheugen   Germany Enlargement
Janez Potočnik   Slovenia 2004
Olli Rehn   Finland 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
Benita Ferrero-Waldner   Austria External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy
Štefan Füle   Czech Republic 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy
Johannes Hahn   Austria 2014 onwards Juncker Commission European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Von der Leyen Commission Neighbourhood and Enlargement

EnvironmentEdit

The Commissioner for the Environment, Karmenu Vella, is responsible for protection of the European Union's environment. Specific actions relating to climate change are under the responsibility of the Climate Action commissioner as of 2010.

The EU has made a number of environmental moves, partially in regards to climate change. Most notably it signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, set up its Emission Trading Scheme in 2005 and is agreeing to unilaterally cut its emissions by 20% by 2020. (See: Energy policy of the European Union). Other policies include; the Natura 2000 a widespread and successful network of nature conservation sites, the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) directive requiring safety testing on widely used chemicals and the Water Framework Directive ensuring water quality reaches higher standards.

For more, see European Climate Change Programme, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, Renewable energy in the European Union and the Directorate-General for the Environment.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Lorenzo Natali   Italy 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Enlargement, Environment, Nuclear Safety
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Internal Market, Industrial Innovation, Customs Union, the Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuclear Safety
Stanley Clinton Davis   United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Environment, consumer protection and transport
Carlo Ripa di Meana   Italy 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Environment, nuclear safety and civil protection
Ioannis Paleokrassas   Greece 1993–1995 Delors Commission III Environment, fisheries
Ritt Bjerregaard   Denmark 1995–1999 Santer Commission Environment and nuclear security
Margot Wallström   Sweden 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Environment
Stavros Dimas   Greece 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
Janez Potočnik   Slovenia 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
Karmenu Vella   Malta 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Virginijus Sinkevičius   Lithuania nominated Von der Leyen Commission Environment and Oceans

Budget and Human ResourcesEdit

The Commissioner for Budget and Human Resources is Günther Oettinger. He took over this portfolio on 1 January 2017, following the resignation of Kristalina Georgieva, with effect from 31 December 2016, to take up a new position as chief executive officer of the World Bank. He is primarily responsible for the management of the budget of the European Union and related financial issues except for budgetary discharge which falls under the Commissioner for administration commissioner. Previously simply for the budget, the position expanded under the Prodi Commission to include financial programming. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Budget.

Under Commissioner Grybauskaitė, Commissioner's 121.6 billion euro 2008 budget proposed that for the first time funding for sustainable growth (€57.2 billion) would be higher than that of the Common Agricultural Policy (€56.3 billion), traditionally the largest source of expenditure in the EU. There would be an increase in cohesion funds, energy and transport of 14%, research by 11% and lifelong learning by 9%. There would also be an increase in the administrative budget, aid to Kosovo and Palestinian institutions and funds towards the Galileo project. [4]

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Albert Coppé   Belgium 1967–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Wilhelm Haferkamp   Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Christopher Tugendhat   United Kingdom 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Budget and Financial Control, Financial Institutions
1981–1985 Thorn Commission Budget and Financial Control, Financial Institutions and Taxation (Vice-President)
Michael O'Kennedy   Ireland 1981–1982 Personnel and Administration
Richard Burke   Ireland 1982–1985
Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Budget, financial control, personnel and administration
Antonio Cardoso e Cunha   Portugal 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Energy, Euratom, small businesses; staff and translation
Peter Schmidhuber   Germany Budget
1993–1995 Delors Commission III Budget, financial control and the cohesion fund
Erkki Liikanen   Finland 1995–1999 Santer Commission Budget, Personnel and Administration
Michaele Schreyer   Germany 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Budget
Marcos Kyprianou   Cyprus 2004
Dalia Grybauskaitė   Lithuania 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I Financial Programming and the Budget
Algirdas Šemeta   Lithuania 2009–2010
Janusz Lewandowski   Poland 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
Jacek Dominik   Poland 2014
Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia 2010–2014 Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration (Vice-President)
Kristalina Georgieva   Bulgaria 2014–2016 Juncker Commission Budget and Human Resources (Vice-President)
Günther Oettinger   Germany 2017–2019 Budget and Human Resources
Johannes Hahn   Austria nominated Von der Leyen Commission Budget and Administration

Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets UnionEdit

The Commissioner for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union is responsible for banking and finance. It was originally held by Jonathan Hill. It was a role created under the Juncker Commission.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Christopher Tugendhat   United Kingdom 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Budget and Financial Control, Financial Institutions
1981–1985 Thorn Commission Budget and Financial Control, Financial Institutions and Taxation (Vice-President)
Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Budget, financial control, personnel and administration
Abel Matutes   Spain 1986–1989 Credit, investments, financial instruments and small & medium-sized enterprises
Sir Leon Brittan   United Kingdom 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Competition and financial institutions (Vice-President)
Peter Schmidhuber   Germany 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Budget, financial control and the cohesion fund
Anita Gradin   Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission Immigration, Justice & Home Affairs, Financial Control, Anti-fraud and Relations with the European Ombudsman.
Jonathan Hill   United Kingdom 2014–2016 Juncker Commission Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Valdis Dombrovskis   Latvia 2016–2019 Juncker Commission Euro and Social Dialogue and Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union (Vice-President)
nominated Von der Leyen Commission Financial Markets

Institutional Reform, Democracy and DemographyEdit

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Neil Kinnock   United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Administrative reform (Vice-President)
Carlo Ripa di Meana   Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Institutional reforms, information policy, culture and tourism
Raniero Vanni d'Archirafi   Italy 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Institutional reform, internal market and enterprise
Dubravka Šuica   Croatia nominated Von der Leyen Commission Democracy and Demography (Vice-President)

Health and Consumer ProtectionEdit

The Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy is responsible for matters of public health, food safety, animal health, welfare and consumer affairs. It is held by Vytenis Andriukaitis. Between 2007 and 2010 it was split into a Commissioner for Health and a Commissioner for Consumer Protection - in order to give a portfolio for the incoming Bulgarian Commissioner. It was recombined under the second Barroso Commission.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Richard Burke   Ireland 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Taxation, Consumer Affairs, Transport
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Internal Market, Industrial Innovation, Customs Union, the Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuclear Safety
Stanley Clinton Davis   United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Environment, consumer protection and transport
Grigoris Varfis   Greece 1986–1989 Relations with the European Parliament, regional policy and consumer protection
Karel Van Miert   Belgium 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Transport and consumer protection
Christiane Scrivener   France 1992–1994 Delors Commission III Taxation, customs union and consumer policies
Emma Bonino   Italy 1995–1999 Santer Commission Consumer Policy, Fisheries and ECHO
David Byrne   Ireland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Health and Consumer Protection
Pavel Telička   Czech Republic 2004
Markos Kyprianou   Cyprus 2004–2008 Barroso Commission I Health
Androulla Vassiliou   Cyprus 2008–2010
Meglena Kuneva   Bulgaria 2007–2010 Consumer Protection
John Dalli   Malta 2010–2012 Barroso Commission II Health and Consumer Policy
Tonio Borg   Malta 2012–2014 Health
Neven Mimica   Croatia 2013–2014 Consumer Protection
Vytenis Andriukaitis   Lithuania 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Health and Food Safety
Věra Jourová   Czech Republic 2014–2019 Justice and Consumers
Stella Kyriakidou   Cyprus nominated Von der Leyen Commission Health
Didier Reynders   Belgium nominated Justice

High RepresentativeEdit

The High Representative became a Commissioner on 1 December 2009, replacing the External Relations Commissioner (see historical below). Although other external relations posts continue to exist, such as trade, the High Representative is the most senior foreign affairs post in the EU. The position is held by Federica Mogherini.

Home Affairs and MigrationEdit

The Commissioner for Home Affairs was created in 2010 by dividing the previous Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio into a security orientated post (DG HOME) and a post centred on justice, on individual and fundamental rights (DG JUST). Its DG is the Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs (DG HOME).

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Anita Gradin   Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission Immigration, Justice & Home Affairs, Financial Control, Anti-fraud and Relations with the European Ombudsman.
António Vitorino   Portugal 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Justice and Home Affairs
Franco Frattini   Italy 2004-2008 Barroso Commission I Justice, Freedom and Security (Vice-President)
Jacques Barrot   France 2008-2009
Cecilia Malmström   Sweden 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Home Affairs
Viviane Reding   Luxembourg 2010–2014 Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship (Vice-President)
Martine Reicherts   Luxembourg 2014 Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship
Dimitris Avramopoulos   Greece 2014–2019 Juncker Commission Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Margaritis Schinas   Greece nominated Von der Leyen Commission Protecting our European Way of Life (Vice-President)
Ylva Johansson   Sweden nominated Home Affairs

Industry and EntrepreneurshipEdit

The Commissioner for Enterprise and Industry is Elżbieta Bieńkowska. The post was enlarged from the Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society portfolio in the Prodi Commission to include Industry. At the start of the first Barroso Commission, Germany, backed by Britain and France suggested an economic "super-commissioner"[9] to fight for competitiveness. Although rejected, this idea though has been taken on by Verheugen, as the Enterprise and Industry portfolio was enlarged and was made a Vice President.[10]

As Commissioner, he indicates his aim to increase the competitiveness of Europe, there is a separate Commissioner for Competition dealing with competition between companies within Europe. However, with the numerous economic portfolios, there is a degree of overlap which has been a matter of concern for him along with the purported difficulty of firing director-generals. This Commissioner also chairs the Competitiveness Council Commissionners Group and is the vice chair of the Group of Commissioners on the Lisbon Strategy. He is expected to be the European chair of the new Transatlantic Economic Council. The relevant DG is Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Étienne Davignon   Belgium 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Internal Market, Customs Union, Industrial Affairs
1981–1985 Thorn Commission Industrial Affairs, Energy, Research and Science (Vice-President)
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany Internal Market, Industrial Innovation, Customs Union, the Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuclear Safety
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Industry, information technology and science and research (Vice-President)
Abel Matutes   Spain 1986–1989 Credit, investments, financial instruments and small & medium-sized enterprises
Martin Bangemann   Germany 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Internal market and industrial affairs (Vice-President)
Antonio Cardoso e Cunha   Portugal Energy, Euratom, small businesses; staff and translation
Vasso Papandreou   Greece Employment, industrial relations and social affairs
Martin Bangemann   Germany 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Internal market, industrial affairs and ICT (Vice-President)
Raniero Vanni d'Archirafi   Italy Institutional reform, internal market and enterprise
Martin Bangemann   Germany 1995–1999 Santer Commission Industrial affairs, Information & Telecommunications Technologies
Christos Papoutsis   Greece Energy, Euratom Supply Agency, SMEs and Tourism
Erkki Liikanen   Finland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Enterprise and Information Society
Olli Rehn   Finland 2004
Ján Figeľ   Slovakia 2004
Günter Verheugen   Germany 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Enterprise and Industry (Vice-President)
Antonio Tajani   Italy 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Industry and Entrepreneurship (Vice-President)
Ferdinando Nelli Feroci   Italy 2014 Industry and Entrepreneurship
Elżbieta Bieńkowska   Poland 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Sylvie Goulard   France nominated Von der Leyen Commission Internal Market

Internal MarketEdit

The Commissioner for Internal Market and Services concerned the development of the 480-million-strong European single market, promoting free movement of people, goods, services and capital. The related DG is Directorate-General for Internal Market and Services and it is also related to the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market.

Commissioner Frits Bolkestein (Netherlands) served in the Prodi Commission between 1999 and 2004. In addition to holding the Internal Market portfolio he also held Taxation and Customs Union. Bolkestein is most notable for the Directive on services in the internal market, which is commonly called the "Bolkestein Directive". The directive aimed at enabling a company from a one member-state to recruit workers in another member-state under the law of the company's home state. It was to help the development of the internal market for services, the development of which has lagged behind that for goods. However, there was a great deal of concern about its effect on social standards and welfare, triggering competition between various parts of Europe. This led to significant protests across Europe against the directive including a notable protest at the European Parliament in Strasbourg by port workers which led to damage to the building. MEPs eventually reached a compromise on the text and the Parliament adopted it on 12 December 2006; 2 years after Bolkestein left office, under the Barroso Commission.

Portfilio was merged in 2014 with European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Piero Malvestiti   Italy 1958–1959 Hallstein Commission I
Giuseppe Caron   Italy 1959–1963 Hallstein Commission I & II
Guido Colonna di Paliano   Italy 1964–1967 Hallstein Commission II
Hans von der Groeben   West Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
Wilhelm Haferkamp   West Germany 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Finn Olav Gundelach   Denmark 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Étienne Davignon   Belgium 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Internal Market, Customs Union, Industrial Affairs
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Internal Market, Industrial Innovation, Customs Union, the Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuclear Safety
Lord Cockfield   United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Internal market, tax law and customs
Martin Bangemann   Germany 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Internal market and industrial affairs (Vice-President)
1993–1994 Delors Commission III Internal market, industrial affairs and ICT (Vice-president)
Raniero Vanni d'Archirafi   Italy 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Institutional reform, internal market and enterprise
Mario Monti   Italy 1994–1999 Santer Commission Internal Market, Services, Customs and Taxation
Frits Bolkestein   Netherlands 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Internal Market
Charlie McCreevy   Ireland 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Internal Market and Services
Michel Barnier   France 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Internal Market and Services (Vice-President)
Elżbieta Bieńkowska   Poland 2014 Juncker Commission Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Sylvie Goulard   France nominated Von der Leyen Commission Internal Market

International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid, Civil Protection and Crisis ManagementEdit

The Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response was created under the second Barroso Commission in 2010 and is occupied by Christos Stylianides. It deals in party with dealing with humanitarian disasters and humanitarian aid: the EU is the largest supplier of aid in the world.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Robert Lemaignen   France 1958–1962 Hallstein Commission
Henri Rochereau   France 1962–1970 Hallstein Commission, Rey Commission
Jean-François Deniau   France 1967–1973 Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Claude Cheysson   France 1973–1981 Ortoli Commission, Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
Edgard Pisani   France 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
Lorenzo Natali   Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Cooperation, development affairs and enlargement (Vice-President)
Carlo Ripa di Meana   Italy 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Environment, nuclear safety and civil protection
Manuel Marin   Spain Cooperation, development and fisheries (Vice-President)
1992–1994 Delors Commission III Cooperation, development and humanitarian aid
João de Deus Pinheiro   Portugal 1995–1999 Santer Commission Relations with African, Caribbean, Pacific Countries, South Africa and the Lomé Convention
Emma Bonino   Italy 1995–1999 Consumer Policy, Fisheries and ECHO
Poul Nielson   Denmark 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Development and Humanitarian Aid
Joe Borg   Malta 2004
Benita Ferrero-Waldner   Austria 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy
Louis Michel   Belgium 2004–2009 Development and Humanitarian Aid
Karel De Gucht   Belgium 2009–2010
Kristalina Georgieva   Bulgaria 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response
Christos Stylianides   Cyprus 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management
Jutta Urpilainen   Finland nominated Von der Leyen Commission International Partnerships
Janez Lenarčič   Slovenia nominated Crisis Management

Interinstitutional Relations and AdministrationEdit

The Commissioner for Interinstitutional Relations and Administration is responsible for the administration of the Commission, including management of some of the Commission's Internal Services; in particular consolidation of administrative reform, personnel and administration, European Schools and security. The Commissioner is also responsible for the following departments; the Directorate-General for Personnel and Administration, the Office for the Administration and Payment of Individual Entitlement, the Directorate-General for Informatics, the Office of Infrastructure and Logistics, and relations with the European Personnel Selection Office.[11] The current Commissioner is Frans Timmermans.

Prior to 2010 it was also responsible for Audit and Anti-Fraud, now merged with taxation, but gain responsibility for relations with the other EU institutions.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Parliamentary Relations and Competition
Michael O'Kennedy   Ireland 1981–1982 Personnel and Administration
Richard Burke   Ireland 1982–1985
Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1985–1988 Delors Commission I Budget, financial control, personnel and administration
Grigoris Varfis   Greece 1986–1988 Relations with the European Parliament, regional policy and consumer protection
Antonio Cardoso e Cunha   Portugal 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Energy, Euratom, small businesses; staff and translation
João de Deus Pinheiro   Portugal 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Relations with Parliament, culture and audiovisual
Erkki Liikanen   Finland 1995–1999 Santer Commission Budget, Personnel and Administration
Marcelino Oreja   Spain Relations with the European Parliament, Culture, Audiovisual Policy
Anita Gradin   Sweden Immigration, Justice & Home Affairs, Financial Control, Anti-fraud and Relations with the European Ombudsman.
Loyola de Palacio   Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission European Commissioner for Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration, Transport and Energy (Vice-President)
Margot Wallström   Sweden Barroso Commission I Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy (First Vice-President)
Siim Kallas   Estonia 2004–2009 Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud
Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration (Vice-President)
Frans Timmermans   Netherlands 2014–present Juncker Commission Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, Rule of Law and Charter of Fundamental Rights (First Vice-President)
Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia noimnated Von der Leyen Commission Interinstitutional Relations and Foresight (Vice-President)
Johannes Hahn   Austria nominated Budget and Administration

Justice and Gender EqualityEdit

The Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship was created in 2010 by dividing the previous Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio into a security orientated post and a justice and fundamental rights orientated post. The portfolio was then renamed into Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality under the Juncker Commission. The Commissioner as of 2014 is Věra Jourová.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Anita Gradin   Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission Immigration, Justice & Home Affairs, Financial Control, Anti-fraud and Relations with the European Ombudsman.
António Vitorino   Portugal 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Justice and Home Affairs
Franco Frattini   Italy 2004-2008 Barroso Commission I Justice, Freedom and Security (Vice-President)
Jacques Barrot   France 2008-2009
Viviane Reding   Luxembourg 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship (Vice-President)
Frans Timmermans   Netherlands 2014–present Juncker Commission Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, Rule of Law and Charter of Fundamental Rights (First Vice-President)
Věra Jourová   Czech Republic 2014 onwards Justice and Consumers
nominated Von der Leyen Commission Values and Transparency (Vice-President)
Didier Reynders   Belgium nominated Justice
Helena Dalli   Malta nominated Equality

Maritime Affairs and FisheriesEdit

The current Maritime affairs and Fisheries Commissioner is Karmenu Vella. He is responsible for policies such as the Common Fisheries Policy, which is largely a competence of the EU rather than the members. The Union has 66,000 km of coastline[12] and the largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 25 million km².[13]

On 7 June 2006 the Commission published a green paper for a Maritime Policy and consultation will end in June 2007.[14] The document addresses a number of issues such as sustainable development, protection of the environment, skills and employment, technology and resources, coastal safety and tourism, financial support and heritage.[15] The Commission came under fire in May 2007 for not penalise French fishermen after over-fishing the threatened bluefin tuna by 65% while backing penalties on Irish fishermen for over-fishing mackerel.[16]

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Finn Olav Gundelach   Denmark 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Agriculture-Fisheries (Vice-President)
Giorgios Contogeorgis   Greece 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Transport, Fisheries and Tourism
Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Agriculture and fisheries (Vice-President)
António Cardoso e Cunha   Portugal 1986–1989 Fisheries
Manuel Marin   Spain 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Cooperation, development and fisheries (Vice-President)
Ioannis Paleokrassas   Greece 1993–1995 Delors Commission III Environment, fisheries
Franz Fischler   Austria 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Agriculture and Fisheries
Sandra Kalniete   Latvia 2004
Joe Borg   Malta 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Maria Damanaki   Greece 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Karmenu Vella   Malta 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Virginijus Sinkevičius   Lithuania nominated Von der Leyen Commission Environment and Oceans

Regional Policy and CohesionEdit

The Regional Policy Commissioner, occasional Regional Affairs Commissioner, is responsible for managing the regional policy of the EU which takes up a third of the EU's budget; it includes the European Regional Development Fund, Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds, Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession and the European Social Fund. The related DG is Directorate-General for Regional Policy. The present Commissioner is Corina Crețu.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Hans von der Groeben   Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
Albert Borschette   Luxembourg 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
George Thomson   United Kingdom 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Antonio Giolitti   Italy 1977–1985 Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission Regional Policy
Grigoris Varfis   Greece 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Relations with the European Parliament, regional policy and consumer protection
Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Budget, financial control, personnel and administration (Vice-President)
Bruce Millan   United Kingdom 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Regional Policy
1993–1994 Delors Commission III Regional Policy and Cohesion
Peter Schmidhuber   Germany Budget, financial control and the cohesion fund
Monika Wulf-Mathies   Germany 1994–1999 Santer Commission Regional Policy
Michel Barnier   France 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
Jacques Barrot   France 2004
Péter Balázs   Hungary 2004
Danuta Hübner   Poland 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
Paweł Samecki   Poland 2009–2010
Johannes Hahn   Austria 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
Corina Crețu   Romania 2014 onwards Juncker Commission
Elisa Ferreira   Portugal nominated Von der Leyen Commission Cohesion and Reforms

Research, Innovation and ScienceEdit

The Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science is Carlos Moedas. The 2004–2010 Commissioner, Potočnik, aimed to create a European Research Area.[17]

Its name has had several variations, under the first Barroso Commission it was Science and Research, under Prodi it was simply "Research", Santer was "Research, Science and Technology" and under Delors it was combined with others as "Industry, information technology and science and research" and other various names and combinations prior. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Research.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Fritz Hellwig   West Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
Ralf Dahrendorf   West Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Guido Brunner   West Germany 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Energy, Research, Science
Étienne Davignon   Belgium 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Industrial Affairs, Energy, Research and Science (Vice-President)
Karl-Heinz Narjes   Germany 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Industry, information technology and science and research (Vice-President)
Filippo Maria Pandolfi   Italy 1989–1993 Delors Commission II Science, research, development, telecommunications and innovation
Antonio Ruberti   Italy 1993–1995 Delors Commission III Science, research, technological development and education (Vice-President)
Édith Cresson   France 1995–1999 Santer Commission Research, Science and Technology
Philippe Busquin   Belgium 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Research
Louis Michel   Belgium 2004
Janez Potočnik   Slovenia 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I Science and Research
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn   Ireland 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Research, Innovation and Science
Carlos Moedas   Portugal 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Research, Science and Innovation
Mariya Gabriel   Bulgaria nominated Von der Leyen Commission Innovation and Youth
Maroš Šefčovič   Slovakia nominated Interinstitutional Relations and Foresight (Vice-President)

Security UnionEdit

The Commissioner for Security Union was created in 2016 and initially held by Julian King.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Franco Frattini   Italy 2004-2008 Barroso Commission I Justice, Freedom and Security (Vice-President)
Jacques Barrot   France 2008-2009
Julian King   United Kingdom 2016 onwards Juncker Commission Security Union
Margaritis Schinas   Greece nominated Von der Leyen Commission Protecting our European Way of Life (Vice-President)

Statistics, Audit and Anti-FraudEdit

The Commissioner for Taxation, Customs, Statistics, Audit and Anti-Fraud is responsible for the EU's customs union and taxation policy. The European Union has had a customs union since the creation of the European Economic Community and that union extends to the non-EU members of the European Economic Area and to Turkey, Andorra and San Marino. Since 2010 it gained responsibility for audit (budgetary discharge, internal audit, counter fraud): in particular the Internal Audit Service and the European Anti-fraud Office. The current Commissioner is Pierre Moscovici.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Anita Gradin   Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission Immigration, Justice & Home Affairs, Financial Control, Anti-fraud and Relations with the European Ombudsman.
Frits Bolkestein   Netherlands 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Internal Market
Neil Kinnock   United Kingdom 1999–2004 Administrative reform
László Kovács   Hungary 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I Taxation and Customs Union
Siim Kallas   Estonia 2004–2010 Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud
Algirdas Šemeta   Lithuania 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud
Pierre Moscovici   France 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Paolo Gentiloni   Italy nominated Von der Leyen Commission Economy
Didier Reynders   Belgium nominated Justice

TradeEdit

The Commissioner for Trade is responsible for the EU's external trade policy. The portfolio is held by Cecilia Malmström. Due to the size of the European economy, being the world's largest market and having a huge slice of world trade, this position can be very important in dealing with other world economic powers such as China or the United States. Former Commissioner Leon Brittan commented that “Frankly, it is more important than most [national] cabinet jobs”.[18] The Commissioner leads Europe in organisations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). Concluding WTO talks after the collapse of the Doha Development Round has been a contentious point, with the EU not willing to cut agricultural subsidies without similar action by the United States. The related DG is Directorate-General for Trade.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Willy De Clercq   Belgium 1985–1989 Delors Commission I External relations and trade policy
Frans Andriessen   Netherlands 1989–1992 Delors Commission II External relations and trade policy (Vice-President)
Leon Brittan   United Kingdom 1992–1994 Delors Commission III External economic affairs and trade policy (Vice-President)
1994–1999 Santer Commission Commercial Policy and External Relations (Vice-President)
Pascal Lamy   France 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Trade
Danuta Hübner   Poland 2004
Peter Mandelson   United Kingdom 2004–2008 Barroso Commission I
Catherine Ashton   United Kingdom 2008–2010
Karel De Gucht   Belgium 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
Cecilia Malmström   Sweden 2014 onwards Juncker Commission
Phil Hogan   Ireland nominated Von der Leyen Commission Trade

TransportEdit

The portfolio is responsible for the development of transport infrastructure in the EU such as road and rail networks but also navigation systems such as the Galileo positioning system.

Name Country Period Commission Portoflio actual name
Michel Rasquin   Luxembourg 1958 Hallstein Commission
Lambert Schaus   Luxembourg 1958–1967 Hallstein Commission
Victor Bodson   Luxembourg 1967–1970 Rey Commission
Albert Coppé   Belgium 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
Carlo Scarascia-Mugnozza   Italy 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
Richard Burke   Ireland 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission Taxation, Consumer Affairs, Transport
Giorgios Contogeorgis   Greece 1981–1985 Thorn Commission Transport, Fisheries and Tourism
Stanley Clinton Davis   United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I Environment, consumer protection and transport
Karel Van Miert   Belgium 1989–1992 Delors Commission II Transport and consumer protection
Abel Matutes   Spain 1993–1994 Delors Commission III Transport and energy
Marcelino Oreja   Spain 1994–1995
Neil Kinnock   United Kingdom 1995–1999 Santer Commission Transport, including TEN
Loyola de Palacio   Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration, Transport and Energy (Vice-President)
Jacques Barrot   France 2004–2008 Barroso Commission I Transport
Antonio Tajani   Italy 2008–2010 Transport (Vice-President)
Siim Kallas   Estonia 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
Violeta Bulc   Slovenia 2014 onwards Juncker Commission Transport
Von der Leyen Commission Transport

Historical portfoliosEdit

Many portfolios have been combined and split under different president's, below is a few of the previous posts that have since been abolished.

Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-FraudEdit

The Commissioner for Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud was in the first Barroso Commission and was responsible for the Commission's internal administration and anti-fraud efforts.

Its administrative duties included management of some of the Commission's Internal Services; in particular consolidation of administrative reform, personnel and administration, European Schools and security. The Commissioner is also responsible for the following departments; the Directorate-General for Personnel and Administration, the Office for the Administration and Payment of Individual Entitlement, the Directorate-General for Informatics, the Office of Infrastructure and Logistics, and relations with the European Personnel Selection Office.[11] Its other responsibilities were for audit (budgetary discharge, internal audit, counter fraud): in particular the Internal Audit Service and the European Anti-fraud Office.

Name Country Period Commission
Michael O'Kennedy   Ireland 1981–1982 Thorn Commission
Richard Burke   Ireland 1982–1985 Thorn Commission
Henning Christophersen   Denmark 1985–1988 Delors Commission
Peter Schmidhuber   Germany 1988–1994 Delors Commission
Erkki Liikanen   Finland 1994–1999 Santer Commission
Neil Kinnock   United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission (Audit)
Siim Kallas   Estonia 2004–2009 Barroso Commission

Administrative ReformEdit

A position created for the Prodi Commission in the wake of the Santer Commission corruption scandal.

Agriculture and FisheriesEdit

This position used deal with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). It existed when the CFP was created in the Jenkins until the Thorn Commission when it was split into Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Fisheries and Maritime Affairs.

Communication strategyEdit

The Communication strategy portfolio in the first Barroso Commission existed between 2004 and 2010 combined with Institutional Relations. Under the second Barroso Commission this was dropped as it had no powers and was open to allegations of propaganda.

Consumer ProtectionEdit

The Commissioner for Consumer Protection was responsible for protecting the rights of consumers vs corporations between 2007 and 2010. The only Commissioner was Meglena Kuneva (ALDE).

This specific portfolio was created in 2007, separated from the Health portfolio. However, it first appeared in the Jenkins Commission as "Consumer Affairs" though the Barroso Commission was the first time it has been an independent portfolio. The independent portfolio was created when Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007. It used to be part of the Health and Consumer Protection portfolio which was held by Markos Kyprianou. Unlike the Multilingualism portfolio that was created for Leonard Orban, this post was welcomed due to the large size of the combined portfolio. The Directorate-General is still merged with that office. In 2010 it was recombined with Health in the second Barroso Commission.

External RelationsEdit

The Commissioner for External Relations, known as the Commissioner for External Relations and the European Neighbourhood Policy at its demise dealt with general foreign relations and representation of the Commission abroad. It occasionally took on related responsibilities such as enlargement or neighbourhood policy, though most of the time other separate external relations portfolios existed such as development or trade. Early on external relations were split according to geography between various Commissioners. On 1 December 2009 its responsibilities were merged into the High Representative.

Energy, Euratom Supply Agency, SMEs and TourismEdit

An expanded version of the Energy portfolio in the Santer Commission, including parts of Industry (SMEs) and Tourism which has only appeared under Santer.

HealthEdit

The Commissioner for Health existed between 2007 and 2010 when it was split off from Consumer Protection for the new Bulgarian Commissioner. It was recombined under the succeeding Commission in 2010.

Justice, Freedom and SecurityEdit

The Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio was roughly on the former third pillar: Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. The position covers such matters as judicial matters, human rights, equality laws, immigration control, policing and citizenship (see Area of freedom, security and justice). The relevant DG was Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security.

As a concession to the liberals, Barroso split the post in 2010 into the Commissioner for Home Affairs (the security aspect) and the Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship (the human rights aspect).

Previous commissioners:

Name Country Period Commission
Anita Gradin   Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission
António Vitorino   Portugal 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
Franco Frattini   Italy 2004–2008 Barroso Commission
Jacques Barrot   France 2008–2010 Barroso Commission

MultilingualismEdit

The Commissioner for Multilingualism was responsible for language policy of the European Union, i.e., promoting multilingualism for the citizens and the institutions of the EU. It was created on 1 January 2007 during the Barroso Commission. The only commissioner is Leonard Orban (2007–2010). The post was created on 1 January 2007, in the enlarged Barroso Commission after the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EU. Multilingualism had been a responsibility of the European Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Multilingualism (held by Ján Figeľ between 2004 and 2007). Under the second Barroso Commission, the post was re-merged into the education and culture portfolio (held by Androulla Vassiliou).

The new portfolio was criticised for vagueness and ambiguity, it has been claimed that the post overlaps with responsibilities of other Commissioners. The Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament has asked the current president of the Commission José Manuel Barroso to clarify the mandate of Commissioner for Multilingualism[19] and of other members of the Commission with regards to the “intercultural dialogue”.

European Parliament Socialist Group (PES) leader Martin Schulz suggested a portfolio for the protection of ethnic minorities instead. His party suggested the introduction of the protection of the Roma minority.[20] Barroso turned down the PES proposal and defended the post. He stated that Commissioner for Education, Training and Culture Ján Figeľ "will remain responsible for the management of actions to directly promote the inter-cultural dialogue".[5]

Politically, the portfolio was mainly focused on promoting foreign languages learning as means for worker's mobility and business competitiveness rather than emphasizing language rights of speakers of regional, minority, lesser-used and migrant languages. Commissioner for Multilingualism is also responsible, alongside the President of the Commission, Barroso, and the European Commissioner for Education, Training and Culture, Ján Figeľ to work on "intercultural dialogue", including the 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue.

Administratively, Commissioner for Multilingualism was in charge of the Directorate-General for Translation, the DG for Interpretation and the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, as well as for the Multilingualism policy unit (EAC-C-5) in the DG for Education and Culture, with 3,400 staff in total - about 15 per cent of the Brussels executive's workforce- and with about 1 percent of the EU budget.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lungescu, Oana (23 July 2004). "Examining the EU executive". BBC News. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
  2. ^ Brussels Accuses iTunes of Violating Competition Rules Der Spiegel
  3. ^ The Commission prohibits GE's acquisition of Honeywell Europa (web portal)
  4. ^ 100 Most Powerful Women Forbes
  5. ^ Roaming Charges Portal European Commission
  6. ^ European parliament backs roaming price cuts Computer Business Review Online
  7. ^ `.eu' Domain Names Top 2.5M in Year One Huffington Post
  8. ^ Royal v Sarkozy: The policies BBC News
  9. ^ a b 'Big three' strike deal on super commissioner, French VAT cuts, 1% ceiling EurActiv.com
  10. ^ a b The New Commission - Some Initial Thought Archived 23 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine BM Brussels
  11. ^ a b [1]
  12. ^ European Union CIA World Factbook
  13. ^ EU Glossary Archived 9 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine Europa (web portal)
  14. ^ Consultation on Maritime Policy Archived 19 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine European Commission
  15. ^ Green paper Archived 25 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine European Commission
  16. ^ Fishermen citicise EU over-fishing decision. Raidió Teilifís Éireann.
  17. ^ "Building an information society on par with post-war reconstruction, says EU". IT PRO. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  18. ^ The New Commission - Some initial thoughts Archived 23 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine BM Brussels
  19. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/hearings/commission/2006_enlarg/press/conf_presidents_en.pdf
  20. ^ "Socialists criticise new commissioner's portfolio". EurActiv. Retrieved 27 May 2012.