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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

  (Redirected from GDP per capita)

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2017 according to the IMF
  > 50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  < 2,000
  No data

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2017, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is USD $17,300.[1]

Contents

Methodology

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP was over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars (also known as international dollars), and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2017)[4] World Bank (2017)[5][6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1   Qatar 124,927
  Macau 114,430
2   Luxembourg 109,192
3   Singapore 90,531
4   Brunei 76,743
5   Ireland 72,632
6   Norway 70,590
7   Kuwait 69,669
8   United Arab Emirates 68,245
9    Switzerland 61,360
  Hong Kong 61,016
10   San Marino 60,359
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia 55,263
13   Netherlands 53,582
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain 51,846
16   Sweden 51,264
17   Germany 50,206
18   Australia 49,882
19   Taiwan 49,827
20   Denmark 49,613
21   Austria 49,247
22   Canada 48,141
23   Belgium 46,301
24   Oman 45,464
25   Finland 44,050
26   United Kingdom 43,620
27   France 43,550
28   Japan 42,659
29   Malta 42,532
30   South Korea 39,387
31   New Zealand 38,502
32   Spain 38,171
33   Italy 37,970
  Puerto Rico 37,895
34   Cyprus 36,557
35   Israel 36,250
36   Czech Republic 35,223
37   Equatorial Guinea 34,865
38   Slovenia 34,063
39   Slovakia 32,895
40   Lithuania 31,935
41   Estonia 31,473
42   Trinidad and Tobago 31,154
43   Portugal 30,258
44   Poland 29,251
45   Hungary 28,910
46   Malaysia 28,871
47   Seychelles 28,712
48   Russia 27,890
49   Greece 27,776
50   Latvia 27,291
51   Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,849
52   Antigua and Barbuda 26,198
53   Turkey 26,453
54   Kazakhstan 26,071
55   Bahamas, The 25,080
56   Chile 24,588
57   Panama 24,262
58   Croatia 24,095
59   Romania 23,991
60   Uruguay 22,445
61   Mauritius 21,628
62   Bulgaria 21,578
63   Argentina 20,677
64   Iran 20,030
65   Mexico 19,480
66   Lebanon 19,486
67   Gabon 19,266
68   Maldives 19,178
69   Turkmenistan 18,680
70   Belarus 18,616
71   Botswana 18,146
72   Thailand 17,786
73   Barbados 17,508
74   Montenegro 17,439
75   Azerbaijan 17,433
76   Costa Rica 17,149
77   Iraq 17,004
78   Dominican Republic 16,965
 World[n 1] 16,779
79   China 16,624
80   Palau 16,472
81   Brazil 15,500
82   Macedonia 15,203
83   Serbia 15,164
84   Algeria 15,150
85   Grenada 14,779
86   Colombia 14,455
87   Suriname 13,876
88   Saint Lucia 13,579
89   South Africa 13,403
90   Peru 13,342
91   Sri Lanka 13,001
92   Egypt 12,994
93   Mongolia 12,551
94   Jordan 12,487
95   Albania 12,472
96   Venezuela 12,388
97   Indonesia 12,378
98   Dominica 12,035
  Kosovo 12,003
99   Nauru 11,995
100   Tunisia 11,987
101   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,623
102   Namibia 11,528
103   Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,404
104   Ecuador 11,234
105   Georgia 10,644
106   Swaziland 9,882
107   Fiji 9,857
108   Libya 9,792
109   Paraguay 9,785
110   Jamaica 9,212
111   Armenia 9,098
112   El Salvador 8,934
113   Bhutan 8,720
114   Ukraine 8,656
115   Morocco 8,612
116   Belize 8,341
117   Guyana 8,266
118   Philippines 8,229
119   Guatemala 8,173
120   Bolivia 7,543
121   Laos 7,367
122   India 7,174
123   Uzbekistan 6,990
124   Cape Verde 6,942
125   Vietnam 6,876
126   Angola 6,813
127   Congo, Rep. 6,707
128   Myanmar 6,285
129   Nigeria 5,927
130   Nicaragua 5,823
131   Samoa 5,737
132   Moldova 5,657
133   Tonga 5,605
134   Honduras 5,499
135   Pakistan 5,354
136   Timor-Leste 5,008
137   Ghana 4,605
138   Sudan 4,580
139   Bangladesh 4,561
140   Mauritania 4,474
141   Cambodia 4,010
142   Zambia 3,997
143   Lesotho 3,869
144   Côte d'Ivoire 3,857
145   Tuvalu 3,804
146   Papua New Guinea 3,803
147   Kyrgyzstan 3,652
148   Djibouti 3,567
149   Kenya 3,496
150   Marshall Islands 3,436
151   Micronesia 3,392
152   Cameroon 3,359
153   Tanzania 3,283
154   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,208
155   Tajikistan 3,131
156   Vanuatu 2,780
157     Nepal 2,690
158   Senegal 2,678
159   Chad 2,433
160   Uganda 2,352
161   Yemen 2,300
162   Zimbabwe 2,277
163   Benin 2,219
164   Mali 2,169
165   Solomon Islands 2,145
166   Ethiopia 2,113
167   Rwanda 2,081
168   Guinea 2,039
169   Kiribati 1,958
170   Afghanistan 1,889
171   Burkina Faso 1,884
172   Haiti 1,810
173   Guinea-Bissau 1,806
174   Sierra Leone 1,791
175   Gambia, The 1,686
176   South Sudan 1,503
177   Togo 1,612
178   Comoros 1,560
179   Madagascar 1,554
180   Eritrea 1,434
181   Mozambique 1,266
182   Malawi 1,172
183   Niger 1,153
184   Liberia 867
185   Burundi 808
186   Congo, Dem. Rep. 785
187   Central African Republic 681
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1   Qatar 128,378
  Macau 115,123
2   Luxembourg 103,662
3   Singapore 93,905
4   Brunei 78,836
5   Ireland 76,305
6   United Arab Emirates 73,879
7   Kuwait 71,943
8    Switzerland 65,006
9   San Marino 62,425
  Hong Kong 61,540
10   Norway 60,978
11   United States 59,532
12   Saudi Arabia 53,845
13   Iceland 53,518
14   Netherlands 52,941
15   Austria 52,558
16   Germany 50,715
17   Denmark 50,541
18   Sweden 50,070
19   Belgium 47,561
20   Bahrain 47,527
21   Australia 47,047
22   Canada 46,378
23   Finland 45,192
24   United Kingdom 43,877
25   Japan 43,876
26   France 42,779
27   Oman 41,675
28   New Zealand 40,917
29   Italy 39,817
30   Malta 39,534
31   Israel 38,413
32   South Korea 38,260
33   Spain 38,091
34   Czech Republic 36,916
35   Slovenia 34,802
35   Cyprus 34,504
36   Portugal 32,199
37   Slovakia 32,111
38   Lithuania 32,093
39   Estonia 31,638
40   Trinidad and Tobago 31,578
41   Bahamas, The 30,430
42   Malaysia 29,432
43   Poland 29,291
44   Seychelles 28,964
45   Hungary 28,375
46   Turkey 27,916
47   Greece 27,809
48   Latvia 27,598
49   Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,067
50   Kazakhstan 26,410
51   Romania 25,841
52   Russia 25,533
53   Croatia 25,264
54   Equatorial Guinea 24,817
55   Panama 24,446
56   Chile 24,085
57   Antigua and Barbuda 23,594
58   Uruguay 22,563
59   Mauritius 22,279
60   Iran 20,950
61   Argentina 20,787
62   Bulgaria 20,329
63   Libya 19,631
64   Belarus 18,848
65   Montenegro 18,765
66   Barbados 18,640
67   Gabon 18,183
68   Mexico 18,149
69   Turkmenistan 17,993
70   Thailand 17,871
71   Azerbaijan 17,398
72   Botswana 17,354
73   Iraq 17,197
74   Costa Rica 17,044
 World 16,961
75   China 16,807
76   Maldives 16,669
77   Dominican Republic 16,030
78   Brazil 15,484
79   Algeria 15,275
80   Macedonia 15,231
81   Suriname 15,114
82   Serbia 15,090
83   Grenada 14,924
84   Lebanon 14,676
85   Colombia 14,552
86   Palau 14,536
87   Saint Lucia 14,219
88   Nauru 14,158
89   South Africa 13,498
90   Peru 13,434
91   Mongolia 13,000
92   Bosnia and Herzegovina 12,876
93   Sri Lanka 12,811
94   Indonesia 12,284
95   Albania 12,021
96   Tunisia 11,911
97   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,777
98   Ecuador 11,617
99   Egypt 11,583
  Kosovo 10,754
100   Georgia 10,699
101   Dominica 10,620
102   Namibia 10,476
103   Paraguay 9,691
104   Armenia 9,648
105   Bhutan 9,561
106   Fiji 9,555
107   Jordan 9,153
108   Jamaica 8,995
109   Ukraine 8,667
110   Belize 8,590
111   Swaziland 8,496
112   Philippines 8,342
113   Morocco 8,218
114   Guyana 8,163
115   Guatemala 8,150
116   El Salvador 8,006
117   Bolivia 7,560
118   Timor-Leste 7,213
119   India 7,056
120   Laos 7,023
121   Uzbekistan 6,865
122   Cape Verde 6,832
123   Vietnam 6,775
124   Samoa 6,611
125   Angola 6,389
126   Myanmar 6,139
127   Tonga 5,957
128   Nigeria 5,861
129   Nicaragua 5,842
130   Moldova 5,698
131   Pakistan 5,527
132   Congo, Rep. 5,359
133   Honduras 4,986
134   Sudan 4,904
135   West Bank and Gaza 4,885
136   Ghana 4,641
137   Papua New Guinea 4,197
138   Marshall Islands 4,192
139   Zambia 4,050
140   Cambodia 4,002
141   Côte d'Ivoire 3,953
142   Mauritania 3,950
143   Tuvalu 3,925
144   Bangladesh 3,869
145   Kyrgyzstan 3,726
146   Cameroon 3,694
147   Micronesia 3,622
148   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,351
149   Kenya 3,286
150   Vanuatu 3,208
151   Tajikistan 3,180
152   Lesotho 3,130
153   Tanzania 2,946
154   Senegal 2,712
155     Nepal 2,682
156   Solomon Islands 2,422
157   Guinea 2,285
158   Benin 2,266
159   Mali 2,211
160   Kiribati 2,175
161   Zimbabwe 2,086
162   Rwanda 2,036
163   Afghanistan 1,981
164   Chad 1,941
165   Ethiopia 1,899
166   Burkina Faso 1,870
167   Uganda 1,864
168   Haiti 1,815
169   Gambia, The 1,715
170   Guinea-Bissau 1,700
171   Togo 1,570
172   Madagascar 1,555
173   Comoros 1,552
174   Sierra Leone 1,526
175   Mozambique 1,247
176   Malawi 1,202
177   Niger 1,017
178   Congo, Dem. Rep. 887
179   Liberia 827
180   Burundi 771
181   Central African Republic 726
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1   Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2   Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3   Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
  Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4   Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
  Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5   Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
  Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
  Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6   Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7   Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8   Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9   Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10   United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
  Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
  Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11    Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
  Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12   San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13   United States 59,500 2017 est.
14   Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15   Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
  Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16   Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17   Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18   Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19   Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20   Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21   Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
22   Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
23   Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
  Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
24   Austria 49,200 2017 est.
25   Canada 48,100 2017 est.
26   Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
27   Oman 45,500 2017 est.
28   Finland 44,000 2017 est.
  Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
29   France 43,600 2017 est.
30   United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
31   Japan 42,700 2017 est.
32   Malta 42,500 2017 est.
  British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
  Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
33   South Korea 39,400 2017 est.
34   New Zealand 38,500 2017 est.
35   Spain 38,200 2017 est.
36   Italy 38,000 2017 est.
  Puerto Rico 37,900 2017 est.
  Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
37   Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
38   Israel 36,200 2017 est.
  US Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
39   Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
40   Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
41   Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
42   Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
43   Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
44   Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
45   Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
  New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
  Guam 30,500 2013 est.
46   Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
47   Poland 29,300 2017 est.
  Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
48   Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
49   Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
50   Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
51   Russia 27,900 2017 est.
52   Greece 27,800 2017 est.
53   Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
54   Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
55   Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
56   Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
57   Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
  Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
58   The Bahamas 25,100 2017 est.
59   Chile 24,600 2017 est.
60   Panama 24,300 2017 est.
61   Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
62   Romania 24,000 2017 est.
63   Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
64   Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
65   Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
66   Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
67   Iran 20,000 2017 est.
68   Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
69   Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
70   Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
  Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
71   Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
72   Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
73   Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
74   Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
75   Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
76   Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
77   Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
78   Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
79   Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
80   Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
  French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
81   Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
82   Palau 16,700 2017 est.
83   China 16,600 2017 est.
84   Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
85   Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
86   Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
87   Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
  Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
88   Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
89   Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
90   Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
91   Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
92   South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
  Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
93   Peru 13,300 2017 est.
94   Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
  American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
95   Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
96   Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
97   Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
98   Albania 12,500 2017 est.
99   Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
100   Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
101   Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
102   Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
  Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
103   Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
104   Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
105   Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
106   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
107   Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
108   Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
109   Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
110   Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
  Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
111   Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
112   Swaziland 9,900 2017 est.
113   Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
114   Libya 9,800 2017 est.
115   Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
116   Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
117   El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
118   Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
119   Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
120   Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
  Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
121   Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
122   Belize 8,300 2017 est.
123   Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
124   Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
  Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
125   Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
126   Laos 7,400 2017 est.
127   India 7,200 2017 est.
128   Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
129   Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
130   Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
131   Angola 6,800 2017 est.
132   Congo, Rep. 6,700 2017 est.
133   Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
134   Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
135   Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
136   Niue 5,800 2003 est.
137   Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
138   Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
139   Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
140   Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
141   Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
142   Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
143   Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
144   Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
145   Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
146   State of Palestine 4,300 2014 est.
147   Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
148   Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
149   Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
150   Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
151   Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
152   Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
153   Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
  Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
154   Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
155   Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
156   Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
157   Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
158   Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
160   Micronesia 3,400 2017 est.
161   Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
162   São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
163   Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
164   Syria 2,900 2015 est.
165   Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
166     Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
167   Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
  Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
168   Chad 2,400 2017 est.
169   Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
170   Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
171   Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
172   Mali 2,200 2017 est.
173   Benin 2,200 2017 est.
174   Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
175   Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
176   Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
177   Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
178   Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
179   Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
180   Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
181   Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
182   Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
183   Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
184   North Korea 1,700 2015 est.
185   The Gambia 1,700 2017 est.
186   Togo 1,600 2017 est.
187   Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
188   Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
189   South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
190   Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
191   Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
192   Niger 1,200 2017 est.
193   Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
  Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
194   Liberia 900 2017 est.
195   Congo, Dem. Rep. 800 2017 est.
196   Burundi 800 2017 est.
197   Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
198   Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called Modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[13][14]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Calculated by dividing total world GDP according to IMF by total world population based on 2017 projection published by the United Nations.

References

  1. ^ "World GDP – per capita (PPP) – Economy". www.indexmundi.com. 
  2. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  3. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  4. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, January 2018, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2017. Accessed on 21 April 2017.
  5. ^ PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  6. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018. 
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?". Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005.  The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018. 
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018. 
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016. 
  13. ^ PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  14. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.