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Royal Johor Military Force

The Royal Johor Military Force (Abbr.: JMF; Malay: Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor — ATSNJ; Jawi: عسكر تيمبالن ستيا نڬري جوهر) is an independent military force of the state of Johor in Malaysia and the private royal army of Sultan of Johor. The JMF is the Malaysian oldest active military unit still in operation and the only military in the Federation that is maintained by a state.[2][4] The force comes under the control of the Sultan. Its headquarters are located at Sultan Ibrahim Camp, Johor Bahru.[4]

Royal Johor Military Force
Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor
عسكر تيمبالن ستيا نڬري جوهر
JMF Emblem.svg
The JMF Insignia
Founded11 May 1886; 133 years ago (1886-05-11)
Country Malaysia
Allegiance Sultan of Johor
TypeRoyal guard, Foot guards
Role
Garrison/HQSultan Ibrahim Camp, Johor Bahru
Nickname(s)"Sultan's Own Bodyguards"[1]
"The Sultan’s Troops"[2]
PatronSultan of Johor
Motto(s)Taat dengan setia ('Obey faithfully')
Colours
Anniversaries11 May
Engagements
Commanders
CommandantSultan Ibrahim Ismail of Johor
Commanding officerMajor General Tunku Ismail Idris, the Crown prince of Johor
Second-in-commandMajor Ahmad Hamdan Libar[3]
Insignia
FlagFlag of Johor Military Forces.svg
Aircraft flown
HelicopterSikorsky 76 B

The retention of the army was one of the stipulations in 1946 which Johor made when it participated in the Federation of Malaya.[5] The JMF will be participating with the Malaysian Armed Forces during any kind of emergency and armed conflict as an infantry unit.[6]

HistoryEdit

The JMF was established and raised in 1886 under the visionary reign of the first Sultan of Modern Johor, Sultan Abu Bakar.[4] Johor was the first and only Malay state (the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States) to have its modern military force. Back then, there are no other Malay state has its army.[7] Its inception was based on Anglo-Johor Treaty of 1885 signed by Sultan Abu Bakar and Queen Victoria in London, the United Kingdom to uphold peace and protect Johor including Singapore from outside threats then.[8] From the treaty, Sultan Abu Bakar has given his concern for the British to established a British-controlled police force, namely Pasukan Setia Negeri ('Loyal State Force'), inside Johor.[2][1] The Johore Constabulary Forces were established by his majesty to act as a backup for the British police and also to balanced the authority given to them.[6][9] It is later renamed to Timbalan Setia Negeri (TSN; transl. 'Loyal State Deputy').[10]

Initially, the TSN was formed with only 60 Johorean Malays and led by Syed Mohammed Nong Yahya, who was a police officer in the British Police Force. They were tasked to protect the Sultan as bodyguards, and also to work together with the British Police Forces to enforces the law. In the same time, the Sultan also employed 20 Punjabis soldiers led by Major Daud Sulaiman as the Istana ('Palace') Guard tasked to protect the royal palaces' surroundings.[10] One year after its establishment, the Sultan upgraded the forces into a military force and changed its name into Angkatan Timbalan Setia Negeri (ATSN; transl. 'Loyal State Deputy Forces'). The Malays members were trained as infantry soldiers while the Punjabis as artillery gunners. An English army officer, Captain Newland was appointed as the Officer commanding (OC) of the unit.[11] Even upgraded into a military unit, the ATSN still entrusted with the roles of protecting public safety and enforcing the law. Their job at this time is similar to the Gendarmerie.[10]

 
Sultan Ibrahim (reigned 1895-1959) as Colonel of the Johor Military Forces at King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920

In 1895, Sultan Ibrahim was appointed as JMF Colonel Commandant who had strengthened the Force further by forming the Johor Volunteer Forces (JVF). In the early 1900s, the name was changed to its current local name — Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri (ATSN; transl. 'Loyal State Deputy Troops').[10] The current English name, the Johor Military Forces (JMF), was introduced in 1905 after three of its main unit (Infantry, Artillery and the Istana Guard) were merged into one.[10] The JMF personnel increased to 576 in 1915: 394 infantry soldiers, 98 artillery soldiers and 84 marching soldiers. Sultan Ibrahim then appointed Lieutenant Colonel Tompkins and Sergeant Major Claymore to train the team. Sultan Ibrahim was the first ruler who had bestowed new Royal Military colours to the JMF when the force celebrated its 30th anniversary on 11 May 1916.[12] In 1940 and 1941, Sultan Ibrahim sent a few officers to Dehra Dun, India to undergo military training to improve the soldiers.[11] In 1942, after the falls of Malaya to the Japanese military forces, the JMF was disbanded and later been revived back in c. 1948.[2][1][9][13]

RolesEdit

Past rolesEdit

The roles of JMF are growing in parallel to the JMF progress. Initially, they were established in protecting Johor's safety and the king.[14] They later become a Gendarmerie unit tasked to protect the public safety in the Johor. Some of them were assigned as palace guards and guarding the palaces belongs to the Johor royal family.[10]

During World War I, the JMF was loaned to the British military. As the Johor State Forces, it played a significant role in the suppression and capturing the Indian soldiers of 5th Light Infantry who deserted in the 1915 Singapore Mutiny incident.[6][15] They were tasked to assist the British as prison guards for the German POW camp (Tanglin Barracks) in Singapore, maintaining the security of government premises in Singapore, and patrol on Pulau Brani and Pulau Belakang Mati (now known as Sentosa Island). Besides that, they also tasked to guard the main road in Mersing, Kluang and Batu Pahat, and the British military airbase in Kluang (now become the HQ of Malaysian Army Aviation).[16]

Present-day rolesEdit

The modern JMF's roles is a second line of defence right after the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF).[14] Their main roles are to protect HM Sultan of Johor, his royal family and properties.[17] The JMF troops will be tasked with guard duty at four royal palaces in Johor Bahru. Beside the palaces, they are also tasked to guarding the JMF's camps, military posts, marching band's building, royal dock and royal yachts. They also tasked to become the Guard of honour during foreign delegations visit to Johor.[18]

Their secondary roles are as a standby infantry unit for the MAF in case of emergency or armed conflict.[6] During an emergency, the JMF will be put under the command of the MAF.[6]

IdentitiesEdit

 
Tunku Ismail, then Tunku Mahkota of Johor, in the 1950s wearing No 1 Uniform with Topi Timbalan.

UniformsEdit

The uniforms of the JMF has changed throughout history. In the early of its establishment, the JMF use the same uniform like the police force (khaki colour uniform) but with red songkok instead of black used by the regular policemen.[10] Today, they are known for using:

Topi Timbalan

A black service cap with yellow trims and without a visor is used by the JMF troops during ceremonial duties. Usually matches together with the white JMF's service dress uniform (No 1 Uniform). It was a part of the JMF since the early 20th century for the other ranks troops while the officers used the normal version (see the image above of Sultan Ibrahim during King's Birthday Parade in Singapore). It is later become the unique identity of JMF and nowadays used even by the Sultan as a part of His Majesty's attires.[19][20]

Green Beret

It is used by the JMF in pair with combat uniform (No 5 Uniform) and Rifle green service dress uniform (No 3 Uniform). Beret has been used by the JMF since the 1940s and originally in Rifle green colour to symbolised the JMF's infantry status.[21][22] The colour later changed to Sherwood green (also known as Commando green) in the early '80s to matching the commando-trained status of Tunku Ibrahim Ismail, who was at the time newly appointed as the Tunku Mahkota of Johor and in the same time as the Deputy Commanding Officer of JMF.[23][24]

Combat Uniform

In the era of digital camouflage combat uniform, the JMF still keep the traditions by using the first camouflage used by the Malaysian Army. The colour scheme, namely as brush stroke pattern camouflage was introduced to the Malaysian Army at the end of the 1970s.[25] The JMF starts using them in the early '80s.[24]

Ranks and positionsEdit

Commissioned officersEdit

The following are rank insignia for commissioned officers for the Johor Military Force.

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
  Malaysia
(JMF)

(Edit)
  No equivalent
    No equivalent
        No insignia
Commandant
Komandan
Major General
Mejar Jeneral
Brigadier General
Brigedier Jeneral
Major
Mejar
Captain
Kapten
Lieutenant
Leftenan
Second Lieutenant
Leftenan Muda
Officer Cadet
Pegawai Kadet
Notes: Honorary only. Now only reserved for the Sultan Rank for the Commanding officer of JMF. Was reserved for the Sultan only, until 2017 Rank for the Deputy Commanding officer of JMF. Was reserved for the Crown prince only, until 2017[26] Rank for the Second-in-command of JMF. Most senior non-royal appointments Incharge of company or leader of smaller specialised team such as marching band and special force Incharge of Istana Guards platoons

Major General and Brigadier GeneralEdit

The JMF has complicated ranks for its officers. It has the ranks of Major General and Brigadier General even though the overall strength of the JMF is more and less of a battalion. The history of the ranks begin in February 1941 when the strength of the JMF is c. 2000 soldiers and the Johor Volunteer Forces (JVF) is c. 1000 soldiers. Sultan Ibrahim as the commandant of both forces combined the forces and promoted the JMF's Second-in-Command of that time, Lieutenant Colonel Dato’ Haji Yahya into the rank of Colonel. One month later, the Sultan assumed the rank of Major-General. After World War II and the establishment of Malayan Union, the strength of JMF was reduced into 100 soldiers. With the Sultan's rank as Major General of the JMF made redundant, the Sultan was instead appointed an honorary Major General in the British Army in 1947.[2]

The present-day JMF's rank of Major General is an honorary rank reserved only for the Sultan from 1947 until 2017, while the rank of Brigadier General is reserved only for the Crown Prince. In March 2017, the Crown Prince of Johor, Tunku Ismail was promoted to Major General for his achievement in modernising the JMF.[27]

Other ranksEdit

The following are rank insignia for other ranks for the Johor Military Force.

Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
  Malaysia-JMF
(Edit)
No equivalent       No equivalent     No equivalent No insignia
Warrant officer/Sergeant major
Pegawai Waren/Sarjan Mejar
Staff Sergeant
Staf Sarjan
Sergeant
Sarjan
Corporal
Korporal
Lance Corporal
Lans Korporal
Private
Prebet
Recruit
Rekrut

Commandant of JMFEdit

There is two commandant post throughout the history of JMF. It is the Commandant Colonel of JMF and the Commandant of JMF. The Commandant Colonel of JMF is reserved only for the Sultan while the Commandant of JMF was the most professional non-royal appointments appointed by the Sultan to lead the force. The first Commandant of JMF is Captain C. N. C. Newland of the 2nd Battalion South Irish Division, Royal Artillery, who was appointed as an instructor and commandant in 1887. The position of Commandant of JMF was abolished in the 1920s and replaced with the position of Military Advisor (the most senior positions for European) and Second-in-Command (the most senior positions for locals). The Sultan assumed the post of Commandant Colonel cum Commanding officer of JMF. The Sultan's post of Commandant Colonel of JMF is later known as the Commandant of JMF.[2]

Commanding officer of JMFEdit

The Commanding officer of JMF is the most senior post in the JMF. This post is reserved for the Sultan of Johor's Royal Family to lead the JMF in administration and combat. Historically, this post belongs to the Sultan of Johor.[2][28] The Commanding officer of JMF holds the rank of Major General. The current Commanding officer of JMF is Major General Tunku Ismail Idris.

Second-in-Command of JMFEdit

The Second-in-Command of JMF is the most professional position in the JMF. This post is the highest positions that any JMF officers can achieve. The Second-in-Command of JMF holds the rank of Major. The current Second-in-Command of JMF is Major Ahmad Hamdan Libar, succeeding Captain Jalalludin Hamsan, the previous Second-in-Command that retired on 1 June 2018.[3]

FormationsEdit

The formations of the JMF changes a few times throughout its history.[10]

Johore Constabulary Forces (1886–1887)Edit

*Later renamed to Timbalan Setia Negeri.

  • Police and The Sultan Bodyguard unit
  • Istana Guards

Angkatan Timbalan Setia Negeri (1887–1900s)Edit

  • Infantry/Gendarmerie forces
  • Artillery forces
  • ATSN Marching band[29] (Malay: Pasukan Pancaragam Timbalan Setia Negeri)

Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri (1900s–present)Edit

1900s–1905

  • Infantry/Gendarmerie forces
  • Istana Guards
  • Artillery forces
  • ATSN Marching band

1905–1939

The highest strength of JMF is in 1922 with 645 personnel.[10]

  • Johor Military Force
    • Infantry/Gendarmerie forces
    • Istana Guards
    • Artillery forces
  • ATSN Marching band

1939–1942

The highest strength of JMF by WWII is around 2000 personnel.[6]

  • Johor Military Force
    • Infantry/Gendarmerie forces
    • Istana Guards
  • Artillery forces (Ceremonial)

Post-WWII–1978

  • Johor Military Force
    • Istana Guards

1979–2007

  • Johor Military Force
    • Istana Guards
    • JMF Marching Band[6]
    • Administrations unit

Current formationsEdit

The current JMF formations is divided into four units:[6]

Istana GuardsEdit
Also known as the Astana Guards (English pronunciation for 'Istana'),[2] it is the biggest unit in the JMF. It is consists of eight infantry platoons.[6] The guards will be on duty for 24 hours non stop. They are entrusted to guarding the four Istanas ('Palaces') that located inside Johor Bahru — the Istana Bukit Serene, Istana Besar, Istana Bukit Pelangi and Istana Pasir Pelangi. Beside the palaces, they are tasked to guarding the JMF's camps (in Taman Dahlia and Tampoi), military posts (in Straits Views, Skudai and Kolam Air), the marching band's building, royal's dock (in Stulang) and the royal yachts.[18] During guard duty, the guards are equipped with M-16 fixed with a bayonet.[6]
JMF Marching bandEdit
Established in 1979, it is a ceremonial unit that always takes part in ceremonial occasions that involving the Sultan. This unit is the predecessor of ATSN Marching band (EST. in the early 1900s).[6][29]
Administrations unitEdit
JMF officers and soldiers that assigned to administration, office work and instructor positions.[6]
Elite force platoonEdit
Established in 2008, the JMF Elite forces is a special forces unit placed under the responsibility of the JMF with the mandate of providing security and close protection to the Royal Family of Johor, counter-terrorism and special reconnaissance in any incidents involving the state of Johor. This unit is the latest addition to the JMF and it only recruits its members from the JMF Istana Guards.

Current developmentEdit

The JMF has continued to exist to date as one of Johor's defences, besides performing mainly ceremonial functions.[30] The JMF Elite Forces (dubbed JMF Commando) was established on 7 July 2008 and has been providing security and close protection to the Royal Family of Johor since 2008.[6] In April 2016, the Sultan suggested that so the JMF roles were widened to include as security forces for state government buildings.[31]

Sultan Ibrahim Ismail stressed the importance of good ties be maintained with clear line of roles drawn between JMF and Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) as the JMF was not formed and intended to be the country's first line of defence, thus the word ‘timbalan’ meaning deputy in its Malay name, indicating its task as the second line and roles in assisting MAF.[14]

Timeline

  • November 2011 – A new camp for the JMF begins its construction.[32]
  • July 2012 – The JMF held a passing-out parade in traditional full dress uniform, to mark the end of training for its 61 recruits, for the first time since 1947.[4]
  • 8 April 2016 – The new camp was inaugurated as the Sultan Ibrahim Camp. The JMF troops was relocated from its old camp, The Fort, Bukit Timbalan to the new camp.[17]
  • 11 May 2016 – The JMF celebrated its 130th anniversary, new colours were bestowed and granted to the force by the decree of Sultan Ibrahim Ismail. The changing of colours ceremony was carried out in the Presentation of Colours parade held at the grounds of Istana Besar, Johor Bahru in the presence of the Sultan of Johor.[12]

Selection and trainingEdit

The JMF only recruits its member from the Malaysian who born in Johor, aged between 18 and 23 years old. There is a special criterion which is prioritised to those who know to read and write in Jawi script. This tradition is continued since the JMF establishment in 1886.[6]

Preliminary stage – At owns districtEdit

Last only for a day, it is done annually where the JMF staff will visit each district in Johor to recruit the potential trainees. The minimum physical requirement is 168 cm (5.51 ft) for height and 47.5 kg (105 lb) for weight. Potential trainees will go through a series of physical test.[6]

Preliminary stage – At JMF's campEdit

Trainees that succeeded the first stage will be brought to the Sultan Ibrahim Camp to face another series of test. The number of trainees here is double the size of the vacant slots. This stage is required to weed out half of its trainees. There are two tests here which is:[6]

  • Physical Fitness Test (PFT) – Including 2.4 km (1.5 mi) run under 14 minutes.
  • Character and behaviour test – Trainees are tested to make sure their interest is genuine and has the right attitudes and quality as outlined by the JMF — Loyalty, brave and serving with honour.

JMF Basic Training (6 months)Edit

The trainee who passed all the preliminary stage will be selected as new JMF recruits. They will be trained with basic soldiering and infantry training. The training is not 100% similar to the Malaysian Army Basic Training. As royal guards, the training been through by the JMF recruits also includes protocol training, more precisely, how to interact with the royals. The recruits are required to master the Jawi script as all reports must be written in Jawi.[6]

Advanced trainingEdit

There are many opportunities given by the JMF for its members. The sultan also encourages them to try for the JMF Elite Forces in their early 20s so they can stay fit for the special forces unit. The JMF also send their members to received training at the Malaysia Armed Forces training centres.[9][33] Some of the advanced training offered are:[6][9]

  • Basic Parachute Course, at Special Warfare Training Centre (PULPAK)
  • Section/Platoon Leader Course, at Army Combat Training Centre (PULADA)
  • Advanced Firearms Course, at PULADA
  • Physical training instructor (PTI) Course, at PULADA
  • Army Musician training, at Army Music Training Centre (PUZIDA)
  • Elite forces selection

Notable membersEdit

The JMF has produced some of the country's great leader and celebrity.[32] Among them are:

  • Dato' Abdullah Jaafar [ms] – He was a civil servant and the 3rd Chief Minister of Johor.[1]
  • Tun Hussein Onn – He was a politician and the 3rd Malaysian Prime Minister. He joined the JMF as Officer cadet and was given the scholarship to continue his military education at the Indian Military Academy. Graduating from the academy during WWII, he was commissioned as an officer in the British Indian Army and deployed to the Middle East. After the war, he served as a senior police officer and was employed as an instructor at the Malayan Police Recruiting and Training Centre in Rawalpindi. Later, he was appointed as the Commandant of the Johor Bahru Police Depot. Then he joined civil services before joining politics.
  • General (Rtd) Tun Ibrahim Ismail – He was a senior military officer, secret agent and the 5th Chief of Defence Force of Malaysia. He joined the JMF as Officer cadet and was given the scholarship to continue his military education at the Indian Military Academy. Commissioned as an officer in the British Indian Army and was recruited to the Force 136. Parachuted into the western coast of Terengganu as part of Operation Oatmeal together with another two agents. His team was betrayed and then captured by the Japanese. Agreed to become a double agent for Japanese force after being tortured for a month, but manage to inform Force 136 HQ about the situation. Effectively become a triple agent and gave false information about Operation Zipper to the Japanese force. For his cunningness and deception, Ismail was appointed with an MBE by the British. Continues to serve with the JMF after the war and later transferred to the Malay Regiment (now known as the Royal Malay Regiment) in 1951. Appointed to the 5th Malaysian Chief of Defence Forces in 1970.[34]
  • Dato' Sir Onn Jaafar – He was a politician, the 7th Chief Minister of Johor, and the founding father of UMNO, a political party. He is also the father of Hussein Onn, the 3rd Malaysian Prime Minister. He was a civil servant before joining the JMF for two years. He holds the rank of Lieutenant in JMF and later rejoined the civil service.[35]
  • Dato' Ungku Abdul Hamid Ungku Abdul Majid [ms] – He was a civil servant and the 6th Chief Minister of Johor. He is the father of Ungku Abdul Aziz, a prominent economist in Malaysia, and the grandfather of Zeti Akhtar Aziz, the former Governor of Bank Negara Malaysia. He joined the JMF in c. 1910 as Officer cadet, and promoted to 2nd Lieutenant in May 1912 at the same time assigned as the Aide-de-camp to the Sultan. He later promoted to Major, in August 1923, and was assigned to the Johor Volunteer Forces (JVF) before became the Chief Minister.[36]
  • Zamatul Amri 'Tauke Jambu' Zakaria [ms] – A Malaysian comedian and celebrity. He is a part of the Series 1/98 intake. He holds the rank of Private before quits to become a comedian.[37]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Titah Ucapan Penuh D.Y.M.M Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Sultan Yang Dipertuan Bagi Negeri Dan Jajahan Takluk Johor Darul Ta'zim Semasa Istiadat Pertukaran Panji-Panji Pasukan Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor Di Dataran Istana Besar, Johor Bahru". Demi Rakyat Johor (in Malay). 11 May 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Tunku Shahriman Tunku Sulaiman (December 2004). "The Johore Military Forces: The Oldest Army Of Malaysia Regulars In The Peninsula". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.
  3. ^ a b "Tunku Mahkota Johor Berangkat Ke Majlis Iftar Bersama Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor" (in Malay). Media Sosial Rasmi Keluarga DiRaja Johor @TheRoyalJohor. 9 June 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d "Johor Ruler wants history and feats of private army recorded". The Star Online. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Johor crown prince warns that state may secede if Putrajaya breaches federation's terms". The Straits Times. Kuala Lumpur. 16 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Johor Military Forces". History Channel Asia (TV Documentary). 2018.
  7. ^ New, Jo-Lyn (19 June 2015). "Why is Johor the only Msian state with its own private army?". CILISOS.
  8. ^ "Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor (TSN)". Sang Jakas Biru (in Malay). 21 April 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "Di Sebalik Nama: JMF" (in Malay). RTM. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dang Ku Puteri (6 March 2018). "Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor/Johor Military Forces: Sebuah Pengenalan". The Patriots (in Malay). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Interesting Fact-History of Johor-Formation of Johor Military Force". JOHOR Southern Tigers. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  12. ^ a b Ahmad Fairuz Othman (15 February 2006). "Sultan of Johor carries out rare change of JMF colours". New Straits Times. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  13. ^ "The Sultan's Troop". The Straits Times. 13 November 1948. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Yee Xiang Yun (11 May 2016). "Clear difference between JMF and Armed Forces, says Johor Sultan". The Star Online. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  15. ^ J.M. RobertsR.W.E. Harper, page 179 "Singapore Mutiny", ISBN 0-19-582549-7
  16. ^ Faerrin (18 October 2010). "Angkatan Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor A.K.A JMF" (in Malay). Pandang-pandang. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  17. ^ a b "The Royal Johor Military Force (JMF) - the oldest military unit in the country - has a new base". Sultan Johor Official @officialsultanibrahim. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Kesultanan Johor: Mengenali Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri". Kesultanan Johor (in Malay). January 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  19. ^ "Sultan Johor - JMF Kekal Pasukan Pertahanan Kedua Negara". RTM (TV News) (in Malay). 11 May 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Kesultanan Johor: Almarhum Sultan Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim". Kesultanan Johor (in Malay). Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  21. ^ "Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Bersama Sultanah Dan Dato' Onn Jaafar Pada Tahun 1940an". National Archives of Malaysia (in Malay). Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  22. ^ Kay Suhaimi (18 June 2019). "Sejarah Dan Asal Usul Nama 10 Daerah Di Johor". iluminasi (in Malay). Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  23. ^ "Tunku Ibrahim Diisytihar Perlantikannya Sebagai Tunku Mahkota Johor". National Archives of Malaysia (in Malay). Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Dari Arkib Diraja/From The Royal Archives". @officialsultanibrahim. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  25. ^ Dr. Syed Fairus (1 March 2011). "Pakaian Tempur Celoreng Tentera Darat Malaysia Yang Lama". Hilang Ditelan Zaman (in Malay). Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  26. ^ Zulkanain Hassan (30 July 2009). "Tengku Mahkota Johor". Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  27. ^ "HRH Crown Prince of Johor Promoted To Major General". Official website of Johor Darul Ta'zim FC (JDT). 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  28. ^ "Sultan Ibrahim wants Johor government to revive JVF". thesundaily.my. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Pancaragam JMF" (in Malay). Persatuan Bangsa Johor. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  30. ^ Nambiar, Ravi (20 November 1999). "It has got to be Southern style". New Straits Times. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Sultan Ibrahim Cadang Perluas Skop Tanggungjawab JMF". mstar.com.my (in Malay). 8 April 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Johor Military Force to get new headquarters". The Star. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  33. ^ "Pembukaan Kursus Asas Payung Terjun Siri APT/3/2018" (in Malay). Malaysian Army Training and Doctrine Command @Mytradoc. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  34. ^ Toharudin Rasid (2 March 2019). "Putera Lapis Mahang: My Military Life: AF 132 PANGLIMA ANGKATAN TENTERA MALAYSIA (CDF)". Putera Lapis Mahang. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  35. ^ "Dato' Onn Jaafar". UMNO Online (in Malay). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  36. ^ Harnani Jaafar (29 April 2008). "Professor Diraja Dr. Ungku Aziz" (PDF). Jurnal Pendek (in Malay). Institut Perguruan Bahasa Melayu Malaysia. 1: 1.
  37. ^ "Kenangan Sewaktu Berkhidmat". @taukejambu (in Malay). 4 June 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2019.