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The flag of Malaysia, also known as the Malay: Jalur Gemilang ("Stripes of Glory"),[1] is composed of a field of 14 alternating red and white stripes along the fly and a blue canton bearing a crescent and a 14-point star known as the Bintang Persekutuan (Federal Star). The 14 stripes, of equal width, represent the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal territories, while the 14 points of the star represent the unity between these entities.[2] The crescent represents Islam, the country's state religion; the blue canton symbolises the unity of the Malaysian people; the yellow of the star and crescent is the royal colour of the Malay rulers.[3]

Flag of Malaysia.svg
NameJalur Gemilang ("Stripes of Glory")
UseNational flag
Adopted26 May 1950 (original 11-point star and 11 stripes)
16 September 1963 (current 14-point star and 14 stripes)
DesignFourteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, a yellow crescent and 14-point star on a blue field
Designed byMohamed Hamzah[N 1]

In blazon, the Malaysian flag is described as: "A banner Gules, seven bars Argent; the canton Azure charged with decrescent and mullet of fourteen points Or". This means "a red flag with seven horizontal white stripes; the upper-left (hoist) quarter is blue with a yellow waning crescent (i.e. horns pointing to sinister) and a yellow 14-pointed star".


  Flag ratio: 1:2. The Flag of Malaya in use from 1950 to 1963.

The flag of Malaysia, which was first raised on 16 September 1963, originated from the flag of the Federation of Malaya. Prior to the creation of the national flag, each state in Malaya had its own flag, many of which are unchanged in design to this day.


When the Federation of Malaya replaced the short lived Malayan Union, the federation government through the Federal Legislative Council called for a design contest for a new flag. Three flags were forwarded to the public. The first flag had 11 white stars with two Malay kris (daggers) in the middle against a blue backdrop. The second flag consisted of "concentric circle of 11 stars around crossed keris on a blue field". The third design had 11 alternate blue and white stripes and a yellow crescent and a five-pointed star on a red background in the top left hand corner". The third design was chosen as the winner - after some adjustments by switching the canton and stripe colours[4] - through a public poll held by The Malay Mail.[5] Since the Malayan state was fighting the communists during the Malayan Emergency, the five-pointed star had an ironic resemblance to the communists' symbols. Therefore, the star was modified to accommodate six more points.

The Malayan flag was approved by King George VI on 19 May 1950 and was first raised in front of the Sultan of Selangor's residence on 26 May 1950.[6] On 31 August 1957, it was raised upon independence at Merdeka Square in place of the British Union Flag.

Original symbolism

As the flag was finalised for official use, the significance of the design were given as follows:[7]

  • red, white and blue – represents Malaysia as a country belonging in the Commonwealth.
  • crescent and star – represents Islam as the official religion for the Federation, as yellow symbolises sovereignty of the Malay Rulers and their roles as leader of the faith in the constituent states. The eleven-pointed star itself symbolises the "unity and co-operation" of said member states.

The designer

Flag of the East India Company

The Malayan flag was designed by Mohamed Hamzah, a 29-year-old architect working for the Public Works Department (JKR) in Johor Baharu, Johore. He entered the Malayan flag design competition in 1947 with two designs that he completed within two weeks. The first design was a green flag with blue kris in the middle, surrounded by 15 white stars. The second design, which was among the three finalists, was similar to the current flag but with a five-pointed star. It borrows major design elements from the East India Company flag, notably the red and white stripes [8][9]. . The competition attracted 373 entries and voting was made by the general public via post. Malayan senior statesman Dato' Onn Jaafar met with Mohamed Hamzah after he won the competition and suggested that the star be changed to an 11-pointed one to represent all the Malayan states.

Mohamed Hamzah died just short of his 75th birthday on 13 February 1993 in Jalan Stulang Baru, Kampung Melayu Majidee, Johor.[10]


The Malaysian flag flying above the Tourism Malaysia office in Trafalgar Square, London. The flag of Uganda is seen by its side over Uganda House.

Following the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, the design of the Malayan flag was modified to reflect and honour the new states in the federation.

Three additional stripes were added to the existing flag and the star was given 14 points to reflect the federation of the original 11 states in Malaya plus Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore; the design remained the same even after Singapore's expulsion from the federation two years later. When Kuala Lumpur was designated a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974, the additional stripe and the point in the star were appropriated to represent this new addition to the federation. Eventually, with the addition of two other federal territories, Labuan in 1984 and Putrajaya in 2001, the fourteenth stripe and point in the star came to be associated with the federal government in general.

In 1997, when Malaysians were invited to name the flag, then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad picked the name Jalur Gemilang to project the country's onward drive towards continuous growth and success.

Mark of respect

During the National Day celebrations, everyone is encouraged to fly the Jalur Gemilang at their homes, office buildings, shops and corporate premises.

  • If the flag is fixed at home, it is to be raised pointing towards the road.
  • If the flag is put in a group of flags with state and private company flags, the Malaysian flag must be raised in between two flags and its pole placed higher than the rest.

Historical flags

Flag anthem

The flag anthem is written as dedication and pride of the Malaysian national flag. It is performed on Hari Merdeka, the nation's independence day on 31 August every year. The original anthem Benderaku was written by Malaysian songwriter Tony Fonseka. After the flag was given the name Jalur Gemilang, the flag anthem was updated in 1997 to reflect this change. This was then followed by an introduction of a new flag anthem, with arrangements by Malaysian songwriter Pak Ngah and lyrics by Malaysian songwriter Siso Kopratasa.

Jalur Gemilang by Tony Fonseka
Jalur Gemilang yang gagah perkasa
Merah putih kuning biru warnanya
Berkibar megah penuh bercahaya
Pusaka kita rakyat Malaysia
Jalur Gemilang, oh benderaku
Kupertahankan sepenuh ragaku
Dikaulah lambang negara berpadu
Di bawah naungan Duli Tuanku
Berkibar terus oh benderaku
Kaukan kujunjung sepanjang waktu
Harumlah nama negara yang tercinta
Padamu tempat taat dan setia
Jalur Gemilang, bendera kita
Kemegahan rakyat kita semua
Berkibar berkibar di ruang angkasa
Dirgahayu bendera tercinta!
English translation
The Mighty Stripes of Glory
Red, White, Yellow and Blue are the colours
Flying high up in the skies
The legacy of all of us Malaysians
O my flag, The Stripes of Glory
I will defend it with all of my might
The Symbol of a unified nation
Under the patronage of His Royal Highness
Fly high o my flag
I will raise it all the time
O shine up, my beloved nation
To you, I swear my full allegiance
The Stripes of Glory, our flag
The pride of all of us
Fly, fly high up in the skies
Long live our beloved flag!
Jalur Gemilang by Pak Ngah & Siso Kopratasa (Malay)
Merahmu bara semangat waja
Putihmu bersih budi pekerti
Kuning berdaulat payung negara
Biru perpaduan kami semua
Puncak dunia telah kautawan
Lautan luas telah kauredah
Membawa semangat jiwa Merdeka
Semarak jaya kami warganya
Empat belas melintang jalurnya
Semua negeri dalam Malaysia
Satu suara satu semangat
Itu sumpah warga berdaulat
Jalur Gemilang di bawah naunganmu
Jalur Gemilang kami semua bersatu
Perpaduan ketaatan
Amalan murni rakyat Malaysia
Jalur Gemilang megah kami terasa
Jalur Gemilang kibarkanlah wawasan
Merah, putih, biru, kuning
Jalur semangat kami semua
Berkibarlah!, berkibarlah!, berkibarlah!,
Jalur Gemilang!
English Translation
Your Red represents steely will
Your White represents clean and kind character
Yellow of the Sovereign, the country's protector
Blue for all of us in unity
You have reached the heights of the world
You have travelled the wide waters
Bearing the spirit of independence
We are members of its successful will
Fourteen stripes across
For each of the states of Malaysia
One voice, one spirit
So its sovereign citizens solemnly swear
Stripes of Glory, beneath your care
Stripes of Glory, we unite
Unity and loyalty
Are the noble values of the Malaysian people
Stripes of Glory, how proud we feel
Stripes of Glory, proclaim our vision
Red, white, blue, yellow
Are the stripes of our resolve
Flutter-on, flutter-on, flutter-on
Stripes of Glory!

Other ensigns and flags

Government vessels use the Jalur Gemilang as the state ensign. The following is a table of the other ensigns used in Malaysia with the national flag inside.

Flag Type Description Flag ratio
    Civil ensign The civil ensign of Malaysia used by civilian vessels has a red background with the Jalur Gemilang in a blue-fimbriated canton. 1:2
    Malaysian Government blue ensign The flag used by the Malaysian Government has a dark blue background with the Jalur Gemilang in the canton. 1:2
    Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency blue ensign The flag used by the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency has a dark blue background with the Jalur Gemilang in the canton and the logo of the agency in the fly. 1:2
    Army ensign The flag used by the Malaysian Army has a red background with the Jalur Gemilang in the canton and the army emblem in the fly. 1:2
    Air Force ensign The flag used by the Royal Malaysian Air Force has a pale blue background with the Jalur Gemilang in the canton and the Bintang Persekutuan (14-point star) in the fly. 1:2
    Naval ensign The flag used by the Royal Malaysian Navy has a white background with the Jalur Gemilang in a red-fimbriated canton and an emblem consisting of an anchor and two crossed traditional kris (daggers) in the fly. Naval ships of the Royal Malaysian Navy use this flag as the naval ensign. 1:2

Federal Star (Bintang Persekutuan)

The Federal Star is similar in concept of Australia's Commonwealth Star in that it symbolises the unity of states in the Malaysian federation and its Federal government, featuring 14 points to represent each of the federation's 14 states. It is also used on the Royal Malaysian Air Force roundel, the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) flag and the former United Malayan Banking Corporation (UMBC) logo.

The Patani Malayu National Revolutionary Front, a Southern Thai Malay separatist group involved in the South Thailand insurgency, originally adopted an independence flag that incorporated a crescent and 15-point variation of the Federal Star on its flag to represent the southernmost Thai provinces' closer tie to Malay and Muslim-majority Malaysia over that of Thailand.

See also


  1. ^ Mohamed Hamzah designed the flag of Malaya. The current flag is an adaptation of Hamzah's original design.


  1. ^ "Malaysian Flag and Coat of Arms". myGovernment Malaysian Government's official portal. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Malaysia Flag". Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
  3. ^ Flags Of The World Malaysia: Description
  4. ^ "Federal Flag". The Straits Times. 6 March 1950. p. 5., via "The History and Design Chronology of Jalur Gemilang" (PDF). Malaysia Design Archive. 2012. p. 16. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  5. ^ Sonia Ramachandran. Golden Merdeka Memories: National flag chosen by people in one of country's first public polls. New Straits Times. 18 August 2006.
  6. ^ "Federation Flag Hoisted at Istana". The Malay Mail. 27 May 1950.
  7. ^ Muhamad Razif Nasruddin; Zarul Nazli bin Zulkhurnain (2012). "The History and Design Chronology of Jalur Gemilang" (PDF). Malaysia Design Archive. Make Condition Design. p. 23.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Sejarah Bendera Malaysia". Malay Text. 29 August 2009. Archived from the original on 14 July 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2010

External links