Thai Malays (Malay: Orang Melayu Thai, Thai: ไทยเชื้อสายมลายู, Jawi: ملايو تاي, Pattani Malay: Oré Nayu, Jawi or Bangso Yawi) is a term used to refer to ethnic Malays in Thailand. Thailand hosts the third largest ethnic Malay population after Malaysia and Indonesia, and most Malays are concentrated in the Southern provinces of Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, Songkhla, and Satun. Phuket and Ranong, home to a sizeable Muslim population, also has many people who are of Malay descent. A sizeable community also exists in Thailand's capital Bangkok, having descended from migrants or deportees who were relocated from the South from the 13th century onwards.
Thai Malay boys in Songkhla.
|1.9 million (2006, est.)|
|Regions with significant populations|
Thailand (mostly in Southern Thailand) |
Malaysia (Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis)
|Thai, Southern Thai, Pattani Malay, Satun Malay and Bangkok Malay|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Malaysian Malay (especially Kedahan Malays and Malays in Kelantan and Terengganu), Burmese Malays, other Malays|
Seperatist inclinations among ethnic Malays in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, and Songkhla are due in part to cultural differences from the Thai people as well as past experiences of forced attempts to assimilate them into Thai mainstream culture after the annexation of the Pattani Kingdom by the Sukhothai Kingdom. On the other hand, the Malay Muslims of Satun are less inclined towards separatism, this heavily a result of the historical affinity of the Malay King of Setul towards Siam, compared to the violent demise of the Pattani Kingdom. A parallel of pro-Thai inclination can also be observed by Malay community in Phuket, Ranong and Bangkok.
The Sam Sams (ซัมซัม) who make up the bulk of Satun's population (but also a significant minority in Phatthalung Trang, Krabi, Phang Nga and Songkhla as well as in the Malaysian states of Kedah, Perak and Perlis) are a distinct ethnic group who generally adhere to Islam, but are culturally Thai (although with some Malay influences) and speak a Southern Thai dialect interspersed with some Malay loanwords.
The majority of Malays in Thailand speak a distinct variety of Malay known as Pattani Malay (Yawi: Baso Yawi/Pattani). However, not all Thai Malays speak Pattani Malay, those that live in Satun and neighbouring provinces use another distinct variety of Malay known as Satun Malay, while the Malays up north in Bangkok have developed their distinct variant of Malay that incorporated elements of localism with visible Pattani-Kedahan Malay dialect influences known as Bangkok Malay (Bangkok Malay: Bangkok Melayu/Nayu).
The Bangkok, Kedahan and Pattani are closely related and shared many similar vocabularies but still mutually partly unintelligible.
With the introduction of Islam to Southeast Asia, the Malays use a modified version of the Arabic script known as Jawi. Unlike other parts of the Malay world, like Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, where the usage of Jawi is declining rapidly from the increasing usage of the Latin alphabet, Jawi is still widely used and understood among Malays in Thailand.
A vast majority of Thai Malays are Muslims of Shafi'i sect, with Islam as the defining element of the Thai Malay identity. A conversion out of the faith, particularly to Theravada Buddhism resulting a person to be perceived as ethnically Thai in spite of their Malay origin.
- Thao Thep Kasattri and Thao Sri Sunthon — Heroine and Ancestors of na Thalâng Clan. (Malay descent from Phuket)
- Tengku Zubaidah Tengku Norudin (Kangsadan Phiphitphakdi) — Former Princess Consort of Muhammad V of Kelantan. (Malay descent from Pattani)
- Wan Aishah Wan Nawawi (Sirinthra Yayee) — The descendants of Mahsuri. (Malay descent from Phuket)
- Thapani Nakhonthap (née na Thalâng) — Writer. (Malay descent from Nakhon Si Thammarat)
- Princess Sri Sulalai - Princess Mother of Siam
- Sukhumbhand Paribatra — 15th Governor of Bangkok and Politician. (Malay descent from na Thalâng Clan)
- Surin Pitsuwan — 12th Secretary general of ASEAN and Politician. (Malay descent from Nakhon Si Thammarat)
- Nikanlaya Dunlaya (Nikanlaya Abdul) — Miss Thailand World 2004 and Actress. (Malay descent from Yala)
- Wan Muhamad Noor Matha (Wanmuhamatno Matha) - Thai Politician (Malay descent from Yala)
- Winai Kraibutr - Thai actor (Malay descent from Krabi Province)
- Adul Lahsoh – Thai footballer (Malay descent from Phatthalung)
- Pierre Le Roux (1998). "To Be or Not to Be…: The Cultural Identity of the Jawi (Thailand)". Asian Folklore Studies. 57: 223–255.
- Michael John Montesano; Patrick Jory, eds. (2008). Thai South and Malay North: Ethnic Interactions on the Plural Peninsula. National University of Singapore Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-411-1.
- Moshe Yegar (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. Part Two: The Patani Muslims, pp. 73–181. ISBN 0739103563.
- Pierre Le Roux (1998). "To Be or Not to Be…: The Cultural Identity of the Jawi (Thailand)". Asian Folklore Studies. 57: 245.
- Descendants of the White-Blooded Lady
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- Mohamed Taher. Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture. Anmol Publications. pp. 228–9. ISBN 81-261-0403-1.
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- Thomas M. Fraser. Rusembilan: A Malay Fishing Village in Southern Thailand. Cornell University Press. p. 88.
- Moshe Yegar. Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-7391-0356-3.
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- Institute of South East Asian Studies (1976). The South East Asian Review. The Institute of South East Asian Studies. p. 15.
- Nelson Annandale; Herbert C. Robinson (1903). Fasciculi Malayenses: Anthropological and Zoological Results. Longmans, Green & Co. p. 30.
- Kobkua Suwannathat-Pian. The Historical Development of Thai-Speaking Muslim Communities in Southern Thailand and Northern Malaysia. Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States. Routledge. pp. 162–175. ISBN 0-7007-1173-2.