Foreign relations of Singapore
Singapore maintains diplomatic relations with 189 countries although it does not maintain a high commission or embassy in many of those countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, ASEAN and the Non-Aligned Movement.
Due to obvious geographical reasons, relations with Malaysia and Indonesia are most important. Historical baggage, including the traumatic separation from Malaysia, and Konfrontasi with Indonesia, have caused a siege mentality of sorts. Singapore enjoys good relations with the United Kingdom which shares ties in the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) along with Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand. Good relations are also maintained with the United States.
Singapore supports the concept of Southeast Asian regionalism and plays an active role in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of which Singapore is a founding member. Singapore is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum which has its Secretariat in Singapore.
As part of its role in the United Nations, Singapore held a rotational seat on the UN Security Council from 2001 to 2002. It participated in UN peacekeeping/observer missions in Kuwait, Angola, Kenya, Cambodia and Timor Leste.
Singapore and China have maintained long-standing and greatly prioritized close relationship, partly due to the latter's growing influence and essentiality in the Asia-Pacific region, specifying that "its common interest with China is far greater than any differences". Furthermore, Singapore has positioned itself as a strong supporter for China's constructive engagement and peaceful development in the region. It has engaged cooperation with other ASEAN members and China to strengthen regional security and fight terrorism, while participating in the organisation's first maritime exercise with the latter.
Timeline of Singapore foreign relationsEdit
- 7 August 1965 – Singapore and Malaysia sign the separation agreement.
- 9 August 1965 – The Malaysian Parliament votes to expel Singapore from the Federation; Singapore becomes independent after separating from Malaysia.
- 9 August 1965 – Ministry of Foreign Affairs was established and S. Rajaratnam becomes Singapore's first Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- 21 September 1965 – Singapore is admitted into the United Nations as the 117th member.
- 15 October 1965 – Singapore becomes the 22nd member of the Commonwealth.
- 8 August 1967 – Singapore becomes a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
- January 1968 – Britain announces its intention to withdraw its armed forces from Singapore.
- September 1970 – Singapore is admitted into the Non-Aligned Movement.
- 14–22 January 1971 – Singapore hosts the 18th Conference of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.
- April 1971 – Singapore, United Kingdom, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand sign the Five Power Defence Arrangements.
- 31 October 1971 – The last British military forces withdraws from Singapore.
- 1973 – Singapore joins General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
- 1 June 1980 – S. Dhanabalan becomes the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- March 1981 – Singapore's Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Ambassador Tommy Koh, assumed the Presidency of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea.
- September 1988 – Wong Kan Seng becomes the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- 3 October 1990 – Singapore and People's Republic of China establish diplomatic relations.
- January 1993 – Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat set up in Singapore.
- 2 January 1994 – S. Jayakumar becomes the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- 5 May 1994 – United States media sensationalise the caning incident of American teenager Michael P. Fay who was convicted for vandalism.
- 1 January 1995 – Inauguration of World Trade Organisation (WTO), Ambassador K Kesavapany is elected for a one-year term as Chairman of the General Council.
- 9–13 December 1996 – Singapore hosts the 1st WTO Ministerial Conference.
- 15 January 1998 – Singapore and United States announces agreement for US ships to use a planned $35 million naval base from 2000.
- 10 October 2000 – Singapore is elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) at the 55th session of the UN General Assembly.
- 14 November 2000 – Singapore and New Zealand sign Agreement on Closer Economic Partnership, Singapore's first bilateral Free Trade Agreement.
- 1 January 2001 – Singapore starts its two-year term in the United Nations Security Council.
- January 2001 – A pipeline feeding gas to Singapore from Indonesia's Natuna field in South China Sea opens.
- 13 January 2002 – Singapore and Japan sign the Japan-Singapore Economic Agreement.
- April 2003 – SARS virus outbreak in Singapore and other parts of Asia.
- 6 May 2003 – Singapore and United States sign the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USS-FTA).
- 12 January 2004 – The new Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi makes his introductory visit to Singapore.
- 13 August 2004 – Yeo Yong-Boon George becomes the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- 26 April 2005 – Singapore and Malaysia sign a settlement agreement concerning land reclamation in and around the Straits of Johor.
- 15–17 August 2005 – Singapore hosted a multi-national maritime interdiction exercise, codename Exercise Deep Sabre, participated by 13 countries.
- 23 August 2005 – Singapore and Australia sign a memorandum of agreement to allow Singapore Armed Forces to train on the Shoalwater Bay Training Area till 2009.
- 14 December 2005 – Singapore attends the inaugural East Asia Summit (EAS).
Singapore's leaders are realists; they perceive a Hobbesian world where might makes right. The resultant siege mentality is due to Singapore's geographical weaknesses, mistrust of Malaysia and Indonesia due to historical baggage, and from how it stands out as a "little red dot in a sea of green", as then-President Habibie of Indonesia put it.
Singapore's first foreign minister was S. Rajaratnam, and the country's foreign policy still bears his imprimatur. Rajaratnam originally framed Singapore's foreign policy, taking into account "the jungle of international politics", and was wary of foreign policy "on the basis of permanent enemies." In 1966, S. Rajaratnam saw Singapore's challenge as ensuring its sustained survival, peace, and prosperity in a region suffering from mutual jealousies, internal violence, economic disintegration and great power conflicts.
In accordance with this worldview, Singapore's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining friendly relations with all countries, especially Malaysia, Indonesia, and ASEAN, and ensuring that its actions do not exacerbate its neighbors' insecurities. In 1972, Rajaratnam envisioned the world being Singapore's hinterland – integration into the world economy would ameliorate Singapore's inherent lack of natural resources.
Thus, Rajaratnam believed that maintaining a balance of power, rather than becoming a de facto vassal of some larger power, would provide Singapore with freedom to pursue an independent foreign policy. The interest in the Great Powers in Singapore would also deter the interference of regional powers.
|New Zealand||Agreement between New Zealand and Singapore on a Closer Economic Partnership||ANZSCEP||18 August 2000||14 November 2000||1 January 2001|||
|European Free Trade Association||Agreement between the EFTA States and Singapore||EFTA-Singapore FTA||11 April 2002||26 June 2002||1 January 2003|||
|Japan||Agreement between Japan and the Republic of Singapore for a New-Age Economic Partnership||JSEPA||October 2001||13 January 2002|||
|United States||United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement||USSFTA||19 November 2002||6 May 2003||1 January 2004|||
|Jordan||Singapore Jordan Free Trade Agreement||SJFTA||29 April 2004||16 May 2004|||
|Brunei||Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement||Trans-Pacific SEP||August 2005||1 January 2006|||
|Chile||18 July 2005|
|New Zealand||18 July 2005|
|India||India - Singapore Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement||India-Singapore CECA||November 2004||29 June 2005||1 August 2005|||
|Korea||Korea-Singapore Free Trade Agreement||KSFTA||28 November 2004||4 August 2005||End 2005|||
|Peru||Peru-Singapore Free Trade Agreement||PesFTA||September 2007||29 May 2008||Early 2009|
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is based in Singapore, of which Singapore is a founding member of. Singapore has long recognised the importance of APEC as an essential platform for promoting economic linkages and its benefits towards strengthening regional peace and security between member economies. Singapore has endorsed APEC's efforts at regional economic integration as well as its non trade agendas of human resource development, emergency preparedness and health. Singapore has since hosted the APEC forum in 2009.
The International Criminal Police Organization INTERPOL has opened its Global Complex for Innovation, or IGCI, in Singapore in 2015. As of 2016, the IGCI houses a global Command and Coordination Centre, the Organization's Capacity Building and Training Directorate, an Innovation Centre annex Cyber Research Lab, and the Cybercrime Directorate, which also incorporates the building's iconic Cyber Fusion Centre. The building is also used for large-scale projects and operations with a global impact, law enforcement trainings and cross-sector conferences with a nexus in the ASEAN region.
Singapore, although not a G20 member, has been invited to participate in G20 summits and its related processes in 2010, 2011 and from 2013 to 2017 as a representative of the Global Governance Group. In February 2017, Minister for Foreign Affairs Dr Vivian Balakrishnan attended the G20 Foreign Ministers Meeting in Bonn.
Asia Pacific RegionEdit
Singapore maintains an embassy or High Commission in Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. North Korea has an embassy in Singapore. North Korea–Singapore relations is friendly but not active. North Koreans often travel to Singapore for economics and business training.
In August 2005, Brunei's Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister, Prince Mohamed Bolkiah arrived in Singapore for a three-day visit during which the two countries signed an agreement to eliminate double taxation, paving the way for further bilateral trade and investment.
Sino-Singaporean ties began much earlier than the founding of the People's Republic of China in October 1949. Migrant Chinese labourers escaping poverty and war came to what was known as Nanyang to the Chinese to Singapore which was part of British Malaya. Many ethnic Chinese Singaporeans derived their ancestral roots in southern China from Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan provinces.
Diplomatic ties between the two countries officially began on 3 October 1990. Singapore was the last country in South East Asia to formally recognise People's Republic of China out of respect to Indonesia, sensitivities in the region and fears from neighbouring countries of communism in those times. Singapore still maintains cooperation with ROC in terms of military training and facilities from an agreement in 1975. This is due to a lack of usable space in built-up Singapore. Hence China has offered Singapore to relocate some of its training facilities from Taiwan to Hainan province.
Bilateral ties took a dive when Singapore's deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong travelled to Taiwan for a private visit in 2004. The People's Republic of China was offended by the trip as it regards Taiwan as a renegade province awaiting reunification, and doesn't like it when countries have official relations with Taiwan. Later in 2004, Chinese government put bilateral relations on hold.
On 19 September 2005, Vice Premier Wu Yi of the People's Republic of China arrived in Singapore for a three-day visit. She led a delegation of ministers and senior officials at the 2nd Joint Council for Bilateral Cooperation between the PRC and Singapore.
On 14 November 2010, Vice President Xi Jinping visited Singapore on a three-day visit to further develop bilateral ties. His visit also commemorated with the 20th year anniversary of diplomatic relations between the two countries.
Singapore is China's 9th largest trading partner. While China is Singapore's 3rd largest trading partner which consisted of 10.1 percent of Singapore's total external trade from the previous year.
Other examples of close ties between Singapore and China include Singapore helping China to build up its industries such as the Suzhou Industrial Park. Singaporeans have also donated generously in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
Since 17 April 2011 Chinese and Singaporean diplomatic, official and official ordinary passport holders able to enjoy 30-day transit visa-free service for entering each other's country.
India and Singapore share long-standing cultural with more than 300,000 people of Indian origin living in Singapore.
Singapore was one of the first to respond to India's "Look East" Policy of expanding its economic, cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as a regional power. Singapore, and especially, the Singaporean Foreign Minister, George Yeo, have taken an interest in establishing the Nalanda University.
Following its independence in 1965, Singapore was concerned with PRC-backed threats as well as domination from Malaysia and Indonesia and sought a close strategic relationship with India, which it saw as a counterbalance to PRC influence and a partner in achieving regional security. Singapore had always been an important strategic trading post, giving India trade access to Maritime Southeast Asia and the Far East. Although the rival positions of both nations over the Vietnam War and the Cold War caused consternation between India and Singapore, their relationship expanded significantly in the 1990s; Singapore was one of the first to respond to India's "Look East" Policy of expanding its economic, cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as a regional power.
Economic and other tiesEdit
Singapore is the 8th largest source of investment in India and the largest amongst ASEAN member nations. It is also India's 9th biggest trading partner as of 2005–06. Its cumulative investment in India totals US$3 billion as of 2006 and is expected to rise to US 5 billion by 2010 and US 10 billion by 2015. India's economic liberalisation and its "Look East" policy have led to a major expansion in bilateral trade, which grew from USD 2.2 billion in 2001 to US 9–10 billion in 2006 – a 400% growth in span of five years – and to USD 50 billion by 2010. Singapore accounts for 38% of India's trade with ASEAN member nations and 3.4% of its total foreign trade. India's main exports to Singapore in 2005 included petroleum, gemstones, jewellery, machinery and its imports from Singapore included electronic goods, organic chemicals and metals. More than half of Singapore's exports to India are basically "re-exports" – items that had been imported from India.
On 3 October 2005, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong met Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in Bali, just two days after the Bali bombings. They agreed to strengthen the fight against terrorism and also discussed cooperation in the fields of economy, trade and investment.
Singapore was formerly part of Malaysia but separated in 1965 due to political differences and racial tension. There remains a high degree of economic and social inter-dependence between the two countries. For example, Singapore imports the vast majority of fresh meat and vegetables from Malaysia, and Malaysia supplies a large fraction of Singapore's fresh water according to two treaties. Many Malaysians work in Singapore, some living in Singapore as permanent residents, while many also commute from Johor Bahru daily. Bilateral relations are complex and have experienced many highs and lows over the last 40 years.
Singapore and Malaysia are both members of the Five Power Defence Arrangements. The two countries also routinely conduct joint military exercises to enhance bilateral ties and to heighten the professional interaction between the Singapore Armed Forces and Malaysian Armed Forces. In August 2005, the two countries concluded the 12th exercise of the series, Ex Semangat Bersatu 05 in Pahang.
Singapore has several long-standing disputes with Malaysia over a number of issues.
Malaysia and Singapore have clashed over the delivery of fresh water to Singapore, with Malaysia threatening to stop providing water and Singapore threatening to stop relying on Malaysia for water.
- maritime boundaries
- Moving of the Singapore station of Malaysia's Keretapi Tanah Melayu from Tanjong Pagar to Bukit Timah. See Malaysia-Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990 and moving Malaysia's immigration checkpoint from the railway station to the Causeway. This is resolved on 24 May 2010 when Malaysian PM Najib Razak agreed to shift the station and immigration checkpoint from Tanjong Pagar to Woodlands.
- Withdrawal of Central Provident Fund funds by West Malaysians.
Relations between the two countries has improved in recent years, especially since the transition of leadership in both governments. These relations improved by leaps and bounds when Abdullah Ahmad Badawi took over the post as Prime Minister. Mahathir bin Mohamad, the ex-Prime Minister, still raises claims regarding Singapore's intentions in a number of matters, such as land reclamation. On 26 April 2005, the two countries signed a settlement agreement concerning Singapore's land reclamation in and around the Straits of Johor.
Both countries exchanged many high-level visits in 2004 and 2005, including the visit to Singapore on 12 January 2004 by Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi who had just taken over from Mahathir bin Mohamad in October 2003.
Singapore and North Korea established diplomatic relations on 8 November 1975. The North Korea maintains an embassy in Singapore while the latter has accredited a non-resident ambassador to Pyongyang from Beijing since 1990. The current North Korea ambassador to Singapore is Jong Song Il.
- Singapore maintains a High Commission in Australia.
- In July 2003, Singapore and Australia signed the Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement bringing closer economic ties.
- On 23 August 2005, Singapore and Australia signed a memorandum of agreement to allow Singapore Armed Forces to train on the Shoalwater Bay Training Area till 2009.
- Singapore and Australia hold a biennial Singapore-Australia Joint Ministerial Conference (SAJMC) when ministers from both countries meet to discuss trade, defence and security. Both countries also collaborate in development assistance projects under the Singapore-Australia Trilateral Cooperation Program (SATCP) since 1996.
During British rule in Singapore and then under British Malaya before independence, Singapore and the Republic of China had diplomatic relations. When Singapore became independent in 1965 from Malaysia, it continued to recognise the Republic of China on Taiwan.
When Singapore established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990, Singapore wanted to maintain its good relationship with Taiwan and it strongly bargained with the PRC to maintain close relations with Taiwan. Both countries have had unofficial relations since the independence of Singapore and establishment of Republic of China rule over the island of Taiwan. Taiwan has a representative office in Singapore. Conversely, Singapore is represented by what is known as the Singapore Trade Office in Taipei in Taiwan. The two nations have enjoyed an extensive relationship in many facets such as trade and defence, most noticeably being Singapore’s establishment of military bases in Taiwan for its troops to conduct overseas training.
Like Thailand where Singapore today adopted modern military training bases with, Taiwan was also under Japanese Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere influence leading up to post-World War II. Strategically, the Japanese occupation of Singapore and the Japanese occupation of Malaya was made possible and expedited because of Thai and Taiwanese varied involvements and / or assistances towards the Japanese war efforts. Since the independence of Singapore and the establishment of Kuomintang rule over the island of Taiwan, the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) adopted military training bases in Taiwan from 1975 that included combined arms exercises involving infantry, artillery, and armored units. The then Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew also appointed Taiwanese military personnel in training Republic of Singapore Air Force. These exercises, engaging as many as 10,000 troops at one time, provided officers a chance to simulate wartime conditions more closely and gain experience in the command and control of operations involving several battalions.
With waning Taiwan diplomatic significance, the People's Republic of China has since succeeded the governance of mainland China in the aftermath of the Chinese Civil War. Attempts by the 2016 newly elected Taiwanese government in turning to South East Asian nations such as Singapore is subtly deemed as separatist.
In 2010, bilateral trade talks commenced to explore the feasibility of an economic cooperation agreement between the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Republic of China) and Singapore, both of whom are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). On 12 September 2012, former Taiwanese Vice-President Lien Chan announced that talks between Taiwan and Singapore on a proposed economic partnership agreement are expected to be finalised by the end of the year. The successful implementation of this economic partnership would mean that both countries will enjoy free trade between one another.
Business and tradeEdit
The Taipei Representative Office in Singapore has been actively promoting trade as well as encouraging mutual start-ups by businesses and enterprises between the two countries. Moreover, in 2009, the Singapore Trade Office in Taipei was honoured for its role in developing close economic ties between the two sides. Taiwan is Singapore’s ninth largest trading partner, with bilateral trade topping S$35 billion in 2008.
When Singapore started building up its military soon after independence, the Republic of China (Taiwan) was one of the few places to offer assistance by providing training areas to the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) to conduct military exercises. This was crucial to Singapore as it was a small country which suffered from land-scarcity making it difficult to conduct large-scale military exercises for its soldiers. Since 1975, the Singapore Army has used bases in Taiwan for military training that included combined arms exercises involving infantry, artillery, and armoured units. These exercises, engaging as many as 10,000 troops at one time, provided officers a chance to simulate wartime conditions more closely and gain experience in the command and control of operations involving several battalions. Although China has officially offered Singapore to shift its training facilities to Hainan Island, this has been refused in order to maintain its policy of neutrality between the ‘One China’ policy and its relations with Taiwan. It also signals that Taiwan-Singapore ties are strong
Just before the current Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong took office from the then incumbent Goh Chok Tong, he made a visit to Taiwan to familiarise himself with the latest developments there. The Taiwanese media, however, made use of this opportunity to publicise his visit with the agenda of highlighting it to Mainland China. Controversy struck swiftly, with PRC Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhang Qiyue accusing Lee of "hurting the feelings of 1.3 billion Chinese". Meetings and business transactions between Singapore and the PRC were reportedly frozen overnight. As a result, in his maiden National Day Rally speech, Lee criticised the Taiwanese leadership and populace of overestimating the support they would receive if they were to declare Taiwan independence. Later that year in September, Singapore Foreign Minister George Yeo cautioned the United Nations General Assembly about the dangers of letting the cross-strait relationship deteriorate. This led to Taiwan's Foreign Minister, Mark Chen, to famously describe Singapore as a ‘nation no bigger than a piece of snot’ (鼻屎大ㄟ國家) in Chinese. Supporters of Taiwanese independence also burnt the flag of Singapore as a sign of protest against George Yeo’s comments at the United Nations. This did not go down well with the majority of the Singaporean public. These incidents marked an all-time low in foreign relations between the two sides although Chen did make a formal apology later regarding his comments.
Issue of Taiwanese independenceEdit
On 3 October 1990, the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Singapore established formal diplomatic relations. Relationship between the two sides has since improved tremendously. As such, Taiwan's trade mission in Singapore was subsequently renamed from "Trade Mission of the Republic of China" to "Taipei Representative Office in Singapore". Even so, Singapore has always wanted to maintain its warm ties with Taiwan in order to show its neutrality on cross-strait relations. Although it officially supports the ‘One China’ policy, it must also be noted that Singapore is the only foreign country to currently own military bases in Taiwan and it continues to send its troops there for an annual military exercise known as Exercise Starlight (星光計畫).
The PRC has continuously advocated the possibility of moving some or all of these military facilities to Hainan, although this may not be taken up due to sensitivities in diplomatic relations between Singapore and her largely Islamic neighbours.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 21, 1987.
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|Armenia||1992-07-01||Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 July 1992.|
|Belgium||1966-10-10||Singapore maintains an embassy in Belgium whereas Belgium has an embassy in the AXA Tower in Singapore, located at 8 Shenton Way.|
|Denmark||1965-09-28||Denmark has an embassy in United Square in Singapore.|
|France||1965-09-18||* Singapore maintains an embassy in Paris whereas France has an embassy in Singapore.
Singapore and France maintain relatively strong relations. This was strengthened in March 1999 on the agreement of a "Joint declaration for a strengthened partnership" during Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong's visit to France.
|Germany||1965-11-06(as West Germany)||See Germany–Singapore relations
|Greece||1966-10-21||See Foreign relations of Greece|
|Holy See||1981-06-23||The Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See is resident in Singapore while the embassy of Singapore in Brussels is accredited to the Holy See. Pope John Paul II made an official visit to Singapore back in 1986.|
|Hungary||1970-08-24||In July 2005, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Hungary, Ferenc Gyurcsány made an official visit to Singapore.|
|Iceland||1999||Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 4, 1999.|
|Italy||Although Italy and Singapore maintain diplomatic relations, Singapore does not have an embassy in Rome. During a visit to Rome in 2007, Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew stated that opening an embassy could be a challenge because trade and people flow between Italy and Singapore has not reached a significant level yet.|
|Kosovo||2016-12-01||See Kosovo–Singapore relations|
|Netherlands||1965||Upon Singapore's declaration of independence in August 1965, the Netherlands recognized Singapore as a sovereign state and established diplomatic relations with it, becoming one of the first European countries to do so. The Netherlands maintains its embassy in Singapore, while Singapore is represented in the Netherlands through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.|
|Romania||1967-05-30||See Romania–Singapore relations
Romania has an embassy at the Orchard Tower in Singapore. Singapore does not have any representation in Romania. In February 2002 the Romanian president Ion Iliescu made an official visit to Singapore. In March 2002 Romania and Singapore signed a double-taxation agreement to facilitate the cross-flow of trade, investment, financial activities and technical know-how between Singapore and Romania. In November 2008, Singapore signed an open skies agreement (OSA) with Romania to allow greater flexibility on air services.
In 2000, trade between Romania and Singapore was US$15.5 million, roughly balanced. The Romanian market, with a relatively cheap and skilled labor force and advantageous tax laws, has been attractive to several Singapore companies who have established joint ventures in Romania. Forte, created in 1990 as a Romanian-Singapore joint venture for computer assembly, is an example. (However, in 2006 Forte was acquired by Siemens.)
|Russia||1968-06-01(as USSR)||See Russia–Singapore relations
Singapore and the Soviet Union (now Russia) entered into full diplomatic relations on 1 June 1968. The two nations engaged in trade and economic cooperation. After the start of Vladimir Putin's term, Singapore and Russia strengthened ties, participating in a number of regional meetings such as the ASEAN-Russia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum. Both Singapore and Russia are members of APEC.
|Serbia||1967-08-22 (as SFR Yugoslavia)|
|Ukraine||1992-03-31||See Singapore–Ukraine relations
|United Kingdom||1965-11-12||See Singapore–United Kingdom relations.
Singapore engages with the United Kingdom on a wide range of international issues, reflecting their close historical ties. As members of the Commonwealth, diplomatic relations are at a governmental level, rather than between Heads of State. In defence, Singapore and the United Kingdom share ties in the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) along with Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand.
Canada–Singapore relations are bilateral relations between Canada and Singapore. In Singapore, Canada is represented by the High Commission of Canada. Singapore is represented in Canada by their non-resident High Commissioner, who is based in Singapore and by an honorary consulate in Vancouver, British Columbia. These ties are enhanced by the many Canadians who reside in Singapore, and the 83,000 Canadians that visit the city-state every year.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 6, 2012.
Saint Vincent and GrenadinesEdit
Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 19, 1999.
Singapore and the United States share a long-standing and strong relationship, particularly in defence, the economy, health and education. The government of Singapore believes that regional security, and by extension, Singapore's security will be affected if the United States loses its resolve in Iraq.
Singapore and the US have strong defence relations; Singapore buys a large number of weapon systems from the US, and has close ties such as the F-16 detachment stationed at Luke Air Force Base. In return, the United States Navy is allowed to use Singaporean naval facilities, including the newly constructed Changi Naval Base designed with USN aircraft carriers in mind. Under a Memorandum of Understanding signed in 1990, the United States military is permitted to use Paya Lebar Airbase and Sembawang wharves; a US naval logistic unit was established in Singapore in 1992. Singapore routinely hosts American ships and American fighter aircraft. More than 100 American Navy warships call at Singapore annually, and there is a modest presence of less than 200 US military personnel based permanently in Singapore. Several naval bases in Singapore were built to US specifications, so as to allow American ships, especially carriers, to dock. In 2011, the US Navy announced plans to station several of its new Littoral combat ships in Singapore permanently.
Singapore also signed 'The Strategic Framework Agreement for a Closer Cooperation Partnership in Defence and Security' with the United States in 2005. The agreement gives a formal structure to addressing existing and future areas of bilateral security and defence cooperation. The Singapore government believes that regional security, and by extension Singapore's security, will be affected if the United States loses its resolve in Iraq. Singapore faces the threat of terrorism itself, as evidenced by the Singapore embassies attack plot. Singapore has pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end it has given support to the US-led coalition to fight terrorism, with bilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism and counter-proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises. Relations with the United States have expanded in other areas, and the two countries take part in joint policy dialogues.
The Regional Emerging Diseases Intervention Centre (REDI), opened on 24 May 2004, is a joint US-Singapore collaboration to promote cooperation in tackling emerging infectious diseases. The centre facilitates the exchange of information and expertise on surveillance; prevention and control of, and research on, communicable and non-communicable diseases; and on bioterrorism concerns.
In July 2005, during his official visit to the United States, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and President George W. Bush signed a Strategic Framework Agreement (SFA) to strengthen defence and security cooperation. The Prime Minister again visited in the United States in May 2007.
In 2003, Singapore and the United States signed the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA), which came into force in January 2004. This is the first free trade agreement into which U.S. entered with an East Asian country.
In September 2005, Singapore responded to the relief effort in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in the United States. Four Singaporean CH-47 Chinook helicopters and 45 RSAF personnel from a training detachment based in Grand Prairie, Texas, were sent to help in relief operations. They are operating out of Fort Polk in cooperation with the Texas Army National Guard.
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 8, 2013.
|Barbados||1996-12-19||Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1996.|
|Belize||1995-08-23||Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 23, 1995.|
|Egypt||1966-11-28||Singapore maintains an embassy in Cairo, Egypt has an embassy in Singapore. There are also hundreds of Singaporean students studying in Egyptian Islamic seminaries.|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 15, 2000.
|Iraq||1977-12-27||See Foreign relations of Iraq|
|Israel||1969-05-11||See Israel–Singapore relations
Singapore and Israel enjoy very close bilateral relations. In 1965, Israel extended aid to newly independent Singapore by sending a mission to help build Singapore's economic and defense policy. Israel's representation in Singapore was first formalized in 1968, and relations have since expanded, building strong economic ties and signing bilateral agreements, particularly in areas such as business, technology, healthcare, and defense. Singapore and Israel also hold regular cultural exchanges, through the participation of Israeli arts and artists in Singapore's events, such as the Israeli Film Festival. Despite the close relations, Israel's airline El Al does not fly to Singapore as such a route would have to pass through the airspace of Indonesia and Malaysia, and neither of the countries maintain relations with Israel.
|Mexico||1975-12-22||See Mexico–Singapore relations|
|New Zealand||1965-11-22||On 1 January 2001, New Zealand and Singapore entered into a Closer Economic Partnership (CEP) to improve relations and encourage trade and investment.|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 24, 1998.
|Mongolia||1987-10-15||There is a high commission of Singapore in Ulan Bator and also an embassy of Mongolia in Singapore|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 9, 2013.
|South Africa||1993-10-11||Singapore maintains a High Commission in Pretoria while South Africa has a High Commission in Singapore.|
|South Korea||1975-08-08||See Singapore–South Korea relations
The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Singapore and the Republic of Korea began on August 8, 1975.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 15, 2012.
International humanitarian effortEdit
- In December 2004, during the disaster wrought by the massive tsunami that hit Indonesia, the Singapore Armed Forces dispatched three Endurance class landing platform dock ships - RSS Endurance, RSS Persistence and RSS Endeavour off the coast of Meulaboh, one of the worst hit areas where all road access was cut off. Onboard these ships were medical and engineering teams and volunteers with NGOs. The ships were also loaded with medical supplies and heavy equipment to help clear roads and debris. Six Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters were also dispatched to Aceh, two Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Phuket, Thailand. C130s were also dispatched to ferry relief supplies to tsunami-hit areas.
- In September 2005, Singapore responded to the relief effort of Hurricane Katrina in the United States, by sending four CH-47 Chinook helicopters and forty-five RSAF personnel.
- In the aftermath of the 2005 Bali bombings, the Singapore Armed Forces sent a medical team, composed of two doctors, two nurses, and two paramedics, to Bali to help treat victims of the blasts at the Sanglah Hospital. (CNA)
- In October 2005, the Singapore Civil Defence Force dispatched a 44-member Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team to Pakistan to help in the relief and rescue operations following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake
Participation in the War on TerrorismEdit
During 15–17 August 2005, Singapore hosted a multi-national maritime interdiction exercise, codename Exercise Deep Sabre as part of the Proliferation Security Initiative to address the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Launched at Changi Naval Base and conducted in the South China Sea, the exercise involves some 2,000 personnel from 13 countries.
Singapore hosted the Regional Special Forces Counter-Terrorism Conference from 21–25 November 2005.
On 6 May 2004, then Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong delivered a speech at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, D.C. titled "Beyond Madrid: Winning Against Terrorism", expressing Singapore's view on the controversial and often criticised (see Criticism of the War on terrorism) war on terrorism.
International effort on anti-piracyEdit
In August 2005, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore agreed to conduct joint anti-piracy patrols in the Malacca Strait to increase security in one of the world's busiest sealanes Thailand later also joined in this effort.
Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore conduct trilateral, coordinated maritime surface patrols, known as the Malacca Strait Sea Patrols, and coordinated airborne surveillance under the 'Eyes in the Sky' arrangement. Other forms of cooperation between the littoral states include an agreement between Malaysia and Indonesia in 2007 to increase joint anti-piracy training in the Malacca Strait, the Surface Picture Surveillance System (SURPIC) launched by Singapore and Indonesia in May 2005, and the Malacca Strait Patrol Information System (MSP-IS) to share information about shipping in the Malacca Strait.
In addition to embassies or High Commissions, Singapore maintains consulates or honorary consulates in Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Chile, People's Republic of China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland (Permanent Mission in Geneva), Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and Vietnam.
- "Singapore Missions Worldwide". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 10 August 2012.
- "Time to overhaul Singapore's national security policies". Retrieved 2018-05-11.
- Francis E Hutchinson; Terence Chong (14 June 2016). The SIJORI Cross-Border Region: Transnational Politics, Economics, and Culture. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute. ISBN 978-981-4695-58-9.
- "Asean to step up terror fight, hold naval drill with China". The Straits Times. 7 February 2018.
- "Singapore, China leaders laud deep, growing ties". TODAYonline.
- "Singapore and China's common interest 'greater than any occasional difference of views': DPM Teo". Channel NewsAsia.
- "Singapore a 'strong supporter' of China's peaceful development". The Straits Times. 25 May 2017.
- B. Desker and M. N. M. Osman (2006). S Rajaratnam on Singapore: from ideas to reality. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 981-270-457-4.
- "President unhappy with Singapore, says AWSJ". The Straits Times. 5 August 1998.
- "Singapore, Brunei sign Avoidance of Double Taxation pact". Channel NewsAsia. 19 August 2005.
- John Wong. "Sino-Singapore Relations: Looking Back and Looking Forward". Singapore China Friendship Association.
- "Singapore - China". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Singapore military ties now a `threat'". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Singapore set to move training facilities from Taiwan to China". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "China opposes Lee Hsien Loong's visit to Taiwan(12/07/04)". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific,1 (21 February 2005). "Chinese ambassador says ties with Singapore fully restored". ProQuest ANZ Newsstand. 795797051. .
- "Official Visit of Vice Premier Wu Yi of the State Council of the People's Republic of China,19–21 September 2005" (press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 14 September 2005.
- Dominique Loh (14 September 2005). "Chinese Vice Premier Wu Yi to lead delegation to Singapore". Channel NewsAsia.
- "Channel NewsAsia". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- Xinhua (9 July 2010). "Singapore exports benefit from FTA with China". china.org.cn/.
- "China-Singapore visa-free agreement to take effect in April," People's Daily, 7 April 2011.
- "IPCS Special Report – India-Singapore Relations" (PDF). Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "India-Singapore Economic and Commercial Relations". Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "India, Singapore ink pact". Asia Times. 2005-07-02. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "India, Singapore trade to touch $50 bn by 2010". The Hindu Business Line. India. 2005-06-30. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Asha Popatlal (8 August 2005). "Singapore and Indonesia sign MOU to expand air links". Channel NewsAsia.
- "Indonesia may ban granite exports". ANTARA News. 12 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009.
- Johnson Choo (21 August 2005). "Singapore, Malaysia conclude 12th bilateral military exercise in Pahang". Channel NewsAsia.
- "World Factbook – Field Listing: International disputes". Central Intelligence Agency (USA). Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- Bland, Ben (6 November 2008). "Singapore to Become Water-Sufficient". Asia Sentinel. Hong Kong. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Consular and Diplomatic List" (PDF). Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 12 December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore). Have a Good Trip (PDF). pp. 28–36.
- "Singapore's Tightrope Walk On Taiwan | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. Archived from the original on May 8, 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Increased recognition of China weakens Taiwan's claims". Straits Times. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Tay, Simon. "In turning to S-E Asia, Taiwan has to keep China in mind". Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Taiwan seeks trade agreement with Singapore". News.asiaone.com. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Cna English News". Focustaiwan.tw. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Taiwan honours Singapore Trade Office in Taipei". Channel NewsAsia. 2009-11-02. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Singapore's Tightrope Walk On Taiwan | Center for Strategic and International Studies". Csis.org. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "A David-and-Goliath tussle: FEER". Singapore-window.org. 5 August 2004. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "China warns Singapore officials against future visits to Taiwan". Singapore-window.org. 26 August 2004. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Prime Minister's Office - National Day Rally Videos & Speeches". Nettv.1-net.com.sg. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "台外長以"鼻屎"喻新加坡引發批評". BBC News Chinese. 2004-09-28. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Singapore flag burned in angry protest". Taipei Times. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "星光計畫 - 台灣大百科全書 Encyclopedia of Taiwan". Taiwanpedia.culture.tw. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.[dead link]
- Barry Wain (5 August 2004). "A David-and-Goliath tussle". Far Eastern Economic Review. Archived from the original (reprint) on 16 July 2012.
- "Country Profile - Taiwan" (reprint). Library of Congress. March 2005.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Singapore Archived 10 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Embassy of Singapore in Denmark". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Singapore, France Reaffirm Strong Bilateral Defence Cooperation". straitstimes.com. 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- Dominique Low (17 May 2007). "Italian PM asks Singapore to set up embassy in Rome". Channel NewsAsia.
- Singapore Recognizes Kosovo as an Independent State and Diplomatic Relations are Established, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2016-12-01
- The Government of the Republic of Singapore and the Government of the Republic of Kosovo have established diplomatic relations with effect from 1 December 2016., Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Singapore, 2016-12-01
- "Romanian president arrives in Singapore, 20 February". Rompres. 20 February 2002. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- "Ministerul Afacerilor Externe". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Romania to sign tax agreement with Singapore". AP Worldstream. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- "osa signed between Romania and singapore". Property-Abroad.com. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- "ROMANIA COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY2002 - NETWORKS MARKET". U. S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- "FORTE BUSINESS SERVICES S.R.L." Siemens. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- "Embassy of The Republic of Singapore - Moscow". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Welcome To - Fund Raising Auctioneers". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Ukraine, Singapore begin FTA negotiations". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Canada - Singapore Relations". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- May Wong (5 May 2007). "SE Asian security affected if US loses resolve in Iraq: Singapore". Channel NewsAsia.
- "Background Notes - Singapore". United States Department of State. October 2003. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
- "Our Bases". Republic of Singapore Navy. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
- "Singapore Changi naval base". Global Security. 14 January 2009.
- "US Navy eyes stationing ships in Singapore". China Post. Taipei. 17 December 2011.
- "Factsheet - The Strategic Framework Agreement". MINDEF. 14 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Australia – New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (AANZFTA)". New Zealand Government. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- "RSAF Deployment to Assist in Hurricane Katrina Relief Operations". MINDEF. 2 September 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- "RSAF Chinook helicopters help in US hurricane relief operations". Channel NewsAsia. 2 September 2005.
- 95 Singaporeans return from Egypt: MFA, Straits Times, 3 Feb 2011
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Bilateral Relations: Historical Overview" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel.
- Embassy of Mexico in Singapore (in English and Spanish)
- Honorary Consulate-General of Singapore in Mexico City
- PR NO. 318 PRESS RELEASE, Islamabad; 26 June 2009 Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pakistan Singapore Trade volume
- "Statement by Permanent Representative of Singapore to the United Nations in Geneva Mr Burhan Gafoor at the Ministerial Meeting on Humanitarian Assistance to Tsunami Affected Communities in Geneva on 11 January 2005". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 11 January 2005. Archived from the original (press release) on 6 February 2012.
- "PM Lee sends condolences to Pakistan, India over earthquake". Channel NewsAsia. 9 October 2005.
- "Singapore hosts multi-national anti-WMD maritime exercise". Channel NewsAsia. 15 August 2005.
- "Beyond Madrid: Winning Against Terrorism". Council on Foreign Relations. 6 May 2004. Archived from the original (transcript) on 8 February 2008.
- Freeman, Donald B. (2003). The Straits of Malacca: Gateway or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2515-7.. A book review citing this information can be found at University of Toronto Quarterly, Volume 74, Number 1, Winter 2004/5, pp. 528-530
- Aljazeera.net (in English)
- Strait of Malacca - World Oil Transit Chokepoints Archived 25 May 2012 at Archive.is, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy
- World Oil Transit Chokepoints, Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy
- 'Indonesia beyond the water's edge: managing an archipelagic state', R. B. Cribb, Michele Ford. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Australian National University, 2009.