Open main menu

Republic of Singapore Navy

The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) is the naval component of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), responsible for the defence of Singapore against sea-borne threats and protection of its sea lines of communications. Operating within the crowded littoral waters of the Singapore Strait, the Singapore Navy is regarded as one of the best in the region and works closely with the Royal Malaysian Navy and the Indonesian Navy to combat piracy surrounding their coasts.[1]

Republic of Singapore Navy
Angkatan Laut Republik Singapura  (Malay)
新加坡共和国海军 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் கடல் படை (Tamil)
Republic of Singapore Navy Crest.svg
Crest of the Republic of Singapore Navy
Founded5 May 1967; 52 years ago (1967-05-05)
Country Singapore
Allegiance President of Singapore
RoleMaritime warfare
Size44 ships
Part ofSingapore Armed Forces
Garrison/HQChangi, Singapore
Motto(s)Beyond Horizons
MarchRepublic of Singapore Navy March
Fleet4 + 4 (u/c) submarines
1 submarine rescue ship
6 frigates
6 corvettes
8 littoral mission vessel
2 patrol vessels
4 amphibious transport docks
4 mine countermeasures vessels
2 types of unmanned surface vehicle
EngagementsOperation Thunderstorm
International Force – East Timor
Operation Flying Eagle
Multi-National Force – Iraq
Combined Task Force 150
Combined Task Force 151
Chief of NavyRear Admiral Lew Chuen Hong
Chief of Staff, Naval StaffRear Admiral Lo Khee Shik Timothy
Master ChiefMilitary Expert 6 Richard Goh Leng Yan
Commissioning PennantCommissioning Pennant of Singapore.svg
Naval ensignNaval Ensign of Singapore.svg

All commissioned ships of the RSN have the prefix RSS standing for (Republic of Singapore Ship).


Colonial eraEdit

World War IIEdit

The Republic of Singapore Navy traces its origins to the Royal Navy in the 1930s with only two patrol craft. The Straits Settlements Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was established on 20 April 1934 and in 1941 became the Singaporean division of the Malayan Volunteer Reserve during World War II.[citation needed]

Merger with MalaysiaEdit

In 1948, the Malayan Force was raised by the Singapore government and was later granted the title of the Royal Malayan Navy in 1952 in recognition of its services in action during the Malayan Emergency.

On 16 September 1963, Singapore was admitted as a state of Malaysia under the terms of confederation and the Royal Malayan Navy was renamed the Royal Malaysian Navy. The Singapore division of the Malayan Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was formally transferred from the command of the Royal Navy to the Malaysian Navy on 22 September 1963, becoming the Singapore Volunteer Force (SVF).[citation needed]

Independence of SingaporeEdit

Structural & name changesEdit

On 9 August 1965, Singapore seceded from Malaysia to form an independent republic within the Commonwealth of Nations. The fledgling navy had only two wooden ships then, namely RSS ''Panglima'' (90' Motorized Fishing Vessel built for the RN in 1944 and sent to Singapore in 1948) and RSS Singapura (a captured Japanese minelayer).[2] Panglima was replaced with another wooden vessel in 1956 with the same name.[3] On 22 January 1966, the SVF was renamed the Singapore Naval Volunteer Force.[citation needed]

On 5 May 1967, the ensign was hoisted for the first time. A few months later in September, the SNVF was renamed the People's Defence Force (Sea) under the Sea Defence Command (SDC). The SDC was again renamed the Maritime Command (MC) in 1968.

Under its charge, it set out on an expansion program to be able to carry out its seaward defense more effectively. During this period, the Navy saw the addition of six first generation of Independence-class patrol vessels in December 1970. The growing constraints and strategic need for a base located nearer to the Singapore Straits necessitated a new base, and the Brani Naval Base on Pulau Brani was formally opened in December 1970.[citation needed]

The foresight was proven correct only a few weeks later, when terrorists from the Japanese Red Army attacked an oil complex on Pulau Bukom and later hijacked the Laju ferry, leading to the Laju incident. Four patrol vessels, RSS Sea Hawk, RSS Independence, RSS Sovereignty and RSS Daring together with the Marine Police, were able to surround the fleeing ferry and prevent it from escaping.[4]

Around this time the Navy was commanded by a certain Colonel James Aeria, the first head of the Navy.[5][6]

Modernization of the fleetEdit

The RSN came into being on 1 April 1975, when the SAF established its component forces into three distinct services, and has kept the name ever since.[7][8] Colonel Aeria stepped down from his post as Chief of Singapore Maritime Command.[9]

The fleet has expanded massively since 1975 and is now equivalent to the navy of a Nordic nation. It took part in humanitarian relief missions during the 2004 Asian tsunami and assisted in both the search for MH Flight 370 in the Gulf of Thailand and QZ Flight 8501 in the Karimata Strait.

The Singapore Navy has increased its capability to deal with increasingly complex environments both abroad and close to home. This includes combating the rise of piracy surrounding the waters of the adjacent Malacca Straits and formerly disputed island of Pedra Branca in the South China Sea, considered as vital sea lines of communications. In addition, it has engaged in anti piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and Horn of Africa under international task forces.[citation needed]

The RSN celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2017.

Wars involving Singapore Navy:

  • 2004–2008 Multi-National Force – Iraq. Ships participated in the Iraq War and returned home after two or three months deployment in the Persian Gulf without any ground troops involved. Singapore's withdrawal was acknowledged on 23 December 2008.


The RSN is led by the Chief of Navy (CNV), who reports directly to the Chief of Defence Force (CDF). The CNV is responsible for the RSN's overall operational capabilities and administration. His deputies are the Chief of Staff-Naval Staff, Commander Maritime Security Task Force, Fleet Commander and Master Chief Navy. The organisation chart below shows the peacetime administrative chain of command with five formations: the Fleet, Maritime Security Task Force, Naval Diving Unit, Naval Logistics Command, and the Maritime Training and Doctrine Command.[10]

Organizational Structure of the Republic of Singapore Navy

Current RSN Structure and Leadership[11]Edit

Navy HQ
Appointment Name
Chief of Navy RADM Lew Chuen Hong
Chief of Staff, Naval Staff RADM Lo Khee Shik Timothy
Head, Naval Personnel Department COL Ong Chee Wei
Head, Naval Intelligence Department COL Ng Xun Xi
Head, Naval Operations Department RADM Leong Wai Kwan Edwin
Head, Naval Logistics Department ME7 Tay Kia Han
Head, Naval Plans Department COL Lim Kian Hua Augustine
Chief Naval Medical Officer SLTC (Dr) Law Zhiwei David
RSN Commands
Formation / Commander Units
Fleet / RADM Aaron Beng Yao Cheng 121 Squadron RSAF (Maritime Patrol Aircraft)
First Flotilla 185 Squadron (Frigate)
188 Squadron (Missile Corvette)
Third Flotilla 191 Squadron (LST)
192/193 Squadron (Civil Resource Vessels)
171 Squadron (Submarines)
Naval Logistics Command (NALCOM) / ME7 Khoo Koh Giok Force Generation Squadron
Force Readiness Squadron
Force Support Squadron
Maritime Security Task Force (MSTF) / RADM Seah Poh Yeen 180 Squadron (Accompanying Sea Security Teams (ASSeT))
182 Squadron (Patrol Boats / LMVs)
194 Squadron (MCMV)
Maritime Training & Doctrine Command (MDTC) / COL Douglas Goh Jit Meng Naval Military Experts Institutes
Doctrine Readiness Group
Naval Diving Unit Clearance Diving Group
Underwater Demolition Group
Special Warfare Group
Frogman School

Chief of NavyEdit

The current Chief of Navy is Rear Admiral (Two-Star) Lew Chuen Hong.

List of Chiefs of Navy[12]
Years in office Name
Commander, Singapore Naval Volunteer Force
1966–1968 Jaswant Singh Gill
Commander, Maritime Command
1969–1969 Mohamed Bin Mohd Salleh
1969–1970 Geoffrey Vernon Dennis
1970–1975 James Aeria
Commander, Republic of Singapore Navy
1975–1985 Khoo Eng Ann
1985–1990 James Leo
Chief of Navy
1990–1991 James Leo
1991–1992 Teo Chee Hean
1992–1996 Kwek Siew Jin
1996–1999 Richard Lim Cherng Yih
1999–2003 Lui Tuck Yew
2003–2007 Ronnie Tay
2007–2011 Chew Men Leong
2011–2014 Ng Chee Peng
2014–2017 Lai Chung Han
2017–present Lew Chuen Hong

Current fleetEdit


Challenger classEdit

In 1995, the RSN acquired a Challenger class (formerly known as Sjöormen class) submarine from the Swedish Navy and another three in 1997, making them Singapore's first underwater platforms.[13] As the submarines were designed by the Swedish for operations in the Baltic Sea, various modifications were required to suit them to tropical waters. A comprehensive tropicalisation programme was carried out for all four submarines, which involved installing air conditioning, marine growth protection systems and corrosion-resistant piping.[14] It is believed that the Challenger class were purchased to develop the required submarine operations expertise before selecting a modern class of submarines to replace them, since all the boats are over 40 years old.[15] The four Challenger class and two Archer class submarines form the 171 Squadron of the RSN. Two RSN Challenger-class submarines, RSS Challenger and RSS Centurion, were retired from service in 2015.[16]

  • RSS Conqueror—relaunched 28 May 1999
    recommissioned 22 July 2001[17]
  • RSS Chieftain—relaunched 22 May 2001
    recommissioned 24 August 2002[17][18]
Length 51 metres
Beam 6.1 metres
Displacement 1,130 tonnes surfaced, 1,200 tonnes submerged
Crew 28
Speed 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced, 16 knots (30 km/h) submerged
Weapons Torpedoes launched from four torpedo tubes

Archer classEdit

Singapore's Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) signed an agreement with Kockums for the supply of two Archer class (formerly known as Västergötland class) submarines to the RSN on 4 November 2005.[19] More than 20 years old and previously in reserve with the Swedish Navy, the submarines were transferred to the RSN on completion of the modernisation and conversion for operation in tropical waters. RSS Archer was relaunched on 16 June 2009[20] and recommissioned on 2 December 2011.[21] The Archer class submarines are equipped with an air independent propulsion system.[22] This enables the submarines to have longer submerged endurance and lower noise signature, enhancing the stealth capability of the submarines. The advanced sonar system allows the submarines to detect contacts at a further distance, while the torpedo system has a better target acquisition capability, which allows the submarines to engage contacts at a further range. As of 2016, the RSN conducted an upgrade programme on the Archer class submarines, including the CM010 optronic periscopes, new combat management systems, sonars and countermeasure systems, additional combat abilities, which includes the ability to fire new torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. All upgrades were concluded by late 2018 to early 2019.

  • RSS Archer—relaunched 16 June 2009
    recommissioned 2 December 2011
  • RSS Swordsman—relaunched 20 October 2010
    recommissioned 30 April 2013
Launch of RSS Archer in Sweden
Length 60.5 metres
Beam 6.1 metres
Displacement 1,400 tonnes surfaced, 1,500 tonnes submerged
Crew 28
Speed 8 knots (15 km/h) surfaced, >15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
Weapons Torpedoes launched from nine torpedo tubes

Invincible classEdit

The Invincible class, also known as Type 218SG, is a submarine class ordered by the Republic of Singapore Navy from Germany's ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, or TKMS. The new submarines, along with Singapore's two refurbished Archer-class submarines, will replace the four 1960s-vintage Challenger-class submarines procured by Singapore in the 1990s. The diesel electric submarines will have 50 per cent longer endurance, more firepower, more capable sensors and advanced automation than the current fleet of submarines in the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). Armed with eight torpedo tubes and manned by a crew of 28, they can travel at a surface speed of more than 10 knots and a submerged speed of more than 15 knots. These submarines are particularly customized for Singapore's shallow and busy waters.[23]

Singapore's Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) signed a contract to procure two Type 218SG attack submarines from ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems in November 2013. German industry experts commenting on the deal said the project would cost about one billion Euros and is expected to take six years to complete. The first submarine will be delivered to the Singapore Navy in 2020.[24][25] On May 2017 in conjunction with Singapore's first international maritime review and International Maritime Defence Exhibition and Conference, the Ministry of Defence announced that two more submarines would be purchased from ThyssenKrupp.[26]

The first of four, christened the Invincible, was launched on 18 February 2019. She will undergo sea trials in Germany, before it is delivered to Singapore in 2021. The second boat is due for delivery in 2022, with the remaining two scheduled to follow as of 2024.

  • RSS Invincible—launched 18 February 2019
    to be commissioned
  • RSS Impeccable—to be launched
  • RSS Illustrious—to be launched
  • RSS Inimitable—to be launched
Length 70 metres
Beam 6.3 metres
Displacement 2,200 tonnes submerged
Crew 28
Speed >10 knots (15 km/h) surfaced, >15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
Weapons Torpedoes launched from eight torpedo tubes

Submarine rescue shipEdit

MV Swift Rescue, a submarine support and rescue ship, was launched 29 November 2008. She carries the deep submergence rescue vehicle Deep Search and Rescue Six (DSAR-6).[27][28]

  • MV Swift Rescue—launched 29 November 2008
Length 85 metres
Beam 18 metres
Displacement 4,000
Crew 27
Speed 12 knots
Weapons none


RSS Intrepid at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
RSS Steadfast with a USN SH-60B Seahawk helicopter during flight deck qualifications

The Formidable-class multi-role stealth frigates are the latest platforms to enter into service with the RSN, and are multi-mission derivatives of the French Navy's La Fayette class frigate.[29] The frigates are key information nodes and fighting units, and are "by far the most advanced surface combatants in Southeast Asia".[30]

The frigates will be equipped with Sikorsky S-70B naval helicopters, an international derivative of the Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk. MINDEF signed a contract with Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in January 2005 to acquire six of these helicopters, which will be organic to the frigates. These naval helicopters are equipped with anti-surface and anti-submarine combat systems, extending the ship's own surveillance and over-the-horizon targeting and anti-submarine warfare capabilities. The naval helicopters will be raised as a squadron in the Republic of Singapore Air Force and piloted by air force pilots, but the system operators will be from the RSN.[31] Two more S-70B helicopters were ordered in February 2013.[32]

The frigates have a special surface-to-air missile configuration, combining the Thales Herakles radar with the Sylver A50 launcher and a mix of MBDA Aster 15 and 30 missiles.[33]

The lead ship of the class, RSS Formidable was commissioned on 5 May 2007, marking the 40th year of the RSN. The six frigates form the 185 Squadron of the RSN.

  • RSS Formidable (68)—commissioned 2007
  • RSS Intrepid (69)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Steadfast (70)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Tenacious (71)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Stalwart (72)—commissioned 2009
  • RSS Supreme (73)[34]—commissioned 2009
Length 114.8 metres
Beam 16.3 metres
Displacement 3,200 tonnes
Crew 70, excluding air attachment of about 15
Speed 27 knots (50 km/h)


In 1983, the RSN ordered six Victory class corvettes from Friedrich Lürssen Werft of Germany.[35] The first corvette was built in Germany while the remaining five were built locally by ST Marine. The corvettes were also the first class of ships in the RSN to have an anti-submarine capability.[36] The corvettes are noted for being the fastest ships in the fleet, and for their tall mast, making them top-heavy compared to ships of similar class. However, this is suitable within the fairly calm Singapore waters.[citation needed] The six corvettes form the 188 Squadron of the RSN.

  • RSS Victory (88)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Valour (89)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Vigilance (90)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Valiant (91)—commissioned 1991
  • RSS Vigour (92)—commissioned 1991
  • RSS Vengeance (93)—commissioned 1991
RSS Victory fires its 76mm gun at a surface target during a gunnery exercise with the US Navy

RSS Vengeance launches two Barak missiles during Exercise Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training
Length 62 metres
Beam 8.5 metres
Displacement 600 tonnes
Crew 46
Speed 30 knots (56 km/h)

Patrol vesselsEdit

The Fearless class patrol vessels were built locally by ST Marine to replace the older coastal patrol crafts, which were transferred to the Police Coast Guard. The first six vessels of the class are armed for anti-submarine warfare missions, and were placed under the command of the Fleet as 189 Squadron upon commission. In January 2003, RSS Courageous was badly damaged in a collision with a container ship in the Singapore Strait.[37] In January 2005, 189 Squadron was transferred to the then-Coastal Command from the Fleet, and the twelve ships now form the 182/189 Squadron.[38] In May 2016, with the completion of RSS Independence's sea trials, 182 and 189 Squadron were merged to form the new 182 Squadron.[39]

On 30 January 2013, MINDEF awarded ST Engineering a contract for the design and build 8 vessels of the Independence-class littoral mission vessels, known as Littoral Mission Vessel (LMV) to replace the Fearless-class patrol vessels. ST Engineering announced that the group's marine arm, ST Marine, will build the eight vessels at its Singapore Benoi Yard, with the core combat systems and combat system integration solutions being supplied by the group's electronics arm, ST Electronics. ST Marine will then carry out the platform system integration as the lead system integrator. The first vessel is expected to be delivered in 2016 and all eight vessels will be fully operational by 2020.[40][41]

  • RSS Gallant (97)—commissioned 1997
  • RSS Freedom (86)—commissioned 1998
RSS Resilience at sea
Mistral surface-to-air missiles on the Simbad twin-tube launcher/mount
Length 55 metres
Beam 8.6 metres
Displacement 500 tonnes
Crew 30
Speed 20 knots (37 km/h)

Amphibious transport docksEdit

The Endurance class amphibious transport docks are the biggest class of ships in the RSN. They were designed and built locally by ST Marine to replace the old County class tank landing ships (LST). Each ship is fitted with a well dock that can accommodate four landing craft and a flight deck that can accommodate two medium lift helicopters.[42] While the RSN describes the Endurance class as LSTs, they lack the beaching capability traditionally associated with LSTs, and their well docks and flight decks qualify the Endurance class more as amphibious transport docks.

The ships provide sea transportation for personnel and equipment for SAF's overseas training, as well as a training platform for RSN's midshipmen. RSS Endurance became the first RSN ship to circumnavigate the globe when it participated in the 2000 International Naval Review in New York City.[43] The ships are also actively involved in humanitarian and disaster relief operations, notably in East Timor, the Persian Gulf, the tsunami-hit Indonesian province of Aceh and most recently, disappearance of Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501.[44] The four ships form the 191 Squadron of the RSN.

  • RSS Endurance (207)—commissioned 2000
  • RSS Resolution (208)—commissioned 2000
  • RSS Persistence (209)—commissioned 2001
  • RSS Endeavour (210)—commissioned 2001
RSS Persistence (209) in the Singapore Strait.
Length 141 metres
Beam 21 metres
Displacement 6,000 tonnes
Crew 65
Speed 15 to 20 knots (28 to 37 km/h)

Mine countermeasures vesselsEdit

The RSN acquired mine countermeasure capabilities as early as 1975, when the USN's USS Thrasher and USS Whippoorwill were reactivated by the RSN's engineers and technicians in California. The Redwing class coastal minesweepers were commissioned as RSS Jupiter and RSS Mercury.[45]

These two ships were eventually replaced by the Bedok class mine countermeasures vessels. The first ship, RSS Bedok, was built by Karlskronavarvet in Sweden based on the Landsort class design. The remaining three ships were prefabricated in Sweden and transferred to Singapore for final assembly by ST Marine. The ships are constructed of glass reinforced plastic to maintain low magnetic and acoustic signatures, and are fitted with Voith Schneider Propellers, giving it the highest manoeuvrability in the navy. The ships form the 194 Squadron of the RSN.

  • RSS Bedok (M105)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Kallang (M106)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Katong (M107)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Punggol (M108)—commissioned 1995
Bedok class MCMVs berthed at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
Length 47.5 metres
Beam 9.6 metres
Displacement 360 tonnes
Crew 32
Speed 15 knots (28 km/h)


The RSN operates the Protector unmanned surface vehicles. They were deployed together with the Endurance class landing platform dock ships to the North Persian Gulf for peacekeeping operations in 2005, where they performed surveillance and reconnaissance, as well as force protection duties for more than eight hours at a go.[46]

Ships (2) Protector USV
A Republic of Singapore Navy Protector Unmanned Surface Vehicle on display at the National Museum of Singapore.
Length 9 metres
Beam N/A
Displacement N/A
Crew none
Speed 40 knots
Weapons Typhoon Weapon System with the CIS 50 12.7 mm machine gun

Historical fleetEdit

Missile gunboatsEdit

The Sea Wolf class missile gunboats were acquired in 1968, based on the TNC 45 design from Fredrich Lürssen Werft.[47] The first two gunboats were constructed in Germany, while the remaining four were constructed locally by ST Marine (then known as Singapore Shipbuilding and Engineering).

As new technology became available, these gunboats underwent a number of upgrading programmes in the 1980s and 1990s to increase their strike capability and sophistication. These gunboats became the first missile-armed naval vessels in Southeast Asia when they were upgraded to launch Boeing Harpoon (SSM) surface-to-surface missiles.[48] On 13 May 2008, all six gunboats were retired at a sunset decommissioning ceremony held at Changi Naval Base following 33 years of service.[49]

  • RSS Sea Wolf (P76)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Lion (P77)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Dragon (P78)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Tiger (P79)—commissioned 1976
  • RSS Sea Hawk (P80)—commissioned 1976
  • RSS Sea Scorpion (P81)—commissioned 1976
RSS Sea Dragon docked at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
Length 45 metres
Beam 6.5 metres
Displacement 270 tonnes
Crew 40
Speed 30 knots (56 km/h)


Tuas Naval BaseEdit

Tuas Naval Base (TNB) is the second naval base in the RSN's history. Located at the western tip of Singapore, it occupies 0.28 km² (0.11 mi²) of land. It was officially opened on 2 September 1994 by the second prime minister Goh Chok Tong.

For about two decades, Brani Naval Base was the RSN's only base. An expansion of the fleet in the early 1980s meant that more space was needed for the fleet and its shore infrastructure. However, this was not possible as the land around Brani was reserved for use by the port authority to develop container facilities.[50] As a result, Tuas was selected as the site for a second naval base.

Better utilisation of space at TNB resulted in two and a half times more berthing space than Brani, even though TNB only has a shoreline of 850 m (0.5 mi). Provision was also made for recreational facilities. Automation was incorporated into the design of TNB to reduce manpower requirements, such as mechanical ramps for the loading and unloading of vehicles and an automatic storage and retrieval system. It also has a floating dock which can lift 600 tonnes and transfer a ship from sea to land to facilitate repairs and maintenance.[51]

Currently, the missile corvettes, patrol vessels and mine counter-measures vessels are based at TNB.

Changi Naval BaseEdit

Entrance to Changi Naval Base (CNB)

Changi Naval Base (CNB) is the latest naval facility of the RSN and was built to replace Brani Naval Base. Located on 1.28 km² (0.50 mi²) of reclaimed land at the eastern tip of Singapore, it was officially opened on 21 May 2004 by Goh Chok Tong.

Its 6.2 km (3.9 mi) berthing space can accommodate an aircraft carrier and is often used by visiting ships of the USN.[52]

Automation was incorporated into the design of CNB to reduce manpower requirements. It has an automated underground ammunition depot that allows ammunition to be loaded onto the ships and an automated warehouse system to store items. The base has a fibre optic broadband network for information management. The base was also designed to be environment-friendly, with small-scale wind turbines powering the lights along the breakwaters at night. Conventional roof construction materials were substituted by thin film solar panels and the solar energy generated lights the base. In addition, seawater is used in the air-conditioning system.[53]

Currently, the submarines, frigates and amphibious transport docks are based at CNB. Co-located in CNB is the Changi Naval Training Base, also known as RSS Panglima—named in honour of the first ship of the navy.[54][55]

In popular cultureEdit

Television programs
  • Navy, first telecast 17 July 1990
  • Be Somebody, first telecast 25 May 2004


  1. ^ Huxley, Tim (2001). Defending the Lion City. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86508-118-2.
  2. ^ "Factsheet – History of the SAF Day Parade". MINDEF. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  3. ^ "History". ROYAL MALAYSIAN NAVY. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  4. ^ "About our history". Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  5. ^ "COLONEL JAMES AERIA, COMMANDER OF REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE NAVY …". Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Malaysia to keep naval base in Spore". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. ^ "RSN – About Us – History". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 21 February 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2004.
  8. ^ "First navy chief of Singapore dies". The Straits Times. 26 April 1994. p. 17.
  9. ^ The Straits Times, 1994, First navy chief of Singapore dies, The Straits Times (Singapore), 26 April 1994
  10. ^ "RSN – About Us – Organisation". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  11. ^ "nh". Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  12. ^ "Past Leadership". Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Challenger". Kockums. Archived from the original on 5 February 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2005.
  14. ^ "Submarine Tropicalisation Programme". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2005.
  15. ^ Kaplan, George. "The Republic of Singapore Navy". Navy League of Australia. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  16. ^ "Republic of Singapore Navy Launches New Submarine Training Centre". Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  17. ^ a b "The RSN Launches Her Fourth Submarine, the RSS Chieftain". Ministry of Defence Singapore. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  18. ^ "Dr Tony Tan Commissions RSN's Second Submarine". Ministry of Defence Singapore. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  19. ^ "Kockums receives Singapore order to two submarines". Kockums. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2005.
  20. ^ "Singapore Navy Launches its First Archer-Class Submarine". Singapore Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  21. ^ "RSS Archer submarine now operational, will join 171 Squadron". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  22. ^ Choong, William (17 June 2009). "New subs not sign of regional arms race". The Straits Times. pp. A21.
  23. ^ Foizee, Bahauddin (9 August 2019). "Singapore's Naval Ambition". Via News Agency.
  24. ^
  25. ^ Tamir Eshel (5 December 2013). "Singapore's Type-218SG – Forerunner of a new Submarine Class?". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  26. ^ "Singapore Navy to add 2 more submarines to fleet". Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  27. ^ "ST Marine Launches RSN Submarine Support and Rescue Ship". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  28. ^ "Singapore Hosts Regional Submarine Conference". Singapore Ministry of Defense. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  29. ^ "Formidable Frigate". DCNS. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
  30. ^ Minnick, Wendell (14 May 2007). "Singapore's Navy Cruises Toward Blue-Water Force". Defence News. Army Times Publishing Company.
  31. ^ "Stealth ships set for action". Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
  32. ^ Singapore orders two additional S-70B helicopters Archived 2 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine –, 20 February 2013
  33. ^ "Target acquisition – MAST highlights missile-defense concepts". Defence Technology International. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
  34. ^ "Singapore sends planes, ships to help with QZ8501 search effort". CNA. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Victory Class Corvettes". Lürssen. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005.
  36. ^ "1988 – RSN's Missile Corvettes". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2004.
  37. ^ "One dead in naval collision". BBC News. 4 January 2003. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010.
  38. ^ "COSCOM Expands" (PDF). Navy News (1). Ministry of Defence (Singapore). 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2005.
  39. ^ "LMV Independence joins the RSN family". MINDEF (Singapore). Ministry of Defence (Singapore). Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  40. ^ "MINDEF Signs Contract with ST Engineering for the Construction of Eight New Vessels". 30 January 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  41. ^ "ST ENGINEERING WINS NEWBUILD CONTRACT FOR EIGHT NAVAL VESSELS FOR THE REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE NAVY". 30 January 2013. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  42. ^ "Characteristics of the Endurance class LST". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2004.
  43. ^ "Speech by Dr Tony Tan Keng Yam, Deputy Prime Minister & Minister for Defence, on the Occasion of the Commissioning Ceremony for the RSN Landing Ship Tank, RSS Endurance & RSS Resolution Held on Saturday, 18 March 2000 at 10:00 AM at Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
  44. ^ "Singapore Navy sends 3 vessels to help in QZ8501 search". Mediacorp News Group. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  45. ^ "Safe in my wake". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2005.
  46. ^ "The Next Wave". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
  47. ^ "Fast Patrol Boats TNC 45". Lürssen. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005.
  48. ^ "1975 – Missile Gunboats". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2004.
  49. ^ "Missile Gunboats Retire After 33 Years of Distinguished Service". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2008.
  50. ^ "Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2005.
  51. ^ "Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2005.
  52. ^ "Our Bases". Republic of Singapore Navy. Archived from the original on 8 February 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2005.
  53. ^ "DSTA gives Changi Naval Base a 'green' edge". DSTA. Archived from the original on 28 May 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2005.
  54. ^ "1956 – Serving with pride: The RSS Panglima". MINDEF. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012.
  55. ^ "2004 – Changi Naval Base". MINDEF.

External linksEdit