Chief of Defence Force (Singapore)

The Chief of Defence Force of Singapore is the head of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), who holds the rank of a three-star general or admiral.[1] The position was created in 1974 as the Chief of the General Staff with the appointment of Winston Choo, and changed to its current name in May 1990. Prior to the appointment of Choo as Chief of the General Staff, the Ministry of Defence (and before it, the Ministry of Interior and Defence) was in charge of the SAF. Before the position was created, the head of Singapore's army—which at that time made up the military—held the position of Director, General Staff.

Chief of Defence Force
Incumbent
Lieutenant-General Melvyn Ong

since 23 March 2018
Singapore Armed Forces
TypeChief of Defence
AbbreviationCDF
Reports toMinister for Defence
NominatorPrime Minister of Singapore; Armed Forces Council
AppointerPresident of Singapore
Term lengthNot fixed
Formation1974: Chief of the General Staff;
1990: Chief of Defence Force
First holderLieutenant-General Winston Choo

The President of Singapore has the power to appoint each new CDF (as well as new heads of each of the three services in the SAF) on the advice of the Prime Minister of Singapore, who in turn must consult with the Armed Forces Council,[2] on which the CDF sits. The CDF also maintains a role as an aide-de-camp to the President.

RoleEdit

The CDF is the operational head of the SAF,[3] and holds a seat on the Armed Forces Council which oversees all matters pertaining to the SAF.[4] In addition, if any of the three service chiefs—the Chief of Army, Chief of Navy or Chief of Air Force—is unable to carry out his duties, the CDF is tasked to perform those duties in addition to his own. If the CDF is unable to perform his own duties, the Minister of Defence is allowed to select one of the three service chiefs to perform the CDF's duties.[2]

The office of CDF also carries with it a position as one of three full-time aides-de-camp to the President. According to the Singapore Presidential Office website, the position entails handling the President's security and his/her social needs, in addition to other general duties.[5]

A number of powers relating to summary trials for military offences is vested in the CDF. Paragraph 2, Section 62 of the Singapore Armed Forces Act states that any offence in which the accused holds the rank of Colonel or Military Expert 7 is to be referred to the CDF,[6] who can then dismiss the charge, hold a summary trial, or pass the case on to the director of legal services of the SAF,[7] who can in turn instruct the CDF to try the accused.[8]

As head of the SAF, the CDF often makes visits to countries with shared military interests, such as Bahrain,[9] Japan,[10] and Vietnam,[11] and also occasionally hosts foreign military chiefs on official visits.[12]

Leadership of the SAF before 1990Edit

The role of the head of the SAF was first titled as "Director, General Staff" around 1969, and was held by Brigadier T. J. D. Campbell,[13] who was previously the head of the Singapore Defence Force (1965-1966) and the Singapore Volunteer Corps (late 1950s-1965) before Singapore gained independence in 1965.[14] Campbell had been the acting-Director since around 1968.[15] Colonel Kirpa Ram Vij was appointed his successor.[16] According to sources, the position of "Director, General Staff" was considered similar to the position of the present-day CDF,[16] and was equivalent to the head of army.[17] A news report from The Straits Times on Campbell's death refers to him as having been "army chief".[15]

In 1974, Colonel Winston Choo was given the appointment of Chief of the General Staff, having previously been a departmental head at the Ministry of Defence (MINDEF). In May 1990, the position was changed to its current name, with Choo, who had been promoted to Lieutenant-General, still in office. He had been promoted to each of the general ranks in 1974, 1978 and 1988.[18] Choo stepped down in 1992, after 18 years as the head of the SAF.[19]

Lee Kuan Yew, who was Singapore's Prime Minister in the 1970s, described Goh Keng Swee as the de facto armed forces chief of staff when the latter was Minister of Defence.[20] Goh had been responsible for evolving the SAF while serving as Minister of Defence from 1965–1967.[21][22]

Although Campbell and Vij have both held a position of similar authority, Choo is referred to as the first CDF in a number of MINDEF publications.[23][24]

In the past, there also existed a Deputy Chief of the General Staff[25] who was tasked to "[work] with troops on the ground",[26] but there is no deputy position for the present-day CDF in the structure of the SAF.[3]

Name Office In office Role immediately before office Ref
Goh Keng Swee Minister of Defence 1965–1967[note 1] Minister of Finance [20]
T. J. D. Campbell Director, General Staff 1968–1969 (acting)
1969–1970
Ministry of Education [13][15]
Kirpa Ram Vij Director, General Staff 1970–1974 Director, Singapore Command and Staff College [16][17]
Winston Choo Chief of the General Staff 1974–May 1990 Departmental Head at MINDEF [18]

Chiefs of Defence Force since 1990Edit

Since the appointment of CDF was established in 1990 there have been seven holders of the position, beginning with Winston Choo who was already in office as Chief of the General Staff.

No. Chief of Defence Force Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Previous office Later office Ref
1Choo, WinstonLieutenant-General
Winston Choo
(born 1941)
May 199030 June 19922 yearsArmy
Signals
Chief of the General StaffPublic sector (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)[18]
2Ping, Ng JuiLieutenant-General
Ng Jui Ping
(1948–2020)
30 June 19921 July 19953 years, 1 dayArmy
Artillery
Chief of ArmyPrivate sector (as an entrepreneur)[27][28][29]
3Khiang, Bey SooLieutenant-General
Bey Soo Khiang
1 July 19951 April 20004 years, 275 daysAir ForceChief of Air ForcePrivate sector (Singapore Airlines)[30]
4Poh, Lim ChuanLieutenant-General
Lim Chuan Poh
(born 1961)
1 April 20001 April 20033 years, 0 daysArmy
Infantry
Chief of ArmyPublic sector (Ministry of Education, A*STAR)[30]
5Chung, Ng YatLieutenant-General
Ng Yat Chung
(born 1961)
1 April 200323 March 20073 years, 328 daysArmy
Artillery
Chief of ArmyPrivate sector (Temasek Holdings, Neptune Orient Lines, Singapore Press Holdings)[31]
6Kuek, DesmondLieutenant-General
Desmond Kuek
(born 1963)
23 March 20071 April 20103 years, 37 daysArmy
Armour
Chief of ArmyPublic sector (Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, SMRT Corporation)[32]
7Hong, Neo KianLieutenant-General
Neo Kian Hong
(born 1964)
1 April 201027 March 20132 years, 360 daysArmy
Guards
Chief of ArmyPublic sector (Ministry of Education, Ministry of Defence, SMRT Corporation)[33][34][35]
8Meng, Ng CheeLieutenant-General
Ng Chee Meng
(born 1968)
27 March 201318 August 20152 years, 175 daysAir ForceChief of Air ForceJoined politics (Minister for Education, 2nd Minister for Transport, Minister in Prime Minister's Office, Secretary-General of the National Trades Union Congress)[36][37]
9Lim, PerryLieutenant-General
Perry Lim
(born 1972)
18 August 201523 March 20182 years, 186 daysArmy
Guards
Chief of ArmyPrivate Sector (Managing Director Royal Golden Eagle)[37]
10Ong, MelvynLieutenant-General
Melvyn Ong
(born 1975)
23 March 2018Incumbent1 year, 310 daysArmy
Guards
Chief of Army.[38][39]

In their retirement citations from the Ministry of Defence,

  • Both Bey Soo Khiang and Lim Chuan Poh were cited for having "positioned the SAF to meet the challenges in the 21st century" and for improving the SAF's capacity to use latest technology in advancing the forces' proficiency;[30][31]
  • Ng Yat Chung's retirement citation noted that he "successfully commanded the overall deployment of the SAF in peace support operations in East Timor" and disaster relief after both the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake;[32]
  • Desmond Kuek was cited for "(leading) the SAF's transformation into a modernised, integrated and networked fighting force"[34] and "significantly (enhancing) the SAF's ability to deal effectively with the evolving security challenges".[33]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ As Minister of Defence, Goh has been described by Lee Kuan Yew as the de facto leader of the SAF.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "SAF Military Ranks - Officers". Singapore Ministry of Defence. 24 April 2010. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2011. The Chief of Defence Force holds the rank Lieutenant-General (LG) and Service Chiefs hold the rank of Major-General (MG).
  2. ^ a b Singapore Armed Forces Act (Cap. 295, 2000 Rev. Ed.) Section 10A. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  3. ^ a b "MINDEF - About Us - Organisation Structure". Singapore Ministry of Defence. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  4. ^ Singapore Armed Forces Act (Cap. 295, 2000 Rev. Ed.) Section 8. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  5. ^ "Aides-de-Camp". Istana (President's Office). Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  6. ^ Singapore Armed Forces Act (Cap. 295, 2000 Rev. Ed.) Section 62. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  7. ^ Singapore Armed Forces Act (Cap. 295, 2000 Rev. Ed.) Section 65B. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  8. ^ Singapore Armed Forces Act (Cap. 295, 2000 Rev. Ed.) Section 67. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  9. ^ "CP MEETS SINGAPORE CHIEF OF DEFENCE FORCE". Bahrain News Agency. 20 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  10. ^ "Courtesy Visit by Singapore Armed Forces Chief of Defence Force". Japan Defense Focus. Japan Self-Defense Force. November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  11. ^ "Defence co-operation, ties with Singapore appreciated". Vietnam News. dztimes.net. 19 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  12. ^ "China's PLA Chief of General Staff visits Singapore". Xinhua. 24 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  13. ^ a b "Stories - Profile of Ms Evelyn Tay". Army Museum Singapore. 25 August 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  14. ^ "Defence commander sees cadet display". Straits Times. 13 September 1966. p. 4. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  15. ^ a b c "Ex-army chief, BG Campbell, dies in Australia". Straits Times. 22 October 1989. p. 17. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  16. ^ a b c Liew, Derek (7 February 2008). "History - 1966 - The Beginning of SAFTI (Volume 12 Issue 2)". Singapore Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  17. ^ a b Jonas, Patrick (7 January 2011). "In command of his life". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  18. ^ a b c "Appointment of Singapore's High Commissioner to South Africa" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 25 July 2001. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  19. ^ "Appointment of Lt-Gen (Retd) Winston Choo as High Commissioner to Papua New Guinea" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 15 March 2000. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  20. ^ a b Lee, Kuan Yew. "Eulogy by Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew at the State Funeral Service For The Late Dr Goh Keng Swee at the Singapore Conference Hall, Sunday 23 May 2010". Prime Minister's Office (Singapore). Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  21. ^ S Ramesh (1 February 2011). "Goh Keng Swee Command & Staff College unveiled". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 5 February 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
  22. ^ Chow, Jermyn (2 February 2001). "SAF institute named after Goh Keng Swee". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 5 February 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
  23. ^ Luo, Joel (7 March 2011). "The Singapore Army - News Archive - A Night To Remember – Signals 45th Anniversary Military Dining-In". Singapore Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 10 March 2011. LG (RET) Winston Choo, who was SAF's first Chief of Defence Force (1974 - 1992)
  24. ^ Quek, Sherlyn (18 September 2008). "SAF Joint Staff celebrates 25 years and beyond". Cyberpioneer. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2011. Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean was present, together with special guest, Lieutenant-General (LG) (Ret) Winston Choo, Singapore's first Chief of Defence Force (CDF).
  25. ^ "Brigadier General for Home Affairs". Straits Times. 28 August 1982. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  26. ^ "SAF promotes 273 of its best senior officers". Straits Times. 1 July 1986. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  27. ^ "Board of Directors" (PDF). PSA International. 2006. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011. Lt-Gen (Ret) Ng holds a number of directorships in the private sector
  28. ^ "History - 1967 - School of Artillery". Singapore Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  29. ^ Quek, Sherlyn (21 May 2010). "Glowing tributes to the SAF's founding father". Cyberpioneer. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  30. ^ a b c "Chief of Defence Force Change of Command Parade" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  31. ^ a b "Change of Chief of Defence Force and Service Chiefs" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 6 February 2003. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  32. ^ a b "Change of Chief of Defence Force and Chief of Army" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 6 February 2007. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  33. ^ a b "New Chief of Defence Force for the SAF" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  34. ^ a b "Change in Chief of Defence Force and Chief of Army" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  35. ^ "New CEO for SMRT" (Press release). Channel NewsAsia. 18 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  36. ^ "New Chief of Defence Force for the SAF" (Press release). Singapore Ministry of Defence. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  37. ^ a b <http://www.todayonline.com/singapore/chief-defence-force-lg-ng-chee-meng-retire-august Archived 2015-08-01 at the Wayback Machine">
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)