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List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reservesEdit

Rank Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of
1   China[1] 3,092,431 September 2019 [2]
2   Japan 1,331,583 August 2019 [3]
  Europe (ECB - Eurosystem) 857,965 28 February 2018[4][5]
3    Switzerland 804,323 May 2019[6]
4   Russia 532,700 06 Sep 2019[7]
5   Saudi Arabia 503,470 August 2019[8]
6   Taiwan[9] 469,489 September 2019[10]
7   India[11] 439,712 11 Oct 2019[12]
8   Hong Kong 438,700 September 2019 [13]
9   South Korea 403,100 June 2019[14]
10   Brazil 388,090 June 2019[15]
11   Singapore 273,943 June 2019[16]
12   Thailand 220,505 June 2019 [17]
13   Germany 187,401 June 2019[18]
14   Mexico 186,209 June 2019[19]
15   France 181,929 June 2019[20]
16   United Kingdom 168,206 June 2019[21]
17   Italy 164,992 June 2019[22]
18   Czech Republic 144,937 July 2019[23]
19   Iran[24] 132,600 31 December 2017[25]
20   United States 128,338 30 June 2019[26]
21   Indonesia 123,823 July 2019[27]
22   Israel 118,208 March 2019[28]
23   Poland 117,801 June 2019[29]
24   United Arab Emirates 115,000 31 May 2019[25]
25   Malaysia 103,489 31 Aug 2019[30]
26   Canada 86,300 June 2019[31][32]
27   Philippines 86,030 Aug 2019[33]
  Europe (ECB) 80,292 28 February 2018[34][35]
28   Algeria 79,870 December 2018[36]
29   Turkey 74,363 Aug 2019[37]
30   Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[25]
31   Denmark 68,120 June 2019[38]
32   Vietnam 68,000 June 2019[39]
33   Peru 66,714 June 2019
34   Argentina 66,399 07 August 2019
35   Norway 60,230 March 2019[40]
36   Australia 58,676 31 March 2018[41]
37   Spain 54,155 March 2016[42]
38   Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[25]
39   Qatar 52,408 April 2019[25]
40   Colombia 51,975 31 May 2019
41   South Africa 51,641 December 2018[43]
42   Sweden 50,520 April 2019[44]
43   Nigeria 44,940 June 2019
44   Egypt 44,352 June 2019
45   Azerbaijan 44,000 March 2018[45][46][47]
46   Lebanon 43,000 31 November 2017[25]
47   Netherlands 41,817 July 2019[48]
48   Romania 41,110 May 2019[49]
49   Chile 40,233 July 2019[50]
50   Kuwait 33,130 31 December 2017[25]
51   Bangladesh 32,549 June 2019[51]
52   Hungary 31,367 March 2016[52]
53   Kazakhstan 30,993 February 2018[53]
54   Belgium 24,861 March 2016[54]
55   Austria 24,758 March 2016[55]
56   Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[25][56]
57   Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[25]
58   Morocco 23,631 Sep 2018[25][57][58]
59   New Zealand 22,183 31 March 2018[59]
60   Ukraine 22,015 September 2019[60]
61   Portugal 21,328 March 2016[61]
62   Macau, China 19,200 Sep 2018[62]
63   Uruguay 17,779 June 2019[63]
64   Oman 16,863 28 February 2019[25]
65   Jordan 15,360 August 2017[64]
66   Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[25]
67   Croatia 14,307 February 2016[25][65]
68   Guatemala 14,279 June 2019[66]
69   Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[25]
70   Cambodia 12,300 May 2018[67]
71   Serbia 12,150 February 2018[68]
72   Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[25]
73   Finland 10,552 March 2018[69]
74     Nepal 9,329 15 July 2018[70]
75   Kenya 8,864 June 2019[71]
76   Sri Lanka 8,590 31 Aug 2018 [72]
77   Venezuela 8,527 May 2019[73]
78   Belarus 8,513 June 2019[74]
79   Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[25]
80   Trinidad and Tobago 8,000 April 2018[75]
81   North Korea 8,000 November 2013[76]
82   Pakistan 7,813 11 Oct 2019[77]
83   Afghanistan 7,800 30 March 2019[78]
84   Costa Rica 7,762 30 July 2019[79]
85   Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[25]
86   Dominican Republic 7,239 December 2018[80]
87   Mauritius 7,158 June 2019
88   Paraguay 6,864 June 2019
89   Iceland 6,830 June 2019[81]
90   Ghana 6,756 December 2018[25]
91   Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[82]
92   Greece 6,591 June 2019[83]
93   Bolivia 6,103 June 2019
94   Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 December 2017[84]
95   Ireland 4,745 June 2019
96   Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[25]
97   Honduras 4,612 December 2018[85]
98   Ecuador 4,095 June 2019
99   Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[25]
100   Latvia 3,817 December 2018[57][86]
101   Georgia 3,500 June 2019[57][87][88]
102   Albania 3,400 October 2018[25][57][89]
103   Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[25]
104   Bahrain 3,373 30 June 2019[25]
105   Brunei 3,366 2015[90]
106   Uganda 3,338 30 June 2019[25]
107   El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[91]
108   Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[25]
109   Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[25]
110   Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[25][92]
111   Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[25][57][93]
112   Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[25]
113   Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[25]
114   Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[25][57][94]
115   North Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[25][57][95]
116   Armenia 2,300 August 2019[96]
117   Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[25]
118   Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[97][98][99]
119   Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[25]
120   Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[25]
121   Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[25][57][100][101]
122   Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[25]
123   Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[25]
124   Curaçao 1,791 2015[90]
125   Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[25]
126   Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[25]
127   Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[57][102]
128   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[25]
129   Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[25]
130   Bhutan 1,103 2015[90]
131   Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[25][57][103]
132   Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[25][90]
133   Niger 1,039 2015[90]
134   Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[104]
135   Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[25]
136   Fiji 919 31 December 2015[25]
137   Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[25]
138   Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[25][90]
139   Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[25][90][105]
140   Cyprus 877 March 2016[25][57][106]
141   Mauritania 874 2017[90]
142   Slovenia 870 April 2016[57][107]
143   Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[25]
144   Aruba 816 2015[90]
145   Syria 773 31 December 2015[25]
146   Montenegro 734 2015[25][90]
147   Benin 732 31 December 2015[25][90]
148   Malawi 693 31 December 2015[25][90]
149   Malta 671 March 2016[25][57][108]
150   Barbados 658 31 December 2015[25]
151   Mali 624 2015[90]
152   Sierra Leone 621 2015[90]
153   Guyana 601 31 December 2015[25]
154   Maldives 576 2015[25][90]
155   Togo 574 31 December 2015[25][90]
156   Seychelles 555 March 2016[25][57][109]
157   Eswatini 548 31 December 2015[25][90]
158   Liberia 523 2015[90]
159   Solomon Islands 520 2015[90]
160   Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[25][90]
161   Estonia 494 March 2016[25][57][110]
162   Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[25]
164   Palestine 464 March 2016[57][111]
165   Timor-Leste 438 2015[90]
166   Belize 437 31 December 2015[25][90]
167   San Marino 392 2014[90]
168   Chad 383 31 December 2015[25]
169   Djibouti 365 2015[90]
170   Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[90]
171   Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[25][90]
172   Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[25]
173   Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[90]
174   Suriname 330 31 December 2015[25][90]
175   Saint Lucia 318 2015[90]
176   Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[90]
177   Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[25][90]
178   Guinea 244 31 December 2016[25][90]
179   South Sudan 230 2015[90]
180   Central African Republic 214 2015[90]
181   Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[25]
180   Comoros 201 2015[90]
181   Grenada 198 2015[90]
182   Tonga 181 31 December 2016[25][90]
183   Sudan 167 31 December 2016[25][90]
184   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[25][90]
185   Samoa 139 31 December 2015[25][90]
186   Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[90]
187   Burundi 100 31 December 2016[25]
188   Dominica 100 31 December 2016[25]
189   Gambia 92 31 December 2016[25]
190   São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[25]
191   Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[25]
192   Somalia 2 2014[25]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reservesEdit

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[112]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[112]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018
1  USD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84
2  EUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34
3  JPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36
4  GBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45
5  CAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76
6  AUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21
7  RMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79
8  CHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit