Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China

Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC). Throughout the Cold War, both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China and allowed countries to recognize either one or the other. Until the 1970s, most Western countries recognized the ROC while the communist bloc and third world countries generally recognized the PRC. This gradually shifted and today only 14 UN member states recognize the ROC while the PRC is recognized by the United Nations, 178 UN member states and the State of Palestine around the world. Both the ROC and the PRC maintain the requirement of recognizing its view of the One-China policy to establish or maintain diplomatic relations.

Countries of the world indicating decade diplomatic relations commenced with the PRC: 1949/1950s   (dark red), 1960s   (red), 1970s   (orange), 1980s   (beige), 1990s/2000s   (yellow), and 2010s   (green). Countries not recognised by or not recognising the PRC are in grey  . The PRC itself is in black  .

Recognition of the PRC before it was seated at the UNEdit

1949Edit

The PRC was established on 1 October 1949, when the Chinese Civil War was still underway, and the seat of Government of the Republic of China was not relocated to Taipei until December 1949. All the countries that recognized the new PRC government in 1949 were communist states.

Country Date
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[1] 2 October 1949
  Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic[2] 2 October 1949
  Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic[3] 2 October 1949
  People's Republic of Bulgaria 4 October 1949
  Romanian People's Republic 5 October 1949
  Hungarian People's Republic 6 October 1949
  Democratic People's Republic of Korea 6 October 1949
  Czechoslovak Republic[4] 4 October 1949
  Republic of Poland 7 October 1949
  Mongolian People's Republic 16 October 1949
  German Democratic Republic[5] 27 October 1949
  People's Republic of Albania 23 November 1949

1950sEdit

Country Date
  Dominion of Pakistan (now the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) 1 January 1950
  Dominion of India (now the Republic of India) 4 January 1950
  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (request refused by the PRC)[6] 6 January 1950[7]
   Swiss Confederation (first western country to establish diplomatic relations) 17 January 1950[8][9]
  Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) (now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) 18 January 1950
  Republic of Indonesia 13 April 1950
  Kingdom of Sweden 9 May 1950
  Kingdom of Denmark 11 May 1950
  Union of Burma (now the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) 8 June 1950
  Principality of Liechtenstein 14 September 1950
  Republic of Finland 28 October 1950
  Kingdom of Norway 5 October 1954
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia[10] 2 January 1955
  Kingdom of Afghanistan (now the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan) 20 January 1955
  Kingdom of Nepal (now the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal) 1 August 1955
  Republic of Egypt[11] (now the Arab Republic of Egypt) 30 May 1956
  Syrian Republic (now the Syrian Arab Republic) 1 August 1956
  Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (later Yemen Arab Republic)[12] (North Yemen) 24 September 1956
  Dominion of Ceylon (now the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka) 7 February 1957
  Kingdom of Cambodia 19 July 1958
  Iraqi Republic (now the Republic of Iraq) 25 August 1958
  Kingdom of Morocco[11] 1 November 1958
  Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (now the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria)[11] 20 December 1958
  Republic of the Sudan[11] 4 February 1959
  Republic of Guinea[11] 4 October 1959

1960sEdit

Country Date
  Republic of Ghana[11] 5 July 1960
  Republic of Cuba 28 September 1960
  Republic of Mali[11] 25 October 1960
  Somali Republic[11] (now the Federal Republic of Somalia) 14 December 1960
  Republic of the Congo (Stanleyville)[13] (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) 20 February 1961
  Kingdom of Laos (now the Lao People's Democratic Republic) 25 April 1961
  Tanganyika[11][14] (now the United Republic of Tanzania) 9 December 1961
  Republic of Uganda[11] 18 October 1962
  Sultanate of Zanzibar[11][15] 11 December 1963
  Republic of Kenya[11] 14 December 1963
  Kingdom of Burundi (now the Republic of Burundi)[16] 21 December 1963
  Tunisian Republic[11] 10 January 1964
  French Republic 27 January 1964
  Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)[11] 22 February 1964
  Central African Republic[17] 29 September 1964
  Republic of Zambia[11] 29 October 1964
  Republic of Dahomey (now the Republic of Benin)[18] 12 November 1964
  Islamic Republic of Mauritania[11] 19 July 1965
  People's Republic of South Yemen (later People's Democratic Republic of Yemen)[12] (South Yemen) 31 January 1968
  Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam[19] 14 June 1969

1970sEdit

Country Date
  Canada 13 October 1970
  Republic of Equatorial Guinea[11] 15 October 1970
  Italian Republic 6 November 1970
  Ethiopian Empire (now the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)[11] 24 November 1970
  Republic of Chile 15 December 1970
  Federal Republic of Nigeria[11] 10 February 1971
  State of Kuwait 22 March 1971
  Republic of Cameroon[11] 26 March 1971
  Republic of San Marino[20] 6 May 1971
  Republic of Austria 28 May 1971
  Republic of Sierra Leone[11] 29 July 1971
  Republic of Turkey 4 August 1971
  Imperial State of Iran (now the Islamic Republic of Iran) 16 August 1971

Recognition of the PRC after it was seated at the UNEdit

The Republic of China, which had occupied China's seat at the United Nations since 1945, was effectively expelled on 25 October 1971, through Resolution 2758 approved in the general assembly of said date. Its seat was taken over by the People's Republic of China from 15 November 1971, and the migration of relations to the PRC soon followed among members of the Western Bloc, except for the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy and the Scandinavian Countries which had previously established diplomatic relations.

1970sEdit

Country Date
  Kingdom of Belgium 25 October 1971
  Republic of Peru 2 November 1971
  Republic of Lebanon 9 November 1971
  Republic of Rwanda[11] 12 November 1971
  Republic of Senegal[21] 7 December 1971
  Iceland 8 December 1971
  Republic of Cyprus 14 December 1971
  State of Malta (now the Republic of Malta) 31 January 1972
  United Mexican States 14 February 1972
  Argentine Republic 19 February 1972
  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[6] 13 March 1972
  Mauritius (now the Republic of Mauritius) 15 April 1972
  Kingdom of the Netherlands[6] 18 May 1972
  Kingdom of Greece (now the Hellenic Republic) 5 June 1972
  Cooperative Republic of Guyana 27 June 1972
  Togolese Republic[11] 19 September 1972
  Japan 29 September 1972
  Federal Republic of Germany[5] 11 October 1972
  Republic of Maldives 14 October 1972
  Democratic Republic of Madagascar (now the Republic of Madagascar) 6 November 1972
  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 16 November 1972
  Jamaica 21 November 1972
  Republic of Chad[22] 28 November 1972
  Commonwealth of Australia 21 December 1972
  New Zealand 22 December 1972
  Spanish State (now the Kingdom of Spain) 9 March 1973
  Republic of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)[23] 15 September 1973
  Republic of Guinea-Bissau[24] 15 March 1974
  Gabonese Republic[11] 20 April 1974
  Malaysia 31 May 1974
  Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 20 June 1974
  Republic of Venezuela (now the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) 28 June 1974
  Republic of Niger[25] 20 July 1974
  Federative Republic of Brazil 15 August 1974
  Republic of the Gambia[26] 14 December 1974
  Republic of Botswana[11] 6 January 1975
  Republic of the Philippines 9 June 1975
  People's Republic of Mozambique[11] (now the Republic of Mozambique) 25 June 1975
  Kingdom of Thailand 1 July 1975
  Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe[27] 12 July 1975
  People's Republic of Bangladesh 4 October 1975
  Dominion of Fiji (now the Republic of Fiji) 5 November 1975
  Independent State of Western Samoa (now the Independent State of Samoa) 6 November 1975
  State of the Comoros[11] (now the Union of the Comoros) 13 November 1975
  Republic of Cape Verde[11] 25 April 1976
  Republic of Suriname 28 May 1976
  Republic of Seychelles[11] 30 June 1976
  Independent State of Papua New Guinea 12 October 1976
  Republic of Liberia[28] 17 February 1977
  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 7 April 1977
  Barbados 30 May 1977
  Sultanate of Oman 25 May 1978
  Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (now the State of Libya) 9 August 1978
  United States of America 1 January 1979
  Republic of Djibouti[11] 8 January 1979
  Portuguese Republic 8 February 1979
  Ireland 22 June 1979

1980sEdit

Country Date
  Republic of Ecuador 2 January 1980
  Republic of Colombia 7 February 1980
  Republic of Zimbabwe[11] 18 April 1980
  Republic of Kiribati[29] 25 June 1980
  Republic of Vanuatu 26 March 1982
  Antigua and Barbuda 1 January 1983
  People's Republic of Angola (now the Republic of Angola)[11] 12 January 1983
  Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[11] 2 March 1983
  Kingdom of Lesotho[30] 30 April 1983
  United Arab Emirates 1 November 1984
  Republic of Bolivia (now the Plurinational State of Bolivia) 9 July 1985
  Grenada[31] 1 October 1985
  Republic of Nicaragua[32] 7 December 1985
  Belize[33] 6 February 1987
  Eastern Republic of Uruguay 3 February 1988
  State of Qatar 9 July 1988
  State of Palestine[34] 20 November 1988
  State of Bahrain (now the Kingdom of Bahrain) 18 April 1989
  Federated States of Micronesia 11 September 1989

1990sEdit

Country Date
  Republic of Namibia[11] 22 March 1990
  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 21 July 1990
  Republic of Singapore 3 October 1990
  Republic of the Marshall Islands[35] 16 November 1990
  Republic of Estonia[36] 11 September 1991
  Republic of Latvia[37] 12 September 1991
  Republic of Lithuania[38] 14 September 1991
  Nation of Brunei 30 September 1991
  Republic of Uzbekistan 2 January 1992
  Republic of Kazakhstan 3 January 1992
  Republic of Tajikistan 4 January 1992
  Republic of Kyrgyzstan (now the Kyrgyz Republic) 5 January 1992
  Turkmenistan 6 January 1992
  State of Israel 24 January 1992
  Republic of Moldova 30 January 1992
  Republic of Azerbaijan 2 April 1992
  Republic of Armenia 6 April 1992
  Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now the Republic of Serbia)[10]
  Republic of Slovenia 12 May 1992
  Republic of Croatia 13 May 1992
  Republic of Georgia (now Georgia) 9 June 1992
  Republic of Korea 24 August 1992
  State of Eritrea[11] 24 May 1993
  Republic of Macedonia (now the Republic of North Macedonia)[39] 12 October 1993
  Principality of Andorra 29 June 1994
  Principality of Monaco[40] 16 January 1995
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (now Bosnia and Herzegovina) 3 April 1995
  Commonwealth of the Bahamas 23 May 1997
  Cook Islands 25 July 1997
  Saint Lucia[41] 1 September 1997
  Republic of South Africa[11] 1 January 1998
  Kingdom of Tonga 2 November 1998

2000sEdit

Country Date
  Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste 20 May 2002
  Republic of Nauru[42] 21 July 2002
  Commonwealth of Dominica 31 March 2004
  Republic of Montenegro (now Montenegro) 6 July 2006
  Republic of Costa Rica 1 June 2007
  Niue 12 December 2007
  Republic of Malawi 28 December 2007

2010sEdit

Country Date
  Republic of South Sudan 9 July 2011
  Republic of Panama[43] 13 June 2017
  Dominican Republic[44] 1 May 2018
  Republic of El Salvador[45] 21 August 2018
  Solomon Islands 21 September 2019

See alsoEdit

PRC
ROC

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Succeeded by the Russian Federation
  2. ^ Succeeded by Ukraine though official relations began on 4 January 1992. The Ukrainian SSR was the founding member of the United Nations and in accordance to The Law of Ukraine on Succession of Ukraine, the Ukraine continues all "rights and duties pursuant to international agreements of Union SSR which do not contradict the Constitution of Ukraine and interests of the Republic".
  3. ^ Succeeded by the Republic of Belarus though official relations began on 20 January 1992. Belarus, one of the 51 original signatories to the United Nations Charter, is the legal successor of the Byelorussian SSR and in the Constitution Article 142: "Laws, decrees and other acts which were applied in the territory of the Republic of Belarus prior to the entry into force of the present Constitution shall apply in the particular parts thereof that are not contrary to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus."
  4. ^ Succeeded by the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
  5. ^ a b Succeeded by the Federal Republic of Germany (reunified Germany) on 3 October 1990.
  6. ^ a b c On 6 January 1950, the United Kingdom recognized the PRC and requested the exchange of ambassadors, but this was refused. The UK and The Netherlands established diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level with the PRC on 17 June 1954 and 19 November 1954 respectively. The PRC government does not regard the semi-diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level as formal diplomatic ties. The UK does. The PRC consented to the exchange of ambassadors with the UK on 13 March 1972 and with The Netherlands on 18 May 1972. See Sino-British relations for further details.
  7. ^ "Britain Recognizes Chinese Communists: Note delivered in Peking". The Times. London. 7 January 1950. p. 6. ISSN 0140-0460.
  8. ^ Bilateral relations between Switzerland and China (page visited on 19 August 2014).
  9. ^ Official diplomatic telegram on 17 January 1950 from President of the Swiss Confederation, Max Petitpierre, to Mao Zedong in the Dodis database of the Diplomatic Documents of Switzerland.
  10. ^ a b Republic of Serbia attempted to succeed but all other former Yugoslav Republics deferred the attempt, and no consensus was reached in the first period. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia est. 1992-02-28 was not granted successorship and was placed under international sanctions. In 2001 an Agreement on Succession Issues was signed and reached validity in 2004, by the provisions of that Agreement FRY is not the successor of SFRY. Serbia and Montenegro succeeded the United Nations seat of the FRY (joined the UN as a new member on 2000-11-01) "Succession" of recognition by Serbia, successor state of Serbia and Montenegro is due to international law inadmissible. Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia Opinion No. 10 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Serbia and Montenegro). In this decision, the Commission ruled that the FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) could not legally be considered a continuation of the former SFRY, but was rather a new state. Thus the European Community (and the UN) should not automatically recognize the FRY, but apply to it the same criteria applied to the recognition of the other post-SFRY states.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "Diplomatic Ties Between China and African Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  12. ^ a b Succeeded by the Republic of Yemen. Date of establishment of diplomatic relations was set back to 24 September 1956.
  13. ^ "Bilateral Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Congo (Kin)". The Kinshasa-side's state was officially named "Republic of Congo" at the time.
  14. ^ Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar from 26 April 1964.
  15. ^ Zanzibar merged into mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964.
  16. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 October 1971 after Burundi unilaterally severed relations on 29 January 1965.
  17. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 January 1998. CAR resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 8 July 1991.
  18. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 December 1972. Dahomey resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 12 April 1966.
  19. ^ Succeeded by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 July 1976.
  20. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 15 July 1991.
  21. ^ Senegal resumed diplomatic relations with the ROC on 6 January 1996. Ties with the PRC were severed from 9 January 1996, until 25 October 2005, when ties were resumed.
  22. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 6 August 2006. Diplomatic relations were severed on 15 August 1997 after Chad resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 12 August 1997.
  23. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 26 May 2018. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 4 February 1994 after Burkina Faso resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 2 February 1994.
  24. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 April 1998. Guinea Bissau recognized the ROC on 26 May 1990.
  25. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 19 August 1996. PRC suspended diplomatic relations on 19 July 1992 after Niger resumed ties with the ROC on 30 June 1992.
  26. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 17 March 2016. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 25 July 1995. Gambia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 13 July 1995.
  27. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 26 December 2016. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 12 July 1997.
  28. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 10 August 1993. Liberia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 9 October 1989. Diplomatic relations with the PRC has been severed since 9 September 1997 because the Liberian Government's recognition of a "Two Chinas" Policy. However, the PRC and Liberia normalized their relations on 11 October 2003.
  29. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 27 September 2019. Diplomatic relations were severed by the PRC on 29 November 2003 after Kiribati recognized the ROC on 7 November 2003.
  30. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 12 January 1994. Lesotho resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 5 April 1990.
  31. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 20 January 2005. Grenada recognized the ROC on 19 July 1989.
  32. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 9 November 1990. Nicaragua resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 6 November 1990.
  33. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 23 October 1989. Belize recognized the ROC on 11 October 1989.
  34. ^ Relations by PLO from 22 March 1965.
  35. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 11 December 1998. Marshall Islands recognized the ROC on 20 November 1998.
  36. ^ "China | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". vm.ee. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Dates of establishment and renewal of diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  38. ^ "China | Bilateral cooperation | Lithuania in the Region and the World | Foreign Policy | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  39. ^ Diplomatic relations were restored on 18 June 2001. North Macedonia recognized diplomatic ties with the ROC on 27 January 1999.
  40. ^ Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 6 February 2006.
  41. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 5 May 2007. St. Lucia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 30 April 2007.
  42. ^ Diplomatic relations were severed on 31 May 2005. Nauru resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 14 May 2005.
  43. ^ "Panama cuts ties with Taiwan for China". BBC News. 13 June 2017. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  44. ^ "Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the People's Republic of China and the Dominican Republic".
  45. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit