Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China
Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC). Throughout the Cold War, both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China and allowed countries to recognize either one or the other. Until the 1970s, most Western countries recognized the ROC while the communist bloc and third world countries generally recognized the PRC. This gradually shifted and today only 14 UN member states recognize the ROC while the PRC is recognized by the United Nations, 178 UN member states and the State of Palestine around the world. Both the ROC and the PRC maintain the requirement of recognizing its view of the One-China policy to establish or maintain diplomatic relations.
Recognition of the PRC before it was seated at the UNEdit
The PRC was established on 1 October 1949, when the Chinese Civil War was still underway, and the seat of Government of the Republic of China was not relocated to Taipei until December 1949. All the countries that recognized the new PRC government in 1949 were communist states.
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||2 October 1949|
|Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic||2 October 1949|
|Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic||2 October 1949|
|People's Republic of Bulgaria||4 October 1949|
|Romanian People's Republic||5 October 1949|
|Hungarian People's Republic||6 October 1949|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||6 October 1949|
|Czechoslovak Republic||4 October 1949|
|Republic of Poland||7 October 1949|
|Mongolian People's Republic||16 October 1949|
|German Democratic Republic||27 October 1949|
|People's Republic of Albania||23 November 1949|
|Canada||13 October 1970|
|Republic of Equatorial Guinea||15 October 1970|
|Italian Republic||6 November 1970|
|Ethiopian Empire (now the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)||24 November 1970|
|Republic of Chile||15 December 1970|
|Federal Republic of Nigeria||10 February 1971|
|State of Kuwait||22 March 1971|
|Republic of Cameroon||26 March 1971|
|Republic of San Marino||6 May 1971|
|Republic of Austria||28 May 1971|
|Republic of Sierra Leone||29 July 1971|
|Republic of Turkey||4 August 1971|
|Imperial State of Iran (now the Islamic Republic of Iran)||16 August 1971|
Recognition of the PRC after it was seated at the UNEdit
The Republic of China, which had occupied China's seat at the United Nations since 1945, was effectively expelled on 25 October 1971, through Resolution 2758 approved in the general assembly of said date. Its seat was taken over by the People's Republic of China from 15 November 1971, and the migration of relations to the PRC soon followed among members of the Western Bloc, except for the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy and the Scandinavian Countries which had previously established diplomatic relations.
|Republic of Ecuador||2 January 1980|
|Republic of Colombia||7 February 1980|
|Republic of Zimbabwe||18 April 1980|
|Republic of Kiribati||25 June 1980|
|Republic of Vanuatu||26 March 1982|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1 January 1983|
|People's Republic of Angola (now the Republic of Angola)||12 January 1983|
|Republic of Côte d'Ivoire||2 March 1983|
|Kingdom of Lesotho||30 April 1983|
|United Arab Emirates||1 November 1984|
|Republic of Bolivia (now the Plurinational State of Bolivia)||9 July 1985|
|Grenada||1 October 1985|
|Republic of Nicaragua||7 December 1985|
|Belize||6 February 1987|
|Eastern Republic of Uruguay||3 February 1988|
|State of Qatar||9 July 1988|
|State of Palestine||20 November 1988|
|State of Bahrain (now the Kingdom of Bahrain)||18 April 1989|
|Federated States of Micronesia||11 September 1989|
|Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste||20 May 2002|
|Republic of Nauru||21 July 2002|
|Commonwealth of Dominica||31 March 2004|
|Republic of Montenegro (now Montenegro)||6 July 2006|
|Republic of Costa Rica||1 June 2007|
|Niue||12 December 2007|
|Republic of Malawi||28 December 2007|
|Republic of South Sudan||9 July 2011|
|Republic of Panama||13 June 2017|
|Dominican Republic||1 May 2018|
|Republic of El Salvador||21 August 2018|
|Solomon Islands||21 September 2019|
Notes and referencesEdit
- Succeeded by the Russian Federation
- Succeeded by Ukraine though official relations began on 4 January 1992. The Ukrainian SSR was the founding member of the United Nations and in accordance to The Law of Ukraine on Succession of Ukraine, the Ukraine continues all "rights and duties pursuant to international agreements of Union SSR which do not contradict the Constitution of Ukraine and interests of the Republic".
- Succeeded by the Republic of Belarus though official relations began on 20 January 1992. Belarus, one of the 51 original signatories to the United Nations Charter, is the legal successor of the Byelorussian SSR and in the Constitution Article 142: "Laws, decrees and other acts which were applied in the territory of the Republic of Belarus prior to the entry into force of the present Constitution shall apply in the particular parts thereof that are not contrary to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus."
- Succeeded by the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
- Succeeded by the Federal Republic of Germany (reunified Germany) on 3 October 1990.
- On 6 January 1950, the United Kingdom recognized the PRC and requested the exchange of ambassadors, but this was refused. The UK and The Netherlands established diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level with the PRC on 17 June 1954 and 19 November 1954 respectively. The PRC government does not regard the semi-diplomatic relations at chargé d'affaires level as formal diplomatic ties. The UK does. The PRC consented to the exchange of ambassadors with the UK on 13 March 1972 and with The Netherlands on 18 May 1972. See Sino-British relations for further details.
- "Britain Recognizes Chinese Communists: Note delivered in Peking". The Times. London. 7 January 1950. p. 6. ISSN 0140-0460.
- Bilateral relations between Switzerland and China (page visited on 19 August 2014).
- Official diplomatic telegram on 17 January 1950 from President of the Swiss Confederation, Max Petitpierre, to Mao Zedong in the Dodis database of the Diplomatic Documents of Switzerland.
- Republic of Serbia attempted to succeed but all other former Yugoslav Republics deferred the attempt, and no consensus was reached in the first period. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia est. 1992-02-28 was not granted successorship and was placed under international sanctions. In 2001 an Agreement on Succession Issues was signed and reached validity in 2004, by the provisions of that Agreement FRY is not the successor of SFRY. Serbia and Montenegro succeeded the United Nations seat of the FRY (joined the UN as a new member on 2000-11-01) "Succession" of recognition by Serbia, successor state of Serbia and Montenegro is due to international law inadmissible. Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia Opinion No. 10 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Serbia and Montenegro). In this decision, the Commission ruled that the FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) could not legally be considered a continuation of the former SFRY, but was rather a new state. Thus the European Community (and the UN) should not automatically recognize the FRY, but apply to it the same criteria applied to the recognition of the other post-SFRY states.
- "Diplomatic Ties Between China and African Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Succeeded by the Republic of Yemen. Date of establishment of diplomatic relations was set back to 24 September 1956.
- "Bilateral Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Congo (Kin)". The Kinshasa-side's state was officially named "Republic of Congo" at the time.
- Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar from 26 April 1964.
- Zanzibar merged into mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 October 1971 after Burundi unilaterally severed relations on 29 January 1965.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 January 1998. CAR resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 8 July 1991.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 29 December 1972. Dahomey resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 12 April 1966.
- Succeeded by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 July 1976.
- Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 15 July 1991.
- Senegal resumed diplomatic relations with the ROC on 6 January 1996. Ties with the PRC were severed from 9 January 1996, until 25 October 2005, when ties were resumed.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 6 August 2006. Diplomatic relations were severed on 15 August 1997 after Chad resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 12 August 1997.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 26 May 2018. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 4 February 1994 after Burkina Faso resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 2 February 1994.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 13 April 1998. Guinea Bissau recognized the ROC on 26 May 1990.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 19 August 1996. PRC suspended diplomatic relations on 19 July 1992 after Niger resumed ties with the ROC on 30 June 1992.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 17 March 2016. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 25 July 1995. Gambia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 13 July 1995.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 26 December 2016. Diplomatic relations were severed by PRC on 12 July 1997.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 10 August 1993. Liberia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 9 October 1989. Diplomatic relations with the PRC has been severed since 9 September 1997 because the Liberian Government's recognition of a "Two Chinas" Policy. However, the PRC and Liberia normalized their relations on 11 October 2003.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 27 September 2019. Diplomatic relations were severed by the PRC on 29 November 2003 after Kiribati recognized the ROC on 7 November 2003.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 12 January 1994. Lesotho resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 5 April 1990.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 20 January 2005. Grenada recognized the ROC on 19 July 1989.
- Diplomatic relations were severed on 9 November 1990. Nicaragua resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 6 November 1990.
- Diplomatic relations were severed on 23 October 1989. Belize recognized the ROC on 11 October 1989.
- Relations by PLO from 22 March 1965.
- Diplomatic relations were severed on 11 December 1998. Marshall Islands recognized the ROC on 20 November 1998.
- "China | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". vm.ee. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Dates of establishment and renewal of diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "China | Bilateral cooperation | Lithuania in the Region and the World | Foreign Policy | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- Diplomatic relations were restored on 18 June 2001. North Macedonia recognized diplomatic ties with the ROC on 27 January 1999.
- Diplomatic relations were raised to ambassadorial level on 6 February 2006.
- Diplomatic relations were severed on 5 May 2007. St. Lucia resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 30 April 2007.
- Diplomatic relations were severed on 31 May 2005. Nauru resumed diplomatic ties with the ROC on 14 May 2005.
- "Panama cuts ties with Taiwan for China". BBC News. 13 June 2017. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the People's Republic of China and the Dominican Republic".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)