Yap State

The State of Yap, also known in the Yapese language as "Nam nu Wa'ab" (lit., "Island of Yap") or simply as Wa'ab, is one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The other states are Kosrae State, Pohnpei State, and Chuuk State.

Yap State
Nam nu Wa'ab (Literally, "Island/ Country of Yap")
State
State of Yap
Flag of Yap
Official seal of Yap State
Nickname(s): 
The Island of Stone Money
Map of the State of Yap
Map of the State of Yap
Coordinates: 9°32′N 138°07′E / 9.533°N 138.117°E / 9.533; 138.117Coordinates: 9°32′N 138°07′E / 9.533°N 138.117°E / 9.533; 138.117
CountryFederated States of Micronesia
CapitalColonia
Government
 • GovernorHenry Falan
Area
 • Total119.54 km2 (46.15 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total11,577
 • Density97/km2 (250/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Yapese
 • Summer (DST)Yap Time (YAPT, UTC + 10)
Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)
96943
ISO 3166 codeFM-YAP
Websitewww.yapstategov.org
1886 Spanish nautical map, shows Olimaraos, Piagailoe (West Fayu), Pikelot, Elato, Lamotrek and Woleai islands

Colonia is the capital of Yap State, which administers both the Yap Main Islands and the island of Satawal, as well as fourteen atolls reaching to the east and south for some 800 km (500 mi). Historically, a tributary system existed between the Neighboring Islands and the Yap Main Islands. This probably related to the need for goods from the high islands, including food, as well as wood for construction of seagoing vessels.

According to the FSM Statistics Office, the population of Colonia and the municipalities of the State of Yap was 11,577 in 2020.[1] The state has a total land area of 102 km2 (39 sq mi).[2]

HistoryEdit

The islands are thought to have been populated from the Malay Archipelago. In approximately 950 A.D. it was the seat of the Yapese Empire contemporary to the Tu'i Tonga Empire. The outer islands, now part of the Yap state, were settled from Polynesia.

The island nation formerly used stone disks as currency. Since this stone money had to be made from a rock that could not be extracted on the island, its value derived from the dangers taken on expeditions to obtain it, mostly from Palau.

The first Westerners to visit the island were the Portuguese in 1525 when the navigator Diego Da Rocha arrived in Ulithi and stayed there for four months.

The Caroline Islands were under Spanish rule from the 16th century until the end of the 19th century, but most of the communities on the islands of the present state of Yap have little contact with Europeans and live in complete independence. In 1885, following a conflict between Spain and Germany, the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII confirmed possession to Spain against commercial advantages for Germany. On June 30, 1899, after the Spanish-American War, Spain sold the Carolines, the Palau Islands and the majority of the Marianas to the German Empire. At the start of the First World War, in 1914, the Empire of Japan occupied the area. This occupation is legalized within the framework of the Mandate of the Pacific Islands created in 1919 by the League of Nations.

The Caroline Islands came under the control of the United States in 1944, which administered them as a Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands under a UN mandate received in 1947. On May 10, 1979, Yap ratified the Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia and became an integral part of this new nation with official independence on November 3, 1986. The state was once the Yap District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

GeographyEdit

 
A detailed map of Yap.

The State of Yap is the westernmost state of the FSM. To the east from near to far are Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae. It consists of the four main islands of Rumung, Maap, Gagil-Tamil and Yap Proper (Marbaa') in addition to 134 smaller islands southwest and east of Yap. The State stretches from the Yap main islands to towards the east to Chuuk for 1,200 to 1,500 kilometres.[3]

The Yapese Main Islands are located approximately 800 kilometres southwest of Guam, 3,200 kilometres from Tokyo, 2,000 kilometres from Manila, and 8,000 kilometres from Honolulu.

LanguagesEdit

The State of Yap has five official languages: English, Ulithian, Woleaian, Satawalese and Yapese.[4]

DemographicsEdit

According to the FSM Statistics Division, the 2020 population of Yap State is 11,577. The State has the third-largest population among the states in the FSM, with Chuuk and Pohnpei leading in this order.[5] The population of the state consists mainly of the local Yapese, Ulithians, Woleaians and Satawalese people; however, the state has been seeing the rise in the number of foreign citizens from countries such as the United States, Japan, Palau and the Philippines.

ReligionEdit

According to the 2018 International Religious Freedom Report compiled by the US State Department, an estimated 80% of the state population is Catholic and the remainder is Protestant. Religious affiliation tend to follow clan lines. A majority of foreign citizens in the FSM and the state is made up of Filipino Catholics.[6]

MunicipalitiesEdit

 
Falalop Island, Woleai Atoll

The State of Yap is divided into 21 municipalities with each municipality having a number of village units incorporated through customs and historically set boundary lines.[7] Each municipality can be placed in one of five main island groupings: Rumung, Maap, Gagil-Tamil, Marbaa' and the Neighbouring Islands. The first four groupings are part of Yap Proper.

These municipalities are listed with their populations at the 2010 Census:[8]

Municipalities (Population, 2010 Census)
Yap Main Islands (7,371) Neighbouring Islands (4,006)
Rumung Maap Gagil-Tamil Marbaa'
Rumung (58) Maap (621) Gagil (863) Fanif (509) Eauripik (114)
Tamil (1,231) Weloy (1,031) Elato (105)
Dalipebinaw (397) Fais (294)
Kanifay (314) Faraulep (193)
Rull (2,095) Ifalik (578)
Gilman (252) Lamotrek (329)
Ngulu (6)
Satawal (501)
Sorol (0)
Ulithi (847)
Woleai (1,039)

Politics and governmentEdit

The State of Yap is one of the four federal states of the Federated States of Micronesia. As a democratic federation, each state has the ability to retain large number of power within the state as well as a certain level of sovereignty typical of federal states. As such, the State adheres to both the FSM National Constitution as well as the Yap State Constitution to develop policies and regulations.

The State Government is unique due to the fact that it consists of four government branches each serving a specific function for policymaking. The Executive Branch consists of the Governor as well as the Lieutenant Governor along with the members of the government departments affiliated with the branch. The Executive Branch is responsible for executing laws and administering government services. The Yap State Legislature makes up the Legislative Branch, which is responsible for creating, debating and passing bills for the Executive Branch to approve into law and enforce. The Yap State Court makes up the Judicial Branch, which is responsible for making sure laws passed do not violate the state and national constitutions. The unique traditional branch vests its power into two groups of Yapese chiefs. The group of Yap Main Island chiefs is known as Council of Pilung, and the group for Yapese outer island chiefs is known as the Council of Tamol. The two councils make sure whether proposed bills do not violate local traditional customs and regulate cultural issues.[3]

Information about some of the state government leaders and administrative staff are included below.

Legislative Branch: Legislature of the State of Yap
Roles/Responsibilities Individual
Speaker of the Legislature Hon. Vincent A Figir
Vice Speaker Hon. John J Masiwemai
Floor Leader Hon. Jerry G. Fagolimul
Chairman, Committee on Finance Hon. Nicholas Figirlaarwon
Vice Chairman, Committee on Finance Hon. Kensley Ikosia
Chairman, Committee on Health and Welfare Hon. Theodore "Ted" Rutun
Vice Chairman, Committee on Health and Welfare Hon. Jesse Raglmar-Subolmar
Chairman, Committee on Resources, Education and Development Hon. Joseph Giliko'
Vice Chairman, Committee on Resources, Education and Development Hon. John Mafel
Other Members Hon. Joseph B. Tiuchemal
Chief Clerk Dee N. Libian
Assistant Chief Clerk Ben Chosmal
Budget Officer Elaine T. Chugen
Administrative Secretary Elizabeth Laayow
Legislative Counsel Leelkan Dabchuren, Esq.
Assistant Legislative Counsel Genevieve M. Mangefel
 
A bridge in Yap Island in 1932 during the Japanese Imperial Administration of the islands.
Executive Branch
Roles/Responsibilities Individual
Governor Hon. Henry S. Falan
Lieutenant Governor Hon. Jesse J. Salalu
Attorney General
Chief, Division of Public Safety Daniel G. Ramngen
Director, Administrative Services Gabriel Ramoloilug
Director, Planning and Budget Francis Itimai
Director, Youth and Civic Affairs Constantine Yowblaw
Director, Department of Resources & Development Arlene S. Chugen
Director, Department of Public Works & Transportation Jonathan Marmar
Director, Department of Health Services Dr. Aileen Tareg
Director, Department of Education Pamela Legdesog
 
The Yap Monarch, the State Bird of Yap. The bird is native exclusively to the Yapese Main Islands.
Judicial Branch: Yap State Court
Roles/Responsibilities Individual
Chief Justice Hon. Cyprian Manmaw
Associate Justice Hon. Jesse Torwan
Hon. Jonathan M. Tun
Yap State Court Counsel Seema Shaw, Esq.
Clerk of Court Julianne Giley
Court Administrator Libuw Pongliyab
 
Yapese dancers in traditional dress celebrating Yap Day through a men's standing dance.
Traditional Leaders: Council of Pilung, Council of Tamol
Roles/Responsibilities Individual
Chairman, Council of Pilung Hon. Bruno Tharngan
Chairman, Council of Tamol Hon. Ramon Peyal
Select Government Agencies/Organisations
Roles/Responsibilities Individual
Public Defender [VACANT]
MLSC, Dir. Attorney John T. Mootmag, Esq.
Director, Yap Environmental Protection Agency Christina Fillmed
Director, Yap Community Action Program Sabino Sauchomal
Director, Yap Investment Trust Patricia D. Moonfel
Director, Yap Fishing Authority Paul Ayin
Director, Yap State Public Service Corporation Faustino Yangmog
Director, Yap State Public Library Erica Ruepin
Director, Yap Visitors Authority Don Evans
Director, Yap Sports Council Office Lawrence Uwelur

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Yap
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
34
(93)
34
(93)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(94)
34
(93)
36
(96)
34
(94)
34
(94)
34
(94)
36
(96)
36
(96)
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
31.1
(88.0)
31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
30.7
(87.3)
30.6
(87.1)
30.8
(87.4)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
30.4
(86.7)
30.7
(87.3)
30.7
(87.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27.1
(80.8)
27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
Average low °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 19
(67)
19
(66)
19
(66)
19
(67)
18
(65)
19
(66)
18
(65)
19
(66)
19
(66)
17
(63)
18
(65)
17
(63)
17
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 186
(7.33)
152
(5.98)
151
(5.96)
146
(5.76)
230
(9.06)
322
(12.69)
369
(14.54)
386
(15.20)
343
(13.51)
304
(11.97)
230
(9.07)
228
(8.99)
3,050
(120.06)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 16.8 13.4 13.7 12.6 17.1 20.2 21.2 20.9 19.3 20.1 18.7 17.6 211.6
Average relative humidity (%) 82 81 80 79 81 83 84 84 84 84 83 83 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 210.8 211.9 251.1 255.0 244.9 201.0 189.1 176.7 180.0 170.5 192.0 198.4 2,481.4
Source 1: Weatherbase[9]
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun, precipitation 1961–1990)[10]

EconomyEdit

 
US patrol vessels in Tamil Harbour, Yap Island.

The current price GDP per capita as of Fiscal Year 2018 was US$52 million while the constant price GDP per capita was US$40 million.[11] The largest industries in the State based on the FY 2018 were 1) agriculture, forestry and hunting; 2) fisheries and 3) wholesale, retail trade and repairs.[12] According to the 2010 Labour Market Statistics data compiled by the FSM Statistics Office, 67% of the total state population is in the labour force, the highest percentage of people in the labour force in the entire nation. The majority of those in the labour force are in formal work while the rest are in home production, which includes subsistence.[13]

Yap has a relatively small tourism industry, with the Yap Visitors Bureau reporting only 4,000 annual visitors from 2010 to 2017.[14] China's Exhibition & Travel Group has announced plans to develop a 4,000-unit resort on the island.[14] Business that contribute to the state's tourism share of state GDP are Manta Ray Resort and Spa, ESA, and Yap Pacific Dive Resort.

The largest retail businesses in the State are Yap Cooperative Association (YCA) General Store, Guang Mao Enterprises and EMI Enterprises. These businesses contribute largely to the State's retail and wholesale sector.

The State also has a small but important financial sector that support the investment and capital needs of the population, local small- and medium-enterprises (SMEs), the government and state institutions, and academic sector. It has five financial services institutions: the Bank of Guam (BOG),[15] the Bank of the Federated States of Micronesia (BFSM), Community Ayuw Services Credit Union, Western Union, and the FSM Development Bank.[16]

The State is now expected to be one of the fastest growing economies in the country as technological innovation is highly encouraged. Although the FSM communications industry is largely monopolised by the state-operated FSM Telecommunications Corporation based in Pohnpei, Yap saw the rise of the tech startup company iBoom when the company is expected to utilise the National Government's Digital FSM Project 2017 grant funding from the World Bank to connect each home, work office, etc.[17] iBoom is expected to challenge previous monopoly of the FSM Telecom Corporation through competitive pricing and services.

TransportationEdit

Yap International Airport receives service from United Airlines as well as Pacific Mission Aviation. The state also has a small dockyard, colloquially known as Gampek, in Colonia just south of Tamil Harbour that services maritime vessels for inter-state and cross-border transport and freight.

EducationEdit

Post-secondary institutions:

State secondary schools:[18]

Private Secondary and Elementary Schools:

Notable peopleEdit

  • John Mangefel: FSM Founding Father; First State Governor
  • Petrus Tun: FSM Founding Father; first FSM Vice President; Second State Governor
  • Jennifer Chieng: Boxer and mixed martial artist (MMA)
  • Larry Raigetal: Master navigator
  • Lubuw Falanruw: Founder of tech startup iBoom; technology entrepreneur
  • Bartola Garrido: Chamorrita interpreter during the Spanish colonial period

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population Statistics – FSM Statistics". Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  2. ^ "FSM Population". Fsmgov.org. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  3. ^ a b "Yap - Legal Information System of the Federated States of Micronesia". fsmlaw.org. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  4. ^ "Yap, Federated States of Micronesia". Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  5. ^ "Population Statistics – FSM Statistics". Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  6. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2018" (PDF). US Department of State. US Department of State. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  7. ^ Census 1987 with village population figures
  8. ^ 2010 Census Basic Table - Yap
  9. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Yap, Federated States of Micronesia". Weatherbase. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Climatological Information for Yap, Pacific Islands, United States". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  11. ^ "FSM and States: Current and constant price GDP, GDP per capita, FY2007-FY2018". FSM National Accounts detailed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  12. ^ "Yap: Share of GDP by industry, current prices, FY2007-FY2018". FSM National Accounts detailed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  13. ^ "Labour Market Statistics detailed". FSM Statistics Office. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  14. ^ a b Lin, Daniel (15 August 2017). "This Pacific Island Is Caught in a Global Power Struggle (And It's Not Guam)". 'National Geographic'.
  15. ^ Bank of Guam
  16. ^ FSM Development Bank
  17. ^ McClure, Joyce (2021-03-10). "The little island that could: Yap takes the lead in digital communications for FSM". pactimes. Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  18. ^ "Higher Education in the Federated States of Micronesia." Embassy of the Federated States of Micronesia Washington DC. Retrieved on 23 February 2018.
  19. ^ "ABOUT YCHS." Yap Catholic High School. Retrieved on 22 February 2018.

External linksEdit