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The 828-metre (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the world's tallest building since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]
Schematic of the tallest buildings in the world in 2015

This list ranks skyscrapers by height. Only buildings with continuously occupiable floors are included, thus non-building structures, including towers, are not included. (See List of tallest buildings and structures.)

Contents

Ranking criteria and alternatives

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] The CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete however, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (100 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world (350 m+)

As of 2018, this list includes all 56 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,148 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 27 (48%) are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 24 and 25 on the list (or 23 and 24 since it can be assumed One World Trade Center would have never been built).

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Building[A] City Country Height (m)[3] Height (ft) Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 828 m 2,717 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai   China 632 m[9] 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Mecca   Saudi Arabia 601 m[10] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Centre Shenzhen   China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2017
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 554.5 m 1,819 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center New York City   United States 541.3 m 1,776 ft 104 2014
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou   China 530 m[11] 1,739 ft 111 2016
Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin   China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2018
9 China Zun Beijing   China 528 m 1,732 ft 108 2018
10 Taipei 101 Taipei   Taiwan 508 m[12] 1,667 ft 101 2004
11 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai   China 492 m 1,614 ft 101 2008
12 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong   China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
13 Lakhta Center[13] St. Petersburg   Russia 462 m 1,516 ft 86 2018
14 Landmark 81 Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam 461.2 m 1,513 ft 81 2018
15 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha   China 452.1 m 1,483 ft 88 2017
16 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
18 Zifeng Tower Nanjing   China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2010
Suzhou IFS Suzhou   China 450 m 1,476 ft 92 2017
20 The Exchange 106 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 445.5 m 1,461 ft 96 2018
21 Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) Chicago   United States 442.1 m 1,450 ft  108 1974
22 KK100 Shenzhen   China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
23 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou   China 440 m 1,440 ft 103 2010
24 Wuhan Center Wuhan   China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2016[B]
25 432 Park Avenue New York City   United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 88 2015
26 Marina 101 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2015[B]
27 Trump International Hotel and Tower[14] Chicago   United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 98 2009
28 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai   China 421 m 1,380 ft 88 1999
29 Princess Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
30 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City   Kuwait 413 m 1,354 ft 80 2011
31 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong   China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
32 China Resources Headquarters Shenzhen   China 392.5 m 1,288 ft 67 2017
33 23 Marina Dubai   United Arab Emirates 392.4 m 1,287 ft 89 2012
34 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou   China 390.2 m 1,280 ft 80 1996
35 Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 Shenzhen   China 388.1 m 1,273 ft 80 2017
36 30 Hudson Yards New York City   United States 386.6 m 1,268 ft 73 2018
37 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh   Saudi Arabia 385 m 1,263 ft 77 2016
38 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen   China 384 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
39 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian   China 383 m 1,257 ft 81 2015
40 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning   China 381.3 m 1,251 ft 82 2017
41 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Abu Dhabi   United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,251 ft 88 2014
42 Empire State Building New York City   United States 381 m 1,250 ft 102 1931
43 Elite Residence Dubai   United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,248 ft 87 2012
44 Central Plaza Hong Kong   China 373.9 m 1,226 ft 78 1992
45 Federation Tower (East Tower)[16] Moscow   Russia 373.7 m 1,226 ft 95 2016
46 Dalian International Trade Center Dalian   China 370.2 m 1,214 ft 86 2018
47 The Address the BLVD Dubai   United Arab Emirates 370 m 1,214 ft 72 2017
48 Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A Nanjing   China 368.1 m 1,208 ft 76 2018
49 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong   China 367 m 1,205 ft 70 1990
50 Bank of America Tower New York City   United States 365.8 m 1,200 ft 54 2009
51 Almas Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 363 m 1,191 ft 68 2009
52 Gevora Hotel Dubai   United Arab Emirates 356.3 m 1,169 ft 75 2017
53 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
55 Emirates Office Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,163 ft 54 2000
56 Raffles City Chongqing T3N[17] Chongqing   China 354.5 m 1,163 ft 79 2018
57 OKO Tower - South Tower Moscow   Russia 354 m 1,160 ft 85 2015
58 The Marina Torch Dubai   United Arab Emirates 352 m 1,155 ft 86 2011
59 Forum 66 Tower 1 Shenyang   China 350.6 m 1,150 ft 68 2015
60 The Pinnacle Guangzhou   China 350.3 m 1,149 ft 60 2012
61 Hanking Center Shenzhen   China 350 m 1,148 ft 73 2017
Xi An Glory International Financial Center[18] Xi'an   China 350 m 1,148 ft 75 2017

Gallery

Alternative measurements

Height to pinnacle (highest point)

 
Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now called Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

bold †Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai   China 632 m 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca   Saudi Arabia 601 m[10] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen   China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 555.7 m 1,823 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center New York City   United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
7 CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou   China 530 m[11] 1,739 ft 111 2016
7 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin   China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2017
9 China Zun Beijing   China 528 m 1,732 ft 108 2018
10 Willis Tower Chicago   United States 527 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
11 Taipei 101 Taipei   Taiwan 508 m 1,667 ft 101 2004
12 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai   China 494.3 m 1,622 ft 101 2008
13 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong   China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
14 Landmark 81 Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam 469.5 m 1,513 ft 81 2018
15 Lakhta Center[13] St. Petersburg   Russia 462 m 1,516 ft 86 2018
16 John Hancock Center Chicago   United States 456.9 m 1,499 ft 100 1969
17 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha   China 452 m 1,483 ft 94 2017
18 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
18 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
20 Zifeng Tower Nanjing   China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
21 Suzhou IFS Suzhou   China 450 m 1,476 ft 98 2017
22 The Exchange 106 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 445.5 m 1,461 ft 96 2018
23 Empire State Building New York City   United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
24 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen   China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
25 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou   China 438.6 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
26 Wuhan Center Wuhan   China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2017
27 432 Park Avenue New York City   United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 85 2015
28 Marina 101 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2017
29 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago   United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 96 2009
30 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai   China 421 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
31 Princess Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
32 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City   Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
33 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong   China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003

Height to occupied floor

This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 584.5 m (1,918 ft) 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai   China 583.4 m (1,914 ft) 128 2015
3 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen   China 562.2 m (1,844 ft) 115 2016
4 China Zun Beijing   China 515 m (1,690 ft) 108 2018
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 497.6 m (1,633 ft) 123 2016
6 CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou   China 495.5 m (1,626 ft) 111 2016
7 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca   Saudi Arabia 494.4 m (1,622 ft) 120 2012
8 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai   China 474 m (1,555 ft) 101 2008
9 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong   China 468.8 m (1,538 ft) 118 2010
10 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin   China 439.4 m (1,442 ft) 98 2017
11 Taipei 101 Taipei   Taiwan 438 m (1,437 ft) 101 2004
12 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha   China 437.1 m (1,434 ft) 94 2017
13 KK100 Shenzhen   China 427.1 m (1,401 ft) 100 2011
14 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou   China 415.1 m (1,362 ft) 103 2010
15 Willis Tower Chicago   United States 412.7 m (1,354 ft) 108 1974
16 Suzhou IFS Suzhou   China 406.4 m (1,333 ft) 98 2017

Buildings under construction

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 metres that are currently under construction. More than half of the buildings are located in China.

Building Planned architectural height Floors Planned completion Country City Ref.
Jeddah Tower 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 167+ 2021   Saudi Arabia Jeddah [19]
Wuhan CTF Centre 648 m (2,126 ft) 121 2022   China Wuhan
KL118 644 m (2,113 ft) 118 2024   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Rama IX Super Tower 615 m (2,018 ft) 118 2021   Thailand Bangkok [20]
Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center 568 m (1,864 ft) 114 2018   China Shenyang
Evergrande IFC 1 518 m (1,699 ft) 112 2021   China Hefei [21]
Central Park Tower 472 m (1,549 ft) 99 2020   United States New York City
Wuhan Greenland Center 472 m (1,549 ft) 96 ?   China Wuhan
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2018   China Chengdu
Corporate Avenue 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 99 2019   China Chongqing [22]
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2018   China Wuhan
111 West 57th Street 435.3 m (1,428 ft) 82 2019   United States New York City
Akhmat Tower 435 m (1,427 ft) 100 2020   Russia Grozny
Diamond Tower 432 m (1,417 ft) 93 2019   Saudi Arabia Jeddah [23]
Chongqing Tall Tower 431 m (1,414 ft) 101 ?   China Chongqing [24]
Haikou Tower 428 m (1,404 ft) 94 2020   China Haikou
Shandong IFC 428 m (1,404 ft) 86 2022   China Jinan [25]
One Vanderbilt 427 m (1,401 ft) 58 2021   United States New York City [26]
Dongguan International Trade Center 1 427 m (1,401 ft) 88 2019   China Dongguan
Skyfame Center Landmark Tower 420 m (1,380 ft) 90 2021   China Nanning [27]
Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower 411.6 m (1,350 ft) 101 2019   South Korea Busan
Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower 407 m (1,335 ft) 100 2020   China Kunming [28]
Guangxi China Resources Tower 402.7 m (1,321 ft) 85 2019   China Nanning
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1 401 m (1,316 ft) 79 2021   China Guiyang [29]
La Maison by HDS 386.5 m (1,268 ft) 105 2021   United Arab Emirates Dubai [30]
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 75 2019   Kazakhstan Astana
Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower 380 m (1,250 ft) ? 2021   China Guiyang [31]
Shenzhen Center 375.6 m (1,232 ft) 80 2019   China Shenzhen
Guangdong Business Center 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 60 ?   China Guangzhou [32]
Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2019   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [33]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 ?   Malaysia Johor Bahru [34]
Xujiahui Center Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 70 ?   China Shanghai [35]
Hai Tian Center Tower 2 369 m (1,211 ft) 72 2021   China Qingdao [36]
45 Broad Street 365.8 m (1,200 ft) 68 2021   United States New York City
VietinBank Business Center Office Tower 363.2 m (1,192 ft) 70 2018   Vietnam Hanoi
Wanda Vista 362.9 m (1,191 ft) 93 2020   United States Chicago
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft)[37] 90 ?   India Mumbai
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2018   China Suzhou [38]
Il Primo Tower 1 356 m (1,168 ft) 88 2021   United Arab Emirates Dubai [39]
S Residence by Immo 356 m (1,168 ft) 80 2020   United Arab Emirates Dubai [40]
Raffles City Chongqing T4N 354.5 m (1,163 ft) 79 2019   China Chongqing [17]
Gezhouba International Plaza 350 m (1,150 ft) 69 ?   China Wuhan
Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?   China Harbin [41]

List by continent

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 160 2010   United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014   United States New York City
Europe Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018   Russia St. Petersburg
Oceania Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005   Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[42] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012   Chile Santiago
Africa Carlton Centre 225.5 m (740 ft) 50 1973   South Africa Johannesburg
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[43] 15 m (49 ft) - 2005[44]   Antarctica McMurdo Station

See also

Notes

A. ^ Destroyed buildings not included
B. ^ Topped out but not completed.

References

  1. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  2. ^ "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  5. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009. 
  6. ^ Binders, George (August 2006). 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings. p. 102.
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  8. ^ "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  9. ^ "China tallest building, Shanghai Tower, gets final beam". 3 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "Lakhta Center : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "Princess Tower | Buildings". Dubai /: Emporis. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  16. ^ "Federation Tower". federationtower.com/. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  17. ^ a b "Raffles City Chongqing Complex". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  18. ^ "Xi An Glory International Financial Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  19. ^ "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-12-28. 
  20. ^ "Rama IX Super Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  21. ^ "Evergrande IFC 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  22. ^ "Corporate Avenue 1 : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  23. ^ "Diamond Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  24. ^ "Chongqing Tall Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  25. ^ "Shandong IFC". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  26. ^ "One Vanderbilt". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  27. ^ "Skyfame Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  28. ^ "Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  29. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  30. ^ "La Maison by HDS". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  31. ^ "Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  32. ^ "Guangdong Business Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  33. ^ "Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  34. ^ "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  35. ^ "Xujiahui Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  36. ^ "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  37. ^ "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  38. ^ "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014. 
  39. ^ "Il Primo Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  40. ^ "S Residence by Immo". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  41. ^ "Agricultural Development Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  42. ^ "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14. 
  43. ^ Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  44. ^ Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine., NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External links