Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn

The official romanization system for Taiwanese Hokkien in Taiwan is locally referred to as Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn or Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an (lit.'Taiwanese Hokkien Romanization Solution'),[I][1] often shortened to Tâi-lô. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the phonetic notation systems officially promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[2] The system is used in the MoE's Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan. It is nearly identical to Pe̍h-ōe-jī, apart from: using ts tsh instead of ch chh, using u instead of o in vowel combinations such as oa and oe, using i instead of e in eng and ek, using oo instead of , and using nn instead of .

Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn
Traditional Chinese臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese台湾闽南语罗马字拼音方案
Literal meaningTaiwanese Hokkien Romanization Solution
Tâi-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn
Traditional Chinese臺語羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese台语罗马字拼音方案
Literal meaningTaiwanese (language) Romanization Solution
Tâi-lô
Traditional Chinese臺羅拼音
Simplified Chinese台罗拼音
Taiwanese Romanization System

Alphabet edit

The Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter Lower case IPA Letter name (variant 1) Letter name (variant 2)
A a [a] a a
B b [b] bi be
E e [e] e e
G g [ɡ] gi ge
H h [h, ʔ] hi ha
I i [i] i i
J j [d͡z] ji je
K k [k] ki ka
Kh kh [kʰ] khi kha
L l [l] li e-luh
M m [m] mi e-muh
N n [n] ni e-nuh
Ng ng [ŋ] ngi nge
NN nn [◌̃] inn enn
O o [o] o o
Oo oo [ɔ] oo oo
P p [p] pi pe
Ph ph [pʰ] phi phe
S s [s] si e-suh
T t [t] ti te
Th th [tʰ] thi the
Ts ts [t͡s] tsi tse
Tsh tsh [t͡sʰ] tshi tshe
U u [u] u u
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it only appears capitalized in all-caps texts.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Sample texts edit

Tâi-lô
Pe̍h-uē-jī (PUJ) sī tsı̍t khuán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phìng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-uân ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-uī tong-tshoo sī thuân-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, sóo-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā PUJ kiò-tsò Kàu-huē Lô-má-jī, hı̍k-tsiá sī kán-tshing Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-tsiá bē-tsió m̄-sī kàu-tôo, kàu-tôo mā tsin tsē bē-hiáu PUJ.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) sī chı̍t khoán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phèng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-ôan ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-ūi tong-chho͘ sī thôan-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, só͘-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā POJ kiò-chò Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī, he̍k-chiá sī kán-chheng Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-chiá bē-chió m̄-sī kàu-tô͘, kàu-tô͘ mā chin chē bē-hiáu POJ.
Hàn-jī
白話字(POJ)是一款用拉丁(羅馬)拼音系統來寫臺灣的語言的書面文字。因為當初是傳教士引入來的,所以也有人共POJ叫做教會羅馬字,或者是簡稱教羅。不而過現代的使用者袂少毋是教徒,教徒嘛真濟袂曉POJ。
IPA
[peʔued͡ʑi (pi o d͡ʑe) ɕi t͡ɕiʔkʰuan ioŋ latin (loma) pʰiŋim hetʰoŋ lai ɕa taiuan e gigiɛn e subin bund͡ʑi inui toŋt͡sɔ ɕi tʰuankausu ind͡ʑiʔlai e sɔi iaʔulaŋ ka pi o d͡ʑi kiot͡so kauhue lomad͡ʑi hiʔt͡ɕia ɕi kant͡ɕʰiŋ kaulo puʔd͡ʑiko hiɛntai e suioŋt͡ɕia bet͡ɕio m̩ɕi kautɔ kautɔ ma t͡ɕin t͡se behiau pi o d͡ʑi ‖]

Values edit

Consonants edit

Initials
Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
(moo)
n [n]
(nāi)
ng [ŋ]
(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
(pian)
b [b]
(bûn)
t [t]
()
k [k]
(kiû)
g [g]
()
Aspirated ph [pʰ]
(pho)
th [tʰ]
(thann)
kh [kʰ]
(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
(tsan)
j [dz]
(jua̍h)
tsi [tɕ]
(tsiam)
ji [dʑ]
(ji̍p)
Aspirated tsh [tsʰ]
(tshut)
tshi [tɕʰ]
(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
(sann)
si [ɕ]
(siá)
h [h]
()
Lateral l [l] ~ [ɾ]
(liú)
Finals
Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal consonant -m [m]
-n [n]
-ng [ŋ]
Stop consonant -p [p̚]
-t [t̚]
-k [k̚]
-h [ʔ]
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m̩]
ㆬ 姆(ḿ)
ng [ŋ̍]
ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes edit

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Nasal Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
(i)
inn [ĩ]
(înn)
u [u]
(u)
unn [ũ]
(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
()
enn [ẽ]
(senn)
o[ə]
(ko)
oo [ɔ]
(oo)
onn [ɔ̃]
(onn)
Open a [a]
(tsa)
ann [ã]
(sann)
Dialect
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [ɨ]
er [ə]
ee [ɛ]
ere [əe] ㄜㆤ[a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[iə] io ioh
[iɔ] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[ə] o oh
[ɔ] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m̩] m mh
[ŋ̍] ng ngh
  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

Tones edit

Tone No. 1 2 (= 6) 3 4 5 7 8
Name 陰平 上聲 陰去 陰入 陽平 陽去 陽入
im-pîng siōng-siann im-khì im-ji̍p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji̍p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
◌́ ◌̀ ◌̂ ◌̄ ◌̍
Pitch ˥ ˥˩ ˧˩ ˧ʔ ˨˦ ˧ ˥ʔ
55 51 31 24 33
Example tong (東) tóng (黨) tòng (棟) tok (督) tông (同) tōng (洞) to̍k (毒)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

Computing edit

Unicode codepoints edit

The following are tone characters and their respective Unicode codepoints used in Tâi-lô. The tones used by Tâi-lô should use Combining Diacritical Marks instead of Spacing Modifier Letters used by bopomofo.[4][5] As Tâi-lô is not encoded in Big5, the prevalent encoding used in Traditional Chinese, some Taiwanese Romanization System letters are not directly encoded in Unicode, instead should be typed using combining diacritical marks officially.[6]

Tâi-lô tone characters[1]
Base letter/Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 Tone 5 Tone 6 Tone 7 Tone 8 Tone 9
Combining mark ́ (U+0301) ̀ (U+0300) h ̂ (U+0302) ̌ (U+030C) ̄ (U+0304) ̍h (U+030D) ̋ (U+030B)
Uppercase A Á (U+00C1) À (U+00C0) AH Â (U+00C2) Ǎ (U+01CD) Ā (U+0100) A̍H (U+0041 U+030D) A̋ (U+0041 U+030B)
E É (U+00C9) È (U+00C8) EH Ê (U+00CA) Ě (U+011A) Ē (U+0112) E̍H (U+0045 U+030D) E̋ (U+0045 U+030B)
I Í (U+00CD) Ì (U+00CC) IH Î (U+00CE) Ǐ (U+01CF) Ī (U+012A) I̍H (U+0049 U+030D) I̋ (U+0049 U+030B)
O Ó (U+00D3) Ò (U+00D2) OH Ô (U+00D4) Ǒ (U+01D1) Ō (U+014C) O̍H (U+004F U+030D) Ő (U+0150)
U Ú (U+00DA) Ù (U+00D9) UH Û (U+00DB) Ǔ (U+01D3) Ū (U+016A) U̍H (U+0055 U+030D) Ű (U+0170)
M Ḿ (U+1E3E) M̀ (U+004D U+0300) MH M̂ (U+004D U+0302) M̌ (U+004D U+030C) M̄ (U+004D U+0304) M̍H (U+004D U+030D) M̋ (U+004D U+030B)
N Ń (U+0143) Ǹ (U+01F8) NH N̂ (U+004E U+0302) Ň (U+0147) N̄ (U+004E U+0304) N̍H (U+004E U+030D) N̋ (U+004E U+030B)
Lowercase a á (U+00E1) à (U+00E0) ah â (U+00E2) ǎ (U+01CE) ā (U+0101) a̍h (U+0061 U+030D) a̋ (U+0061 U+030B)
e é (U+00E9) è (U+00E8) eh ê (U+00EA) ě (U+011B) ē (U+0113) e̍h (U+0065 U+030D) e̋ (U+0065 U+030B)
i í (U+00ED) ì (U+00EC) ih î (U+00EE) ǐ (U+01D0) ī (U+012B) i̍h (U+0069 U+030D) i̋ (U+0069 U+030B)
o ó (U+00F3) ò (U+00F2) oh ô (U+00F4) ǒ (U+01D2) ō (U+014D) o̍h (U+006F U+030D) ő (U+0151)
u ú (U+00FA) ù (U+00F9) uh û (U+00FB) ǔ (U+01D4) ū (U+016B) u̍h (U+0075 U+030D) ű (U+0171)
m ḿ (U+1E3F) m̀ (U+006D U+0300) mh m̂ (U+006D U+0302) m̌ (U+006D U+030C) m̄ (U+006D U+0304) m̍h (U+006D U+030D) m̋ (U+006D U+030B)
n ń (U+0144) ǹ (U+01F9) nh n̂ (U+006E U+0302) ň (U+0148) n̄ (U+006E U+0304) n̍h (U+006E U+030D) n̋ (U+006E U+030B)
Notes
1.^ Yellow cells indicate that there are no single Unicode character for that letter; the character shown here uses Combining Diacritical Mark characters to display the letter.[5]

Characters not directly encoded in Unicode requires premade glyphs in fonts in order for applications to correctly display the characters.[5]

Font support edit

Fonts that currently support POJ includes:

Notes edit

  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le [zh], /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜ " is replaced with " ".

Words in native languages edit

  1. ^

References edit

  1. ^ "Táiwān mǐnnányǔ luómǎzì pīnyīn fāng'àn" 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案 [Taiwanese Hokkien Romanization Solution] (PDF) (in Traditional Chinese). 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2019 – via language.moe.edu.tw.
  2. ^ Táiwān mǐnnányǔ luómǎzì pīnyīn fāng'àn shǐyòng shǒucè 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Traditional Chinese) (2nd ed.). Ministry of Education (Taiwan). 2008 [first edition 2007]. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  3. ^ Táiwān mǐnnányǔ luómǎzì pīnyīn fāng'àn shǐyòng shǒucè 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Traditional Chinese). Ministry of Education (Taiwan). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-18. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
  4. ^ aiongg (2020-11-22). "aiongg/POJFonts". GitHub - POJ Fonts. Archived from the original on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  5. ^ a b c d Tseng Gorong (2019-01-11). "談金萱的台羅變音符號設計". justfont blog (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Archived from the original on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  6. ^ "FAQ - Characters and Combining Marks". unicode.org. Archived from the original on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  7. ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 24
  8. ^ "Fonts version 3.006 (OTF, TTF, WOFF, WOFF2, Variable)". GitHub. Adobe Systems Incorporated. 2010-09-06. Archived from the original on 2020-12-24. Retrieved 2010-09-06.
  9. ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân (2009). Processing Techniques for Written Taiwanese – Tone Sandhi and POS Tagging (PhD). National Taiwan University. p. 20. OCLC 367595113.

External links edit