Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn

  (Redirected from Taiwanese Romanization System)

The official romanization system for Taiwanese Hokkien in Taiwan is locally referred to as Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn or Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an,[I][1] often shortened to as Tâi-lô. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the phonetic notation systems officially promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[2] The system is used in the MoE's Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan. It is nearly identical to Pe̍h-ōe-jī, apart from: using ts tsh instead of ch chh, using u instead of o in vowel combinations such as oa and oe, using i instead of e in eng and ek, using oo instead of , and using nn instead of .

Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an
Traditional Chinese臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese台湾闽南语罗马字拼音方案
Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn
Traditional Chinese臺灣羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese台湾罗马字拼音方案
Tâi-lô
Traditional Chinese臺羅拼音
Simplified Chinese台罗拼音
Taiwanese Romanization System

AlphabetEdit

The Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng NN O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
IPA [a] [b] [e] [ɡ] [h, ʔ] [i] [d͡z] [k] [kʰ] [l] [m] [n] [ŋ] [◌̃] [o] [ɔ] [p] [pʰ] [s] [t] [tʰ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [u]
Letter name a bi e gi hi i ji ki khi li mi ni ngi inn o oo pi phi si ti thi tsi tshi u
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it only appears capitalized in all-caps texts.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Sample textsEdit

Tâi-lô
Pe̍h-uē-jī (PUJ) sī 1 khuán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phìng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-uân ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-uī tong-tshoo sī thuân-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, sóo-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā PUJ kiò-tsò Kàu-huē Lô-má-jī, he̍k-tsiá sī kán-tshing Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-tsiá bē-tsió m̄-sī kàu-tôo, kàu-tôo mā tsin tsē bē-hiáu PUJ.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) sī 1 khoán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phèng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-ôan ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-ūi tong-chho͘ sī thôan-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, só͘-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā POJ kiò-chò Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī, he̍k-chiá sī kán-chheng Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-chiá bē-chió m̄-sī kàu-tô͘, kàu-tô͘ mā chin chē bē-hiáu POJ.
Hàn-jī
白話字(POJ)是1款用Latin(羅馬)拼音系統來寫臺灣的語言的書面文字。因為當初是傳教士引入來的,所以也有人共POJ叫做教會羅馬字,或者是簡稱教羅。不而過現代的使用者袂少毋是教徒,教徒嘛真濟袂曉POJ。
IPA
[peʔued͡ʑi (pi o d͡ʑi) ɕi t͡ɕiʔkʰuan ioŋ latin (loma) pʰiŋim hetʰoŋ lai ɕa taiuan e gigiɛn e subin bund͡ʑi ‖ inui toŋt͡sɔ ɕi tʰuankausu ind͡ʑiʔlai e sɔi iaʔulaŋ ka pi o d͡ʑi kiot͡so kauhue lomad͡ʑi hiʔt͡ɕia ɕi kant͡ɕʰiŋ kaulo ‖ puʔd͡ʑiko hiɛntai e suioŋt͡ɕia bet͡ɕio m̩ɕi kautɔ kautɔ ma t͡ɕin t͡se behiau pi o d͡ʑi ‖]

ValuesEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Initials
Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
ㄇ 毛(moo)
n [n]
ㄋ 耐(nāi)
ng [ŋ]
ㄫ 雅(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
ㄅ 邊(pian)
b [b]
ㆠ 文(bûn)
t [t]
ㄉ 地(tē)
k [k]
ㄍ 求(kiû)
g [g]
ㆣ 語(gí)
Aspirated ph [pʰ]
ㄆ 波(pho)
th [tʰ]
ㄊ 他(thann)
kh [kʰ]
ㄎ 去(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
ㄗ 曾(tsan)
j [dz]
ㆡ 熱(jua̍h)
tsi [tɕ]
ㄐ 尖(tsiam)
ji [dʑ]
ㆢ 入(ji̍p)
Aspirated tsh [tsʰ]
ㄘ 出(tshut)
tshi [tɕʰ]
ㄑ 手(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
ㄙ 衫(sann)
si [ɕ]
ㄒ 寫(siá)
h [h]
ㄏ 喜(hí)
Lateral l [l]
ㄌ 柳(liú)
Finals
Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal consonant -m [m]
-n [n]
-ng [ŋ]
Stop consonant -p [p̚]
-t [t̚]
-k [k̚]
-h [ʔ]
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m̩]
ㆬ 姆(ḿ)
ng [ŋ̍]
ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels & RhymesEdit

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
ㄧ 衣(i)
inn [ĩ]
ㆪ 圓(înn)
u [u]
ㄨ 污(u)
unn [ũ]
ㆫ 張(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
ㆤ 禮(lé)
enn [ẽ]
ㆥ 生(senn)
o[ə]
ㄜ 高(ko)
oo [ɔ]
ㆦ 烏(oo)
onn [ɔ̃]
ㆧ 翁(onn)
Open a [a]
ㄚ 查(tsa)
ann [ã]
ㆩ 衫(sann)
Dialect
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [ɨ]
er [ə]
ee [ɛ]
ere [əe] ㄜㆤ[a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[iə] io ioh
[iɔ] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[ə] o oh
[ɔ] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m̩] m mh
[ŋ̍] ng ngh
  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

TonesEdit

Tone No. 1 2 (= 6) 3 4 5 7 8
Name 陰平 上聲 陰去 陰入 陽平 陽去 陽入
im-pîng siōng-siann im-khì im-ji̍p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji̍p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
◌́ ◌̀ ◌̂ ◌̄ ◌̍
Pitch ˥ ˥˩ ˧˩ ˧ʔ ˨˦ ˧ ˥ʔ
55 51 31 24 33
Example tong (東) tóng (黨) tòng (棟) tok (督) tông (同) tōng (洞) to̍k (毒)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le [zh], /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜ " is replaced with " ".

Words in native languagesEdit

  1. ^
    • Chinese script: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
    • Mandarin Pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn
    • Hokkien: Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案" (PDF). language.moe.edu.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  2. ^ Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  3. ^ Archived copy 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-18. Retrieved 2014-06-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit