In telecommunications, broadband is the wide-bandwidth data transmission that exploits signals at a wide spread of frequencies or several different simultaneous frequencies, and is used in fast internet connections. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, wireless Internet (radio), twisted pair, or satellite.
Originally used to mean ‘using a wide-spread frequency’ and for services that were analog at the lowest level, nowadays in the context of Internet access, ‘broadband’ is often used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is seemingly always ‘on’ and is faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services.
The ideal telecommunication network has the following characteristics: broadband, multi-media, multi-point, multi-rate and economical implementation for a diversity of services (multi-services). The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) was planned to provide these characteristics. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) was promoted as a target technology for meeting these requirements.
Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its origin is in physics, acoustics, and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband", or in the context of audio noise reduction systems, where it indicated a single-band rather than a multiple-audio-band system design of the compander. Later, with the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was mainly used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is also modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies (compared to a baseband signal which is bound to the lowest end of the spectrum, see line coding), it is still occupying a single channel. The key difference is that what is typically considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple (non-masking, orthogonal) passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.
The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access that was faster than dial-up access (dial-up being typically limited to a maximum of 56 kbit/s). This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning.
Since 1999, broadband Internet access has been a factor in public policy. In that year, at the World Trade Organization Biannual Conference called “Financial Solutions to Digital Divide” in Seattle, the term “Meaningful Broadband” was introduced to the world leaders, leading to the activation of a movement to close the digital divide. Fundamental aspects of this movement are to suggest that the equitable distribution of broadband is a fundamental human right.
Personal computing facilitated easy access, manipulation, storage, and exchange of information, and required reliable data transmission. Communicating documents by images and the use of high-resolution graphics terminals provided a more natural and informative mode of human interaction than do voice and data alone. Video teleconferencing enhances group interaction at a distance. High-definition entertainment video improves the quality of pictures, but requires much higher transmission rates.
These new data transmission requirements may require new transmission means other than the present overcrowded radio spectrum. A modern telecommunications network (such as the broadband network) must provide all these different services (multi-services) to the user.
Differences from old telephony edit
Conventional telephony communication used:
- the voice medium only,
- connected only two telephones per telephone call, and
- used circuits of fixed bit-rates.
Modern services can be:
- multi-point, and
These aspects are examined individually in the following three sub-sections.
A multi-media call may communicate audio, data, still images, or full-motion video, or any combination of these media. Each medium has different demands for communication quality, such as:
- bandwidth requirement,
- signal latency within the network, and
- signal fidelity upon delivery by the network.
The information content of each medium may affect the information generated by other media. For example, voice could be transcribed into data via voice recognition, and data commands may control the way voice and video are presented. These interactions most often occur at the communication terminals, but may also occur within the network.
Traditional voice calls are predominantly two party calls, requiring a point-to-point connection using only the voice medium. To access pictorial information in a remote database would require a point-to-point connection that sends low bit-rate queries to the database and high bit-rate video from the database. Entertainment video applications are largely point-to-multi-point connections, requiring one-way communication of full motion video and audio from the program source to the viewers. Video teleconferencing involves connections among many parties, communicating voice, video, as well as data. Offering future services thus requires flexible management of the connection and media requests of a multi-point, multi-media communication call.
A multi-rate service network is one which flexibly allocates transmission capacity to connections. A multi-media network has to support a broad range of bit-rates demanded by connections, not only because there are many communication media, but also because a communication medium may be encoded by algorithms with different bit-rates. For example, audio signals can be encoded with bit-rates ranging from less than 1 kbit/s to hundreds of kbit/s, using different encoding algorithms with a wide range of complexity and quality of audio reproduction. Similarly, full motion video signals may be encoded with bit-rates ranging from less than 1 Mbit/s to hundreds of Mbit/s. Thus a network transporting both video and audio signals may have to integrate traffic with a very broad range of bit-rates.
A single network for multiple services edit
Traditionally, different telecommunications services were carried via separate networks: voice on the telephone network, data on computer networks such as local area networks, video teleconferencing on private corporate networks, and television on broadcast radio or cable networks.
These networks were largely engineered for a specific application and are not suited to other applications. For example, the traditional telephone network is too noisy and inefficient for bursty data communication. On the other hand, data networks which store and forward messages using computers had limited connectivity, usually did not have sufficient bandwidth for digitised voice and video signals, and suffer from unacceptable delays for the real-time signals. Television networks using radio or cables were largely broadcast networks with minimum switching facilities.
It was desirable to have a single network for providing all these communication services to achieve the economy of sharing. This economy motivates the general idea of an integrated services network. Integration avoids the need for many overlaying networks, which complicates network management and reduces flexibility in the introduction and evolution of services. This integration was made possible with advances in broadband technologies and high-speed information processing of the 1990s.
While multiple network structures were capable of supporting broadband services, an ever-increasing percentage of broadband and MSO providers opted for fibre-optic network structures to support both present and future bandwidth requirements.
CATV (cable television), HDTV (high definition television), VoIP (voice over internet protocol), and broadband internet are some of the most common applications now being supported by fibre optic networks, in some cases directly to the home (FTTh – Fibre To The Home). These types of fibre optic networks incorporate a wide variety of products to support and distribute the signal from the central office to an optic node, and ultimately to the subscriber (end-user).
Broadband technologies edit
In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one that handles a wide band of frequencies. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider (or broader) the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality.
In radio, for example, a very narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, and a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. This broad band is often divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal.
In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second (kbit/s) over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line (narrowband or voiceband). In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details. The various forms of digital subscriber line (DSL) services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels. Each channel is at a higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time. However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire (no telephone filters), it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide (broadband) and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very high-bit rate digital subscriber line (VDSL or VHDSL) techniques.
Modern networks have to carry integrated traffic consisting of voice, video and data. The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) was designed for these needs. The types of traffic supported by a broadband network can be classified according to three characteristics:
- Bandwidth is the amount of network capacity required to support a connection.
- Latency is the amount of delay associated with a connection. Requesting low latency in the quality of service (QoS) profile means that the cells need to travel quickly from one point in the network to another.
- Cell-delay variation (CDV) is the range of delays experienced by each group of associated cells. Low cell-delay variation means a group of cells must travel through the network without getting too far apart from one another.
Requirements of the types of traffic edit
The types of traffic found in a broadband network (with examples) and their respective requirements are summarised in Table 1.
|Traffic type||Example||Required bandwidth||Cell-delay||Latency|
|Constant||Voice, guaranteed circuit emulation||Minimal||Low|
|Available||Data||Not guaranteed||Widely variable||Variable|
Computer networks edit
Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband (from zero through the highest frequency needed). Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names, such as the original 1980s 10BASE5, to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable. Broadband systems usually use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band.
The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel.
The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, and both cable and DSL modems often have Ethernet connectors on them.
TV and video edit
A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while e.g. a low-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels. The U.S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband. "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies. In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video, typically in composite form with separate baseband audio. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and then changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and then feeds the information into the system.
However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is also sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand.
Alternative technologies edit
Power lines have also been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband signaling, modern high-speed systems use broadband signaling to achieve very high data rates. One example is the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a local area network up to 1 Gigabit/s (which is considered high-speed as of 2014) using existing home business and home wiring (including power lines, but also phone lines and coaxial cables).
In 2014, researchers at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology made developments on the creation of ultra-shallow broadband optical instruments.
Internet broadband edit
A range of more precise definitions of speed have been prescribed at times, including:
- "Greater than the primary rate" (which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s) —CCITT in "broadband service" in 1988.
- "Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access" —US National Broadband Plan of 2009
- 4 Mbit/s downstream, 1 Mbit/s upstream —Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 2010
- 25 Mbit/s downstream, 3 Mbit/s upstream —FCC, 2015
- 50 Mbit/s downstream, 10 Mbit/s upstream —Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
Broadband Internet service in the United States was effectively treated or managed as a public utility by net neutrality rules until being overturned by the FCC in December 2017.
Speed qualifiers edit
|Full fibre / FFTP/H||Ofcom||100||1|
|Ultra-fast / Gfast||EU, UK Government||100||1|
Global bandwidth concentration edit
Bandwidth has historically been very unequally distributed worldwide, with increasing concentration in the digital age. Historically only 10 countries have hosted 70–75% of the global telecommunication capacity (see pie-chart Figure on the right). In 2014, only three countries (China, the US, and Japan) host 50% of the globally installed telecommunication bandwidth potential. The U.S. lost its global leadership in terms of installed bandwidth in 2011, being replaced by China, which hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential in 2014 (29% versus 13% of the global total).
See also edit
- "Types of Broadband Connections; Federal Communications Commission". Fcc.gov. 2014-06-23. Archived from the original on 2022-06-05. Retrieved 2022-06-05.
- Lu, Fang. "ATM Congestion Control". Archived from the original on 10 February 2005. Retrieved 1 March 2005.
- Saito, H. (1993). Teletraffic Technologies in ATM Networks. Artech House. ISBN 0-89006-622-1.
- Attenborough, Keith (1988). "Review of ground effects on outdoor sound propagation from continuous broadband sources". Applied Acoustics. 24 (4): 289–319. doi:10.1016/0003-682X(88)90086-2.
- John P. Shanidin (September 9, 1949). "Antenna". US Patent 2,533,900. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Issued December 12, 1950.
- Smith, Craig Warren (2002). Digital corporate citizenship : the business response to the digital divide. Indianapolis: The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. ISBN 1884354203. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
- Hui J. (1990). Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband networks. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7923-9061-9.
- Sexton M.; Reid A. (1997). Broadband Networking: ATM, SDH and SONET. Boston, London: Artech House Inc. ISBN 0-89006-578-0.
- Ferguson P.; Huston G. (1998). Quality of Service: Delivering QoS on the Internet and in Corporate Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-24358-2.
- Ender Ayanoglu; Nail Akar (25 May 2002). "B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network)". Center for Pervasive Communications and Computing, UC Irvine. Archived from the original on October 16, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "Knowledge Base - How Broadband Words". Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "New ITU Standard Delivers 10x ADSL Speeds". May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Jain, Raj (1996). "Congestion Control and Traffic Management in ATM Networks". Invited Submission to Computer Networks and ISDN Systems. 28: 1723–1738. arXiv:cs/9809085. doi:10.1016/0169-7552(96)00012-8. S2CID 47147736. Archived from the original on 19 June 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2005.
- Juliano, Mark. "ATM Traffic Control". Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 3 March 2005.
- Carl Stephen Clifton (1987). What every engineer should know about data communications. CRC Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8247-7566-7. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29.
Broadband: Modulating the data signal onto an RF carrier and applying this RF signal to the carrier media
- Clifton, Carl Stephen (1987). What every engineer should know about data communications. New York: M. Dekker. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8247-7566-7. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
Broadband: relative term referring to a systemm which carries a wide frequency range.
- "802.3b-1985 – Supplement to 802.3: Broadband Medium Attachment Unit and Broadband Medium Specifications, Type 10BROAD36 (Section 11)". IEEE Standards Association. 1985. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Paula Musich (July 20, 1987). "Broadband user share pains, gains". Network World. pp. 1, 8. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
Broadband networks employ frequency-division multiplexing to divide coaxial cable into separate channels, each of which serves as an individual local network.
- "Definition: broadband". Federal Standard 1037C, Glossary of Telecommunication Terms. 1996. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- Gilster, Ron; Heneveld, Helen (2004-06-22). HTI+ Home Technology Integration and CEDIA Installer I All-in-One Exam Guide. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 9780072231328. Archived from the original on 2023-06-28. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
- Baxter, Les A.; Georger, William H. (August 1, 1995). "Transmitting video over structured cabling systems". www.cablinginstall.com. AT&T Bell Laboratories. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- Mark Sweney (2008-02-07). "BT Vision boasts 150,000 customers | Media". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2017-01-29. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
- "Broadband and ultrathin polarization manipulators developed". Phys.org. 2014-12-04. Archived from the original on 2016-05-15. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
- "What is Broadband?". The National Broadband Plan. US Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Hart, Jeffrey A.; Reed, Robert R.; Bar, François (November 1992). "The building of the internet". Telecommunications Policy. 16 (8): 666–689. doi:10.1016/0308-5961(92)90061-S. S2CID 155062650.
- "Recommendation I.113, Vocabulary of Terms for Broadband aspects of ISDN". ITU-T. June 1997. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Inquiry Concerning the Deployment of Advanced Telecommunications Capability to All Americans in a Reasonable and Timely Fashion, and Possible Steps to Accelerate Such Deployment Pursuant to Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, as Amended by the Broadband Data Improvement Act" (PDF). GN Docket No. 10-159, FCC-10-148A1. Federal Communications Commission. August 6, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-06. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "FCC Finds U.S. Broadband Deployment Not Keeping Pace | Federal Communications Commission". Fcc.gov. 2015-02-04. Archived from the original on 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
- Government of Canada, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) (2013-03-20). "What you should know about Internet speeds". crtc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2021-02-15. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (March 12, 2015). "F.C.C. Sets Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Sommer, Jeff (March 12, 2015). "What the Net Neutrality Rules Say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- FCC Staff (March 12, 2015). "Federal Communications Commission - FCC 15-24 - In the Matter of Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - GN Docket No. 14-28 - Report and Order on Remand, Declaratory Ruling, and Order" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 12, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Reisinger, Don (April 13, 2015). "Net neutrality rules get published -- let the lawsuits begin". CNET. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Federal Communications Commission (April 13, 2015). "Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - A Rule by the Federal Communications Commission on 04/13/2015". Federal Register. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Kang, Cecilia (14 December 2017). "F.C.C. Repeals Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-01-17. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "A Brief Price Comparison of UK FTTP / FTTH Ultrafast Broadband ISPs". ISP Review. 15 April 2017. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Broadband in the EU Member States (12/2018)". EU. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "UK HOME BROADBAND PERFORMANCE" (PDF). Ofcom. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Ultrafast fibre Gfast". Openreach. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Hood, Hannah Hood (22 December 2016). "Super fast broadband" (PDF). What Do They Know. Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Faster Internet: FCC Sets New Definition for Broadband Speeds". NBC News. 2015-01-29. Archived from the original on 2017-12-20. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "CONNECTED NATIONS 2017" (PDF). Ofcom. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Government of Canada, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) (2013-03-20). "What you should know about Internet speeds". crtc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2021-02-15. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- "Broadband Performance Data". accc.gov.au. 30 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2021-12-05. Retrieved 2021-12-05.
- Hilbert, Martin (2016-01-06). "The bad news is that the digital access divide is here to stay: Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986–2014". Telecommunications Policy. Escholarship.org. 40 (6): 567–581. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2016.01.006. Archived from the original on 2016-06-04. Retrieved 2016-06-21.