Internet users per 100 population members and GDP
per capita for selected countries.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.
The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marks the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.
Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.
An HTTP cookie
is a parcel of textual information sent by a server
to a World Wide Web browser
and then sent back by the browser each time it accesses that server. HTTP cookies
are used for user authentication, user tracking, and maintaining user-specific information such as site preferences and electronic shopping carts. Cookies have been of concern for Internet privacy
, since they can be used for tracking the browsing of a user. As a result, they have been subject to legislation in various countries such as the United States
, as well as the European Union
. Cookies have also been criticised because the identification of users they provide is not always accurate and because they can be used for network attacks. Some alternatives to cookies exist, but have their own drawbacks. On the other hand, cookies have been subject to a number of misconceptions, mostly based on the erroneous notion that they are computer programs
. Most modern browsers allow users to decide whether to accept cookies, but rejection makes some Web sites
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed June 30, 2014).
Douglas C. Engelbart
(born January 30, 1925 in Oregon
) is an American inventor of Swedish
descent. As a World War II
naval radio technician
based in the Philippines
, Engelbart was inspired by Vannevar Bush
's article "As We May Think
". Engelbart received a Bachelor's degree
in electrical engineering from Oregon State University
in 1948, a B.Eng. from UC Berkeley
in 1952, and a Ph.D.
from UC Berkeley in 1955. At Stanford Research Institute
, Engelbart was the primary force behind the design and development of the On-Line System
, or NLS. He and his team at the Augmentation Research Center
developed computer-interface elements such as bit-mapped screens, groupware, hypertext
and precursors to the graphical user interface
. In 1967, Engelbart applied for and later received a patent
for the wooden shell with two metal wheels (computer mouse
). Engelbart later revealed that it was nicknamed the "mouse" because the tail came out the end. He would also work on the ARPANET
, the precursor of the Internet
. In later years he moved to the private firm Tymshare after SRI was transferred to the company. McDonnell Douglas
took over the copany in 1982, and in 1986 he left the company. As of 2007, he is the director of his own company, the Bootstrap Institute, which founded in 1988 and located in Fremont, California
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