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Robert Bosch GmbH (/bɒʃ/; German: [bɔʃ] (About this soundlisten)), or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and technology company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886.[2] Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung.[1]

Robert Bosch GmbH
GmbH (Private company)
IndustryConglomerate
Founded15 November 1886; 132 years ago (1886-11-15)
FounderRobert Bosch
HeadquartersRobert-Bosch-Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen, Germany
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Volkmar Denner (CEO), Michael Bolle (CTO, CDO)
ProductsAutomotive parts, power tools, security systems, home appliance, engineering, electronics, cloud computing, IoT
RevenueIncrease 78.5 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €5.5 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €4.1 billion (2018)[1]
Total assetsIncrease €83.87 billion (2018)[1]
Total equityIncrease €36.08 billion (2018)[1]
Owner Robert Bosch Stiftung (92%)
Bosch Family (7%)
Robert Bosch GmbH (1%)
Number of employees
409,900 (March 2019)[1]
SubsidiariesBSH Hausgeräte, ETAS, Bosch Rexroth
Websitebosch.com

Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; mobility (hardware and software), consumer goods (including household appliances and power tools), industrial technology (including drive and control) and energy and building technology.[3]

Contents

HistoryEdit

1886–1920Edit

The history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik (Workshop for Precision Mechanics and Electrical Engineering) on 15 November 1886. One year later, Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines.

From 1897, Bosch started installing better-designed magneto ignition devices into automobiles and became the only supplier of a truly reliable ignition within the industry. In 1902, the chief engineer at Bosch, Gottlob Honold, unveiled the high-voltage magneto ignition system with spark plug. This product paved the way for Bosch to become a leading automotive supplier.[4]

The first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was founded and built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913.

In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation.

Until 1945Edit

In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, and in 1927, injection pumps for diesel. Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company developed its first power drill and presented its first car radio.

As early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH (later Trillke-Werke GmbH) in Hildesheim. Both plants were used exclusively for armaments production. These "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities.[citation needed] In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company (GmbH).

The Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH (DLMG) in Kleinmachnow employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, and female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising.[citation needed] They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft. In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks, tractors, and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees.[citation needed] During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people who had been deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim.[citation needed]

In the last years of the war, no new German tank ever drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch also had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft.

During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an ever larger number of factories, and relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations.

On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80.

Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, and published several books and exhibitions on the subject.[5] In 2016, they published the website z.B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald.

Until 2000Edit

After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso.

In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, and headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970.

In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH that was renamed Telenorma in 1985, and acquired completely in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH.

The most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor (1976), the electric motor control (1979), the traction control system (1986), the xenon light for cars (1991), the electronic stability control (1995), the common rail direct fuel injection (1997), and the direct fuel injection (2000).

In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area (nowadays, Tenovis and Avaya, respectively).

21st centuryEdit

In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they later renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing center in Vaitoudden, close to Arjeplog in north Sweden. A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004.

In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems.[6]

Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, and the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003.

Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis (German Future Prize) from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015.

In 2006, Bosch acquired Telex Communications and Electro-Voice.

In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in development and research. Approximately 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.

China has developed into an important market and manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2012, Bosch had 34,000 employees and a revenue of 41.7 billion Yuan (about 5 billion Euro) in China.

  • 2012 - Purchased SPX Service Solutions
  • 2012 - Bosch sold its foundation brakes activities to KPS Capital Partners, that led to the establishment of Chassis Brakes International
  • 2013 - Bosch announced it would exit its solar business
  • 2014 - Bosch entered talks to acquire Red Bend Software.[7]
  • 2014 - Bosch takes over 100% of the shares from the former BSH Bosch and Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH joint venture (home appliances) [8]
  • 2014 - Bosch received the 2014 U.S. Smart Partner award for Physical Security from Ingram Micro Inc.[9]
  • 2015 - Bosch takes over 100% of the shares of the former ZF Lenksysteme (Steering Systems) GmbH joint venture (was 50/50 with ZF Friedrichshafen)
  • 2015 - Bosch purchases Seeo, Inc, a start-up working on solid state lithium ion batteries.

Operations[10]Edit

The majority of Bosch Group businesses are grouped into the following four business sectors.

Mobility SolutionsEdit

 
The Bosch R&D center in Abstatt, Germany, which is a major site for the development of automotive components.

The Mobility Solutions business sector accounts for 61 percent of total sales. Its main areas of activity are injection technology and powertrain peripherals for internal-combustion engines, powertrain electrification, steering systems, safety and driver-assistance systems, infotainment technology as well as vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, repair-shop concepts, and technology and services for the automotive aftermarket.

Particular strategic priorities for the sector include transforming the powertrain and expanding the business in the areas of electrification, automated driving, new electrical and electronic architectures for vehicles, accessing adjacent market segments, and developing additional services.

The new Powertrain Solutions division was formed effective January 1, 2018, in order to develop powertrain technology products, regardless of the energy source. The new division resulted from the merger of the former Gasoline Systems and Diesel Systems divisions. It offers products for powertrain technology, from gasoline and diesel direct injection to electrified powertrains with battery systems and, in the future, it will offer fuel-cell technologies as well.

Brands within this sector include:

  • AutoCrew
  • Bosch Car Service
  • ITK Engineering
  • Robinair
  • HC Cargo
  • Zexel
  • ETAS

Industrial TechnologyEdit

In the 2018 business year, the Industrial Technology business sector generated roughly 9 percent of total Bosch Group sales. The sector includes the Drive and Control Technology division, whose portfolio includes customized drive, control, and linear motion for factory automation, plant construction and engineering, and mobile machinery.

The second division, Packaging Technology, provides process and packaging for the pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs industries. Its range includes stand-alone machines, systems, and an extensive service portfolio. In 2018, Bosch decided to look for a new owner for this business. Bosch’s in-house provider of assembly systems, Robert Bosch Manufacturing Solutions GmbH, Stuttgart, remains part of the Bosch Group; up to now, it has been part of the Packaging Technology division.

In addition, the Bosch Connected Industry business unit, which develops software and carries out Industry 4.0 projects for internal and external customers, has been part of the Industrial Technology business sector since the start of 2018.

Consumer GoodsEdit

 
BOSCH PSR 14,4 cordless drill

The Consumer Goods business sector contributed some 23 percent of total Bosch Group sales in 2018. Its Power Tools division is a supplier of power tools, power-tool accessories, and measuring technology. In addition to power tools such as hammer drills, cordless screwdrivers, and jigsaws, its extensive product portfolio also includes gardening equipment such as lawnmowers, hedge trimmers, and high-pressure cleaners. One of the division’s focal points is convenient, high-performance cordless tools, and increasingly also web-enabled tools and services.

The Consumer Goods business sector also includes BSH Hausgeräte GmbH, which offers a broad range of modern, energy-efficient, and increasingly connected household appliances. Its product portfolio ranges from washing machines and tumble dryers through refrigerators and freezers, stoves and ovens, and dishwashers, to small appliances such as vacuum cleaners, coffee makers, and food processors.

Brands within this sector include:

Energy and Building TechnologyEdit

 
A CCTV camera manufactured by Bosch.

In 2018, the Energy and Building Technology business sector generated 7 percent of total Bosch Group sales. Its Building Technologies division (formerly Security Systems) has two areas of business: the global product business for security and communications, and the regional integrator business. The latter offers services for building security, energy efficiency, and building automation in selected countries. Both units focus on commercial applications. The product portfolio encompasses video-surveillance, intrusion-detection, fire-detection, and voice-alarm systems, as well as access-control and professional audio and conference systems.

The Thermotechnology division offers systems for air conditioning, hot water, and decentralized energy management. It provides heating systems and energy management for residential buildings, water heaters, and commercial and industrial heating and air-conditioning systems.

The Bosch Global Service Solutions division offers outsourcing for business processes and services, primarily for customers in the automotive, travel, and logistics industries and in information and communications technology. Within Bosch, it also provides shared-service functions.

Robert Bosch Smart Home GmbH offers web-enabled, app-controlled products for the home.

Brands within this sector:

Other Business AreasEdit

The Bosch Group also operates in other business areas that are not assigned to a particular sector.[10]

Bosch Healthcare Solutions GmbH is a wholly owned subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH. The subsidiary was established in 2015 with the aim of developing products and services that improve people’s health and quality of life. The business offers customers connected products and services in the area of healthcare and medical technology.[11]

Bosch Software Innovations has been active on the internet of things for nearly ten years. Its team takes IoT ideas from the level of strategy to practical implementation, and helps companies manage the process of digital transformation.[12]

The Grow Platform GmbH is the legal entity of Grow and a 100% subsidiary of the Bosch corporation. Grow is an internal start-up incubator.

Robert Bosch Venture Capital GmbH (RBVC) is the corporate venture capital company of the Bosch Group. RBVC invests worldwide in innovative start-up companies. Its investment activities focus on technology companies working in areas of business of current and future relevance for Bosch, above all, automation and electrification, energy efficiency, enabling technologies, and healthcare systems. RBVC also invests in services and business models as well as new materials that are relevant to the above-mentioned areas of business.[13]

LocationsEdit

 
Research center in Renningen, Germany

Through a complex network of over 440 subsidiaries and regional entities, the company operates in over 60 countries worldwide. Including sales and service partners, Bosch’s global manufacturing, engineering, and sales network covers nearly every country in the world. At 125 locations across the globe, Bosch employs roughly 64,500 associates in research and development.

British OperationsEdit

In the UK, Bosch has its corporate head office in Denham, Buckinghamshire, and employs circa. 5200 associates. There are also around 40 other Bosch Group locations throughout the country, including Coventry, Glenrothes, St Neots, Stockport, Stowmarket, Liverpool, Milton Keynes, Worcester and York.[14]

Alongside sales and support functions for all Bosch business sectors in the region, the company also manufactures boiler systems, mobile hydraulics, packaging machinery alongside lawn and garden products in the UK.[15]

In March 2019, Bosch opened its London Connectory, a Shoreditch-based "co-innovation space" open to partners from the public, private and academic sectors, from start-ups to multinational organisations.[16]

North American OperationsEdit

In North America, Robert Bosch LLC (a wholly owned Bosch subsidiary) has corporate headquarters in Farmington Hills, MI. Three Research Technology Centers are located in Pittsburgh, PA, Palo Alto, CA and Cambridge, MA.[17] Factories and distribution facilities are located in Mt. Prospect, Illinois; Hoffman Estates, Illinois; Broadview, Illinois; Kentwood, Michigan; Waltham, Massachusetts; Clarksville, Tennessee; Anderson, South Carolina; Charleston, South Carolina; South Bend, Indiana (to close 2011[18]); and 11 other cities. There are also two corporate sites in Brazil and ten in Mexico where a central purchasing office for all divisions of Bosch Group is located in Broadview, Illinois. In North America, Bosch employs about 24,750 people in 80 locations, generating $8.8 billion in sales in 2006.[19]

In May 2015, Bosch Security Systems opened its newly constructed distribution center in Greer, South Carolina. The distribution center adds more than 50 new associates in the state and will receive, store and ship more than 50,000 different products for video surveillance, intrusion and fire detection, access control and management systems and professional audio and conference systems.[20]

Indian OperationsEdit

Bosch entered India in 1922, when Illies & Company set up a sales office in Calcutta. For three decades, the company operated in the Indian market only through imports. In 1951, Bosch set up its first manufacturing plant in India.[21]

Currently, Bosch India has a turnover of over $3 billion and over 31,000 employees spread across 10 locations and 7 application development centers. 84% of Bosch India revenues come from its automotive business, with the remaining 16% split between its non-automotive businesses that include packaging, energy and building solutions, power tools and consumer retail.[22] Bosch also has an R&D facility in Coimbatore and Bangalore, India. This is Bosch's largest R&D facility outside its home market of Germany.[21] In September 2014, Bosch announced the launch of a locally developed eye-care solution in India. The company’s new eye screening and detection system offers a combination of hardware and software and provides affordable eye care.

Bosch India is listed on the Indian stock exchanges and has a market capitalization of over $12 billion.[23]

Joint venturesEdit

BSH Bosch und Siemens HausgeräteEdit

BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH, in which Bosch acquired all shares in 2014, is one of the world's top three companies in the household appliances industry. In Germany and Western Europe, BSH is the market leader. Its portfolio includes the principal brand names Bosch and Siemens, Gaggenau, Neff, Thermador, Constructa, Viva and Ufesa brands, and further six regional brands. Bosch household appliances for the North American market are mainly manufactured at its factory near New Bern, North Carolina.

EM-motiveEdit

Daimler AG and Bosch established a 50:50 joint venture (JV) to develop and manufacture electric motors in 2011. The JV, called EM-motive GmbH, manufactures traction motors for electric, fuel cell and extended-range vehicles at a facility in Hildesheim, Germany.[24]

In 2019 Bosch acquired the remaining shares and assumed full control of the company.[25]

Purolator FiltersEdit

Bosch co-owned Purolator Filters in a joint venture with Mann+Hummel until 2013. In 2013 the Mann+Hummel Group acquired Bosch's stake.[26]

SB LiMotiveEdit

In June 2008 Bosch formed SB LiMotive, a 50:50 joint company with Samsung SDI.[27] The company held ground breaking ceremony for a 28.000 m2 lithium-ion battery cell manufacturing plant in September 2009 and it is scheduled to start production for hybrid vehicles in 2011 and for electric vehicles in 2012. The plant will generate 1,000 jobs in Ulsan, Korea in addition to the 500 employees in Korea, Germany and the United States. SB LiMotive was officially ended in September 2012 with both companies focusing on automotive batteries alone.

Corporate affairsEdit

Robert Bosch GmbH, including its wholly owned subsidiaries such as Robert Bosch LLC in North America, is unusual in that it is an extremely large, privately owned corporation that is almost entirely (92%) owned by a charitable foundation. Thus, while most of the profits are invested back into the corporation to build for the future and sustain growth, nearly all of the profits distributed to shareholders are devoted to humanitarian causes.

 
Diagram of Robert Bosch GmbH.

As shown in the diagram (above), the Robert Bosch Stiftung (Robert Bosch Foundation) holds 92% of the shares (Beteiligung) of Robert Bosch GmbH, but no voting rights (Stimmrecht). The Robert Bosch Industrietreuhand KG (Robert Bosch Industrial Trust KG), with old members of the company management, agents of the Bosch family, and other eminent people from the industry (such as Jürgen Hambrecht, CEO of BASF), have 93% of the votes (Stimmen), but no shares (0.01%). The remaining 8% of shares and 7%[2] of voting-rights are held by the descendants of the company founder Robert Bosch (Familie Bosch).[28]

For example, in 2004, the net profit was US$2.1 billion, but only US$78 million was distributed as dividends to shareholders. Of that figure, US$72 million was distributed to the charitable foundation, and the other US$6 million to Bosch family stockholders. The remaining 96% of the profits were invested back into the company. In its core automotive technology business, Bosch invests 9% of its revenue on research and development, nearly double the industry average of 4.7%.[29]

AccreditationsEdit

Almost all Bosch locations are both ISO 9001 (quality) and ISO 14001 (environmental protection) certified.[30] In addition to that, their management is compliant with OHSAS 18001.

Environmental Practices and InitiativesEdit

In May 2019, Bosch said it plans to be “fully carbon-neutral” by 2020 — a decade or more earlier than most of its rivals — thanks to big investments in clean electricity and an ambitious carbon offset programme.[31]

ControversyEdit

Role in emission cheating softwareEdit

In 2006, Volkswagen executives asked Bosch for help in developing software for their emission defeat devices. Volkswagen is one of Bosch's biggest customers. Volkswagen engineers provided detailed specifications to Bosch, which wrote the necessary code. Bosch was apparently concerned about the legality of software and asked Volkswagen to assume responsibility if the fraud was discovered, but Volkswagen refused.[32]

On 1 February 2017, Bosch agreed to pay consumers in the United States $327.5 million as compensation for its role in devising the software.[33]

Bosch also provided emissions software for Fiat Chrysler's 3.0 L V6 diesel engine used in 100,000 model year 2014–2016 Grand Cherokee SUVs and Ram trucks and agreed to pay affected consumers $27.5 million as part of a broader settlement in January 2019.[34]

Partnership with universitiesEdit

Bosch has formed a strategic alliance with the Technische Universität Darmstadt.[35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Annual Report 2018" (PDF) (Press release). Robert Bosch GmbH.
  2. ^ a b "Robert Bosch GmbH Company Profile". Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo!.
  3. ^ "Bosch Today 2018" (PDF). Bosch Global. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  4. ^ "The beginnings 1886-1905". Bosch Global. Robert Bosch GmbH. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  5. ^ Angela Martin: Ich sah den Namen Bosch. Polnische Frauen als KZ-Häftlinge in den Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH. Metropol, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-932482-79-4; Ewa Czerwiakowski, Angela Martin (Hrsg.): Muster des Erinnerns. Polnische Frauen als KZ-Häftlinge in einer Tarnfabrik von Bosch. Metropol, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936411-69-7. Exhibitions in cooperation with Hanna Sjöberg: Rathaus Kleinmachnow 2006 ... auf dem Boschgelände; Dokumentationszentrum NS-Zwangsarbeit Berlin 2008 z.B. Bosch; History Meeting House Warsaw 2011 Versteckt im Wald
  6. ^ Philips CSI sold to Bosch, 12 August 2002
  7. ^ Bosch in talks to buy Israel's Red Bend Software. Reuters, 20 August 2014
  8. ^ [1]. Siemens an Bosch, 22 September 2014
  9. ^ By Press Release, Security Info Watch. "Bosch recognized as a top-performing U.S. technology company by Ingram Micro." 4 December 2014. 8 December 2014.
  10. ^ a b "Bosch Today 2019" (PDF). Robert Bosch GmbH. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  11. ^ "About us". Bosch Healthcare Solutions. Robert Bosch GmbH. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  12. ^ "About Bosch Software Innovations". Bosch Software Innovations. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Company Overview of Robert Bosch Venture Capital GmbH". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  14. ^ "Bosch in the UK". Bosch in the United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Bosch UK Factsheet 2018" (PDF). Bosch UK. 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Keeping London on the move". Bosch in the United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Bosch - Bosch Research and Technology Center". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ Ferreira, Colleen (16 November 2010). "Bosch plant to close in South Bend". WSBT-TV. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ "About Bosch in the USA". Bosch. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. ^ Greer Today. "Bosch celebrates opening Greer distribution center." 6 May 2015. 14 May 2015.
  21. ^ a b Mishra, Ashish K. (6 November 2014). "Bosch's long tryst with India". Live Mint. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  22. ^ "Bosch enters healthcare space in India - Times of India". Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  23. ^ http://www.moneycontrol.com/india/stockpricequote/auto-ancillaries/bosch/B05
  24. ^ "Daimler, Bosch finalize EM-motive electric motor joint venture". Autoblog. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  25. ^ "Bosch buys out Daimler's stake in electric motor JV". Automotive News Europe. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  26. ^ "MANN+HUMMEL Takes Over Purolator Filters Joint Venture from Bosch". Business Wire. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  27. ^ Sam Abuelsamid, Auto Blog. "Bosch and Samsung to team up on battery development." 27 June 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  28. ^ Robert Bosch Stiftung: Über uns, retrieved on 2008-08-11
  29. ^ Joann Muller (28 November 2005). "Parts for the Sensitive Car". Forbes magazine.
  30. ^ "Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2010" (PDF). Bosch. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ McGee, Patrick (9 May 2019). "Bosch says it will be carbon-neutral in 2020". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  32. ^ Ewing, Jack (1 February 2017). "Supplier's Role Shows Breadth of VW's Deceit". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  33. ^ McGee, Patrick (1 February 2017). "Bosch reaches $328m settlement in VW emissions scandal". The Financial Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  34. ^ Shepardson, David (10 January 2019). "Fiat Chrysler agrees to $800 million U.S. diesel-emissions settlement". Reuters. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  35. ^ Darmstadt, Technische Universität. "Strategische Partnerschaften". Technische Universität Darmstadt (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2019.

External linksEdit