Volkswagen emissions scandal
This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (January 2019)
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. (January 2019)
The Volkswagen emissions scandal (also called "emissionsgate" or "dieselgate") began in September 2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group. The agency had found that Volkswagen had intentionally programmed turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines to activate their emissions controls only during laboratory emissions testing which caused the vehicles' NOx output to meet US standards during regulatory testing, but emit up to 40 times more NOx in real-world driving. Volkswagen deployed this programming software in about eleven million cars worldwide, including 500,000 in the United States, in model years 2009 through 2015.
A 2010 Volkswagen Golf TDI with defeat device displaying "Clean Diesel" at the Detroit Auto Show
|Also known as||dieselgate, emissionsgate|
|Cause||Engaging full emissions control only during testing|
|Participants||International Council on Clean Transportation, West Virginia University, Volkswagen Group, US EPA, other regulators|
|Outcome||Fines and Lawsuits|
|1999||New US Tier 2 rules established to replace Tier 1. NOx limit decreasing from 1.0 g/mi to .07 g/mi|
|2004–2009||Phase in period of diesel emissions rules|
|2007||VW suspends sales of current diesel lines awaiting technology to meet new standards. Bosch allegedly warns VW not to use its software illegally|
|2008||VW announces new Clean Diesel cars. Some cars are described in Europe as "EU4 emissions standard (EU5 compliant)". Cars with the test-rigging software are sold in the UK.|
|2009||US Tier 2 fully in effect,|
VW TDI cars go on sale in US. In Europe, some models are now being described as Euro emission class 5, a change from class 4 in 2008.
|2009–2015||VW diesel sales in the US rebound, Clean Diesels win several environmental awards, receive tax breaks|
|2014||International Council on Clean Transportation asks WVU CAFEE to help demonstrate the benefits of US diesel technology, hoping to have Europe follow suit|
|May 2014||Instead, CAFEE finds discrepancies showing poor on-road emissions. Results presented at public forum and published, getting attention of EPA|
|2014–2015||EPA repeats tests, and contacts VW for explanation of poor real world NOx emissions|
|Dec 2014||VW orders voluntary recall of TDI cars but CARB and EPA not satisfied|
|3 Sep 2015||EPA threatens to not certify 2016 diesels, VW responds by admitting software was programmed to cheat testing|
|18 Sep 2015||Public announcement by EPA of order to recall 2009–2015 cars|
|20 Sep 2015||VW admits deception, issues public apology|
|21 Sep 2015||First business day after news, VW stock down 20%|
|22 Sep 2015||VW to spend $7.3B to cover costs of scandal; stock declines another 17%|
|23 Sep 2015||CEO Martin Winterkorn resigns|
|29 Sep 2015||Volkswagen announces plans to refit up to 11 million vehicles affected by the emissions violations scandal|
|2 Oct 2015||Volkswagen sets up an online based service on which customers can check if their car is affected based on the vehicle identification number|
|8 Oct 2015||VW US CEO Michael Horn testifies before US Congress|
|3 Nov 2015||VW's investigation finds that CO2 emissions and fuel consumption figures are also affected by "irregularities".|
|25 Nov 2015||The German Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA) approves VW fixes for 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 diesel engines in Europe.|
|9 Dec 2015||VW revises previous estimates on CO2 emissions irregularities, saying that only around 36,000 vehicles are affected.|
|9 Mar 2016||VW US CEO Michael Horn resigns, citing a "mutual agreement" with the company.|
|21 Apr 2016||VW announces that it will offer its US customers "substantial compensation" and car buyback offers for nearly 500,000 2.0-litre vehicles.|
|6 Nov 2016||Regulators in California discover that Audi engines were rigged to produce lower CO2.|
|11 Jan 2017||VW agrees to plead guilty to the emissions scandal and to pay $4.3 billion in penalties. Six VW executives are charged.|
|3 May 2018||Ex-CEO Winterkorn is indicted on fraud and conspiracy charges in the US|
|18 June 2018||In connection with the case, Audi CEO Rupert Stadler is arrested in Germany.|
|16 October 2018||Audi agrees to a fine of €800 million in Germany to resolve civil claims|
In 2014, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) had commissioned a study on emissions discrepancies between European and US models of vehicles from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), summing up the data from three different sources on 15 vehicles. Among them was a group of five scientists at West Virginia University, who detected additional emissions during live road tests on two out of three diesel cars. ICCT also purchased data from two other sources. The new road testing data and the purchased data were generated using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) developed by multiple individuals in the mid-late 1990s and published in May 2014. In 2015, Daniel Dalton MEP delivered the only legislative response to the emissions scandal that will ensure cars are tested on the roads throughout their lifetime.
Regulators in multiple countries began to investigate Volkswagen, and its stock price fell in value by a third in the days immediately after the news. Volkswagen Group CEO Martin Winterkorn resigned, and the head of brand development Heinz-Jakob Neusser, Audi research and development head Ulrich Hackenberg, and Porsche research and development head Wolfgang Hatz were suspended. Volkswagen announced plans in April, 2016 to spend €16.2 billion (US$18.32 billion at April 2016 exchange rates) on rectifying the emissions issues, and planned to refit the affected vehicles as part of a recall campaign. In January 2017, Volkswagen pleaded guilty to criminal charges and signed an agreed Statement of Facts, which drew on the results of an investigation VW had itself commissioned from US lawyers Jones Day. The statement set out how engineers had developed the defeat devices, because diesel models could not pass US emissions tests without them, and deliberately sought to conceal their use. In April 2017, a US federal judge ordered Volkswagen "to pay a $2.8 billion criminal fine for rigging diesel-powered vehicles to cheat on government emissions tests". The "unprecedented" plea deal formalized the punishment which VW had agreed to. Winterkorn was charged in the United States with fraud and conspiracy on 3 May 2018.
The scandal raised awareness over the higher levels of pollution emitted by all diesel-powered vehicles from a wide range of car makers, which under real-world driving conditions exceeded legal emission limits. A study conducted by ICCT and ADAC showed the biggest deviations from Volvo, Renault, Jeep, Hyundai, Citroën and Fiat, resulting in investigations opening into other diesel emissions scandals. A discussion was sparked on the topic of software-controlled machinery being generally prone to cheating, and a way out would be to open source the software for public scrutiny.
VW anti-pollution systemEdit
In general, three-way catalytic converter technology, which has been very effective since the early 1980s at reducing nitrogen oxide in petrol engine exhaust, does not work well for diesel exhaust because of its relatively high proportion of oxygen.
Starting in the 2009 model year, Volkswagen Group began migrating its light-duty passenger vehicle turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines to a common-rail fuel injection system. This system allows for higher-precision fuel delivery using electronically-controlled fuel injectors and higher injection pressure, theoretically leading to better fuel atomization, better air/fuel ratio control, and by extension, better control of emissions. Model year 2009 Volkswagens were initially sold to the public in 2008. With the addition of a diesel particulate filter to capture soot, and on some vehicle models, a urea-based exhaust aftertreatment system, Volkswagen described the engines as being as clean as or cleaner than US and Californian requirements, while providing good performance. In reality, the system failed to combine good fuel economy with compliant NOx emissions, and VW chose around 2006 to program the Engine Control Unit to switch from good fuel economy and high NOx emissions to low-emission compliant mode when it detected an emissions test, particularly for the EA 189 engine. This caused the engine to emit NOx levels above limits in daily operation, but comply with US NOx standards when being tested, constituting a defeat device. In 2015 the news magazine Der Spiegel reported that at least 30 people at management level in VW knew about the deceit for years which VW denied in 2015.
As of 2014[update], VW was registered with a Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) of 34 mpg‑US (6.9 L/100 km; 41 mpg‑imp). The low emissions levels of Volkswagen vehicles tested with the defeat device in operation enabled the company to receive green car subsidies and tax exemptions in the US.
The 2009 Volkswagen Jetta Diesel Sedan was awarded Green Car of the Year. The award was rescinded in early October 2015.
Graphic about selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system that uses diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)
Early warnings 1998-Edit
In 1998, a Swedish researcher criticized the New European Driving Cycle standard for allowing large emission differences between test and reality. The Washington Post also reported that in the late 1990s, EPA engineers at Virginia Testing Laboratory had built a system called ROVER, designed to test a car's emissions on the road. The project was shut down in 2001, despite preliminary tests indicating gaps between emissions from lab tests and real world tests of about 10 to 20 percent.
In 2011, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre published a report which found that all tested diesel vehicles emitted 0.93 ± 0.39 g/km and that the tested Euro 5 diesel vehicles emitted 0.62 ± 0.19 g/km, which substantially exceeded the respective Euro 3–5 emission limit. In 2013, the research center then warned:
Sensors and electronic components in modern light-duty vehicles are capable of 'detecting' the start of an emissions test in the laboratory (e.g., based on acceleration sensors or not-driven/not-rotating wheels). Some vehicle functions may only be operational in the laboratory, if a predefined test mode is activated. Detecting emissions tests is problematic from the perspective of emissions legislation, because it may enable the use of defeat devices that activate, modulate, delay, or deactivate emissions control systems with the purpose of either enhancing the effectiveness of these systems during emissions testing or reducing the effectiveness of these systems under normal vehicle operation and use. While the use of defeat devices is generally prohibited, exceptions exist in cases where it is necessary to protect the engine against damage and to ensure safe vehicle operation (EC, 2007). These exceptions leave room for interpretation and provide scope, together with the currently applied test procedure, for tailoring the emissions performance [...].
The European Commission and European governments could not agree upon who was responsible for taking action. In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport received a report from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in October 2014, which stated there was a "real world nitrogen oxides compliance issue" with diesel passenger cars. The UK's DEFRA research indicated a significant reduction in NOx and particulate matter from 1983 to 2014. Respirable suspended particles with a diameter of 10 micrometres – also known as PM10 (including diesel particulates) – halved since 1996 despite the increased number and size of diesel cars in the UK.
European discrepancies, 2014Edit
The independent body International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) commissioned a study in 2014 and obtained data on 15 vehicles from three sources. John German, co-lead of the US branch of ICCT, said the idea for the "very ordinary" test came from Peter Mock, managing director ICCT in Europe. Mr. German said they chose to put US vehicles through on-the-road tests because their emissions regulations are more stringent than those in the European Union. The ICCT expected the cars to pass, and thought they would be able to use the results to demonstrate to Europeans that it was possible to run diesel cars with cleaner emissions. The study found emissions discrepancies in the diesel VW Passat and VW Jetta, and no discrepancies in a BMW X5. They wanted to test a Mercedes as well, but could not obtain one.
Emission testing, US 2014Edit
A group of scientists at West Virginia University submitted a proposal to ICCT, and John German awarded them a US$50,000 grant for a study to conduct tests on three diesel cars: a VW Passat, a VW Jetta, and a BMW X5. ICCT also purchased data from Emissions Analytics, a UK-based emissions consultancy, and from stakeholders in the Real Driving Emissions-Light Duty Vehicle working group in charge of amending Euro 6 regulations. In early 2014, two professors and two students began testing emissions from the three vehicles under road conditions, using a portable emissions measurement system, making it possible to collect real world driving emissions data, for comparison with laboratory dynamometer testing.
The three vehicles were all certified at a California Air Resources Board facility before the tests as falling below the emissions limits when using the standard laboratory testing protocols. They put 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) on the Jetta and BMW. For their final test, they wanted to put even more mileage on the Passat and drove it from Los Angeles to Seattle and back again, virtually the entire West Coast of the United States, over 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi). The BMW was "at or below the standard … with exception of rural-up/downhill driving conditions". But the researchers found that under real-world driving conditions the Jetta exceeded US emissions limits "by a factor of 15 to 35" while the Passat exceeded the limit "by a factor of 5 to 20".
The emissions far exceeded legal limits set by both European and US standards. One of the testers said, "... we did so much testing that we couldn't repeatedly be doing the same mistake again and again." John German said the deceit required more effort than merely adding some code to the engine software, as the code would also have to be validated. The US test results confirmed the ICCT's findings in Europe. The West Virginia scientists did not identify the defeat device, but they reported their findings in a study they presented to the EPA and CARB in May 2014. In May 2014 Colorado's RapidScreen real-world emissions test data reinforced the suspected abnormally high emissions levels. After a year-long investigation, an international team of investigators identified the defeat device as a piece of code labelled "acoustic condition" which activated emissions-curbing systems when the car's computer identified it was undergoing a test.
Underlying U.S. and EU emission standardsEdit
The VW and Audi cars identified as violators had been certified to meet either the US EPA Tier 2 / Bin 5 emissions standard or the California LEV-II ULEV standard. Either standard requires that nitrogen oxide emissions not exceed 0.043 grams per kilometre (0.07 g/mi) for engines at full useful life which is defined as either 190,000 kilometres (120,000 mi) or 240,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) depending on the vehicle and optional certification choices.
This standard for nitrogen oxide emissions is among the most stringent in the world. For comparison, the contemporary European standards known as Euro 5 (2008 "EU5 compliant", 2009–2014 models) and Euro 6 (2015 models) only limit nitrogen oxide emissions to 0.18 grams per kilometre (0.29 g/mi) and 0.08 grams per kilometre (0.13 g/mi) respectively. Defeat devices are forbidden in the EU. The use of a defeat device is subject to a penalty.
|Car||EPA (United States)||Euro5||Euro6||Comment|
|Vehicle A||0.043 g/km||0.022 g/km||0.61–1.5 g/km||0.18 g/km||0.62 ± 0.19 g/km||0.08 g/km||lean-NOx trap (LNT) (Vehicle A)|
|Vehicle B||0.043 g/km||0.016 g/km||0.34–0.67 g/km||0.62 ± 0.19 g/km||urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system (Vehicle B)|
- Note: The vehicles tested were anonymous in the original study. Emissions listed on page 64-65. Limits listed on page 5. NOx treatment listed on page 9.
20% of European city dwellers are exposed to unhealthy levels of nitrogen dioxide. In London, where diesel road traffic is responsible for 40% of NOx emissions, air pollution causes more than 3,000 deaths a year. A Channel 4 documentary in January 2015 referred to the UK government moving to a CO2 emission band system for road tax, which favoured diesel power, as the "great car con", with Barry Gardiner MP, former member of the Blair government, stating that the policy, which lowered CO2 emissions yet increased NOx pollution, was a mistake.
EPA Notice of Violation, 2015Edit
On 18 September 2015, the US EPA served a Notice of Violation (NOV) on Volkswagen Group alleging that approximately 480,000 VW and Audi automobiles equipped with 2-litre TDI engines, and sold in the US between 2009 and 2015, had an emissions-compliance "defeat device" installed. A Notice of Violation is a notification to the recipient that the EPA believes it has committed violations and is not a final determination of liability.
Volkswagen's "defeat device" is specially-written engine-management-unit firmware that detects "the position of the steering wheel, vehicle speed, the duration of the engine's operation, and barometric pressure" when positioned on a dynamometer using the FTP-75 test schedule. These criteria very closely match the EPA's required emissions testing protocol which allowed the vehicle to comply with emissions regulations by properly activating all emissions control during testing. The EPA's NOV alleged that under normal driving conditions, the software suppressed the emissions controls, allowing better fuel economy, at the expense of emitting up to 40 times more nitrogen oxides than allowed by law.
Intelligence agencies, 2015Edit
In February 2017, Der Spiegel reported that in February 2015, ex Israeli diplomat Avi Primor had shown Ferdinand Piëch, then VW chairman of the board at the time, a document in which US agencies warned CEO Martin Winterkorn early about the manipulation. During this meeting at the end of February 2015, Primor introduced Piëch to his friend Yuval Diskin, who after retiring from directing the Israeli secret service of the Interior Shin Bet, had founded a cybersecurity company. Shin Bet apparently knew about the scandal early. Primor confirmed that the meeting took place, but both Primor and Diskin denied tipping off Piech. In early March 2017, Piech asked Winterkorn whether there had been a warning by US agencies, which Winterkorn denied.
Initial response August, September 2015Edit
According to the EPA, Volkswagen had insisted for a year before the outbreak of the scandal that discrepancies were mere technical glitches. Volkswagen only fully acknowledged that they had manipulated the vehicle emission tests after being confronted with evidence regarding the "defeat device".
The first sign that Volkswagen was ready to come clean reportedly occurred on 21 August 2015 at a conference on green transportation in Pacific Grove, California, where an unnamed company representative approached Christopher Grundler, director of the EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality, and surprised him by informally admitting that the company had been deceiving regulators. A CARB official was standing next to Grundler at the time.
Formal acknowledgement of the deception was made by Volkswagen executives in Germany and the United States to EPA and California officials during a 3 September conference call, during which Volkswagen executives discussed written materials provided to the participants demonstrating how Volkswagen's diesel engine software circumvented US emissions tests. That admission came after the EPA threatened to withhold approval for the company's 2016 Volkswagen and Audi diesel models.
-- Former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn resignation statement, 23 September 2015.
Volkswagen's CEO Martin Winterkorn said: "I personally am deeply sorry that we have broken the trust of our customers and the public." Winterkorn was in charge at Volkswagen from the start of 2008 to September 2015. He attributed the admitted wrongdoing to "the terrible mistakes of a few people". Winterkorn initially resisted calls to step down from his leadership role at VW, but then resigned as CEO on 23 September 2015.
Volkswagen Group of America CEO Michael Horn was more direct, saying, "We've totally screwed up." Horn added, "Our company was dishonest with the EPA, and the California Air Resources Board and with all of you." Olaf Lies, a Volkswagen board member and economy minister of Lower Saxony, later told the BBC that the people "who allowed this to happen, or who made the decision to install this software" acted criminally, and must be held personally accountable. He also said the board only found out about the problems "shortly before the media did", and expressed concerns over "why the board wasn't informed earlier about the problems when they were known about over a year ago in the United States".
Volkswagen announced that 11 million cars were involved in the falsified emission reports, and that over seven billion dollars would be earmarked to deal with the costs of rectifying the software at the heart of the pollution statements. The newly appointed CEO of VW Mathias Müller stated that the software was only activated in a part of those 11 million cars, which has yet to be determined. The German tabloid Bild claimed that top management had been aware of the software's use to manipulate exhaust settings as early as 2007. Bosch provided the software for testing purposes and warned VW that it would be illegal to use the software to avoid emissions compliance during normal driving. Der Spiegel followed Bild with an article dated 30 September 2015 to state that some groups of people were aware of this in 2005 or 2006. Süddeutsche Zeitung had similarly reported, that Heinz-Jakob Neusser, one of VW's top executives, had ignored at least one engineer's warnings over "possibly illegal" practices in 2011.
On 28 September 2015, it was reported that VW had suspended Heinz-Jakob Neusser, head of brand development at its core VW brand; Ulrich Hackenberg, the head of research and development at its brand Audi who oversees technical development across the VW group; and Wolfgang Hatz, research and development chief at its sports-car brand Porsche who also heads engine and transmissions development of the VW group. On the same day it was reported that besides the internal investigation of the incidents, the supervisory board of VW had hired American law firm Jones Day to carry out an independent investigation. Computerworld suggested that a software audit trail and test logs were ways to investigate what took place when. In February 2016 Volkswagen also contracted three public relations firms (Kekst in the United States, Hering Schuppener in Germany, Finsbury in Britain), in addition to its usual US-retained firm Edelman. To further help deal with the scandal, VW hired ex-FBI director Louis Freeh, alongside former German constitutional judge Christine Hohmann-Dennhardt previously employed by Daimler, and as of 2016 on VW's board as its director of integrity and legal affairs.
Other irregularities, November 2015Edit
On 3 November 2015, VW revealed that its internal investigation found that CO2 emissions and fuel consumption figures were also affected by "irregularities". These new issues, first estimated to cost up to €2 billion to repair, involved mainly diesel, but also some petrol models, with initial estimates suggesting that approximately 800,000 vehicles equipped with 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 litre motors from VW, Skoda, Audi and Seat might be affected. On 9 December 2015, VW revised these estimates, saying that only around 36,000 vehicles are affected by the irregularities, while also affirming that it had found no evidence of unlawful changing of CO2 emissions data. The news prompted a 7.3 percent increase in VW preference shares on the same day.
In November 2016, California regulators claimed to have discovered software installed on some Audi models that allowed the manufacturer to cheat CO2 emissions during standard testing, thereby also masking the cars' contribution to global warming.
3.0 liter TDI emissionsEdit
On 20 November 2015, the EPA said that VW officials told the agency that all 3.0-liter TDI diesel engines sold in the US from 2009 through 2015 were also fitted with emissions-cheating software, in the form of "alternate exhaust control devices". These are prohibited in the United States, however the software is legal in Europe. VW acknowledges these devices' existence, but maintains that they were not installed with a "forbidden purpose". On 4 January 2016, the US Department of Justice filed a complaint in a federal court against VW, alleging that the respective 3.0-liter diesel engines only meet the legal emission requirements in a "temperature conditioning" mode that is automatically switched on during testing conditions, while at "all other times, including during normal vehicle operation, the vehicles operate in a 'normal mode' that permits NOx emissions of up to nine times the federal standard". The complaint covers around 85,000 3.0 liter diesel vehicles sold in the United States since 2009, including the Volkswagen Touareg, Porsche Cayenne, Audi A6 Quattro, Audi A7 Quattro, Audi A8, Audi A8L, Audi Q5, and Audi Q7 models.
Vehicle recall and consequencesEdit
On 29 September 2015, Volkswagen announced plans to refit up to 11 million affected vehicles, fitted with Volkswagen's EA 189 diesel engines, including 5 million at VW brand, 2.1 million at Audi, 1.2 million at Škoda and 1.8 million light commercial vehicles. SEAT said that 700,000 of its diesel models were affected. In Europe alone, a total of 8 million vehicles are affected. In Germany, 2.8 million vehicles will have to be recalled, followed by the UK, with 1.2 million. In France, 984,064 vehicles were affected, in Austria around 360,000, while in the Czech Republic 148,000 vehicles were involved (of which 101,000 were Škodas). In Portugal, VW said it had sold 94,400 vehicles with the software. The repair may not require a formal recall; in the UK, for example, the company will simply offer to repair the cars free of charge; a recall is only required, "when a defect is identified that... could result in serious injury". As the rules violation involved enabling emission controls during testing, but turning it off under normal conditions to improve performance or fuel mileage, it has been speculated that the software update might make cars perform less efficiently and impair fuel economy; according to VW, however, its proposed solutions will be designed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance without impairing engine performance or consumption.
As of September 2015[update] it was unclear whether the repair would include hardware modifications, such as selective catalytic reduction upgrades. The recall was scheduled to start in January 2016, with all affected cars projected to be fixed by the end of the year. The company also announced a review of all of its brands and models, including its supercar marque Bugatti.
On 8 October 2015, Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn said in testimony before the US Congress that it could take years to repair all the cars, especially the older models, due to the required complex hardware and software changes. He said that the fixes would likely preserve fuel economy ratings but, "there might be a slight impact on performance".
On 12 October 2015, Paul Willis, VW UK managing director, told the Commons Transport Select Committee that about 400,000 Volkswagen cars in the UK will need fuel injectors altered as well as a software fix. The vehicles requiring the hardware fix are the 1.6 litre diesel models. The 1.2 litre and 2.0 litre diesel models will only require a software fix. On the same day, Volkswagen announced it would overhaul its entire diesel strategy, saying that in Europe and North America it will switch "as soon as possible" to the use of selective catalytic reduction technology to improve diesel emissions. It also announced plans to accelerate the development of electric cars and plug-in hybrids, as well as petrol, instead of diesel engines for smaller cars.
On 12–13 October 2015, Volkswagen Group vehicle drivers in the UK started receiving notification letters, to "rectify the issue". Volkswagen later announced a timeline for UK diesel recalls, citing March 2016 for 2.0 liter engines, June 2016 for 1.2. liter engines, and October 2016 for 1.6. litre engines.
At the beginning of October 2015 VW suggested to let car owners decide whether their cars would be recalled for handling. However, the German Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, or KBA) views the software as illegal, and has ordered a full recall of all affected cars in Germany. VW then decided to recall around 8.5 million cars in Europe, about a third of all its car deliveries since 2009. KBA requires VW to send a recall plan to KBA before the end of October for 2.0 liter cars, and end of November for 1.2 and 1.6 liter cars. If KBA approves a plan, VW can then start handling the cars. The German authorities require that VW removes the software and that VW ensures that emission rules are fulfilled. Media estimates that the KBA procedure sets a precedent for how authorities in other countries handle the case.
On 18 November 2015, Autoblog reported that the KBA was reviewing a VW fix for the affected 1.6 diesel engine. On 25 November 2015, VW said the fix involved a minor hardware modification to the car's air intake system, alongside a software update. This low-cost solution contradicted earlier speculation regarding the possible fitting of new injection nozzles and catalytic converters. In December 2015 VW said that the affected 1.2 liter and 2.0 liter diesel engines only needed a software update. As of November 2015, the KBA had approved the fixes with the first recalls likely to begin in January 2016. According to VW, the measures aimed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance without impairing engine output, fuel consumption, or performance. The simple fixes with inexpensive parts and software were then possible though not available when the engines were developed, because engine technology understanding and intake flow simulation capabilities had matured in the mean time, to address the burning of diesel and air mixtures via intake flow shaping. As of December 2015, due to stricter environmental legislation, fixes for US vehicles were expected to take longer to produce and be more technically complex.
As of February 2016, there were three sizes of affected diesel engines, and more than a dozen variations to the repairs exist, prompting VW to roll out the recalls in waves for each cluster of vehicle; the first model to be repaired was the low-volume Volkswagen Amarok. Classified as a light commercial vehicle, the Amarok pickup has a higher Euro 5 NOx emissions limit than the passenger cars that are yet to have an available approved fix. German motoring journal Auto Motor und Sport tested two Amarok TDI pickups pre and post software update and found that whilst engine power had remained the same, fuel consumption had increased by 0.5 litres/100 km. This is believed in turn to have delayed the next wave of updates to the larger volume Passat model which had been expected to start on 29 February 2016 due to the further testing of the update by the KBA. Volkswagen confirmed on 11 April 2016 that the Passat recall would be delayed as testing had revealed higher fuel consumption. In 2017 Swedish auto journal Teknikens Värld performed tests on 10 different models and most of them showed a reduction in power output and increase in fuel consumption after having the update applied.
In France, the MediaCom media agency, which buys advertising for Volkswagen, warned the French newspapers on 22 September 2015 that it would cancel planned Volkswagen and Audi campaigns in case they would cover the emission violations. Given the scale that the scandal had already taken by that time, the threat had little effect on its coverage.
On the occasion of German Unity Day, Volkswagen launched an ad campaign in German Sunday newspapers, that it wanted to express its joy about the 25th anniversary of German reunification, its pride about having shaped the country together with all people for the last 25 years, to give thanks for the confidence of the customers it had experienced during all this time and that it wanted to thank all its employees and trade partners in Germany, and that in one sentence, that "it would do everything to win back the confidence of its customers".
New orders, September 2015Edit
In September 2015, Volkswagen's Belgian importer, D'Ieteren, announced that it would offer free engine upgrades to 800 customers who had ordered a vehicle with a diesel engine which was likely to have been fitted with illegal software.
In the United States, VW withdrew its application for emissions certification for its 2016 diesel models, leaving thousands of vehicles stranded at ports in October 2015, which the company said contained software which should have been disclosed to and certified by the EPA. EPA quarantined some 2016-models until it would become clear that their catalysts perform the same on the road as they do in tests.
US Congressional Testimony, October 2015Edit
|Emissions Investigation Hearing, C-SPAN, 8 October 2015|
On 8 October 2015 VW US CEO Michael Horn testified before the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce stating: "This was not a corporate decision, from my point of view, and to my best knowledge today. This was a couple of software engineers who put this in for whatever reason... some people have made the wrong decisions in order to get away with something that will have to be found out." The response was widely ridiculed.
Compensation, November 2015Edit
On 9 November 2015, Volkswagen announced that 482,000 diesel Audi and VW owners in the United States would be eligible to receive US$1,000 in vouchers, in addition to the US$2,000 it is offering current VW owners for trade-ins. On 18 November 2015, VW said that approximately one quarter of the affected vehicle owners had applied to the program, which was estimated to cost at least $120 million in benefits. VW confirmed that it is offering vouchers including to customers in Canada. VW America said that accepting the gift cards does not prevent owners from filing lawsuits. VW also created a claims fund, managed by the well-known mediation attorney Kenneth Feinberg, which will offer full compensation packages (in the form of cash, buy-backs, repairs or replacement cars) to the approximately 600,000 United States owners affected by the scandal. Despite earlier hints to the contrary, in December 2015 VW CEO Matthias Müller said that customers outside the US and Canada should also expect some type of compensation package: "we are working on an attractive package, let's call it compensation, for reduction in residual values in our cars". However, on 11 January 2016, a VW spokesman said "there won't be compensation. All the indications are that residual values are unaffected"; the company, which continued to face pressure from E.U. officials to compensate European drivers as well, blamed the confusion on "a slight mistranslation". E.U. commissioner Elżbieta Bieńkowska said VW was treating European consumers unfairly, and VW responded that the situation in US and Canadian markets, where confidence in diesel technology was "severely shaken" and clients needed to wait longer for an engine fix due to tougher emissions standards, was not "automatically comparable" with other markets.
On 21 April 2016, the federal district court for the Northern District of California, which was appointed in December 2015 to oversee almost all of the US litigation, including claims filed by vehicle owners and state governments, announced that Volkswagen would offer its US customers "substantial compensation" and buyback nearly 500,000 2.0-litre vehicles, as part of a settlement in North America. The court appointed former FBI Director Robert Mueller as a mediator to oversee the negotiations between claimants, regulators, and Volkswagen, to produce a final "consent decree" by late June 2016.
This article needs attention from an expert on the subject.September 2015)(
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Research Letters estimated that approximately 59 premature deaths will be caused by the excess pollution produced between 2008 and 2015 by vehicles equipped with the defeat device in the United States, the majority due to particulate pollution (87%) with the remainder due to ozone (13%). The study also found that making these vehicles emissions compliant by the end of 2016 would avert an additional 130 early deaths.
Earlier non peer-reviewed studies published in media sources, quoted estimates ranging from 10 to 350 excess deaths in the United States related to the defeat devices based on varying assumptions.
Non-fatal health impactsEdit
2 is a precursor to ground-level ozone it may cause respiratory problems "including asthma, bronchitis and emphysema". Nitrogen oxides amplify the effect of fine particulate matter soot which causes heart problems, a form of air pollution estimated to kill 50,000 in the United States annually.
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Pollution estimated that the fraudulent emissions would be associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars.
In June 2016, Axel Friedrich, formerly with the German equivalent of the E.P.A. and a co-founder of the International Council on Clean Transportation stated "It's not just fraud – it's physical assault."
NOx also contribute to acid rain, and visibly brown clouds or smog due to both the visible nature of NO
2, and the tropospheric ozone created by NO. NO and NO
2 are not greenhouse gases, whereas N
2O is. NO
2 is a precursor to ground-level ozone.
Legal and financial repercussionsEdit
This section needs to be updated.August 2017)(
In October 2015, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission announced that it will be investigating VW for possible violations of consumer and safety standards. In March 2017, the Sydney Morning Herald reported that the ACCC had taken Audi and Volkswagen to federal court and that a voluntary recall for affected cars for software updates and in some cases hardware updates had begun in December 2016. As of January 2018[update], several class action suits were under way against Volkswagen, Audi and Skoda.
In October 2015, the Belgian Chamber of Representatives set up a special Dieselgate committee. It finalized a consensus report in March 2016, for the government to implement recommendations, with near-unanimous approval on 28 April 2016.
In January 2016, public broadcaster Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie reported on Opel Zafira cars having lower emissions after an update compared to before receiving the update. Opel denied deploying software updates influencing emissions, and the Economic Inspection of the Federal Government started an investigation on the request of Minister of Consumer Protection Kris Peeters.
As of October 2015, Volkswagen Brazil confirmed that 17,057 units of its Amarok mid-size pickups produced between 2011 and 2012 and sold in Brazil were equipped with the emissions cheating software. The Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama) launched an investigation, warning that VW could face fines up to R$50,000,000.
In September 2017, Volkswagen Brazil was ordered to pay R$1,000,000,000 to the 17,000 owners of the Amarok pickups equipped with defeat devices, as decided by the 1st Business Court of the Court of Justice of Rio de Janeiro. The automaker may still appeal the decision. The total amount reaches R$1,092,648,000 (US$348 million at the September 2017 exchange rate) and each consumer will receive R$54,000 (US$17,000) for material damages and another R$10,000 (US$3,000) for moral damages. In addition, the magistrate ordered the automaker to pay an additional R$1,000,000 into the National Consumer Protection Fund. According to the judge, the purpose was "to compensate the Brazilian society as a collective moral damage of a pedagogical and punitive nature because of the collective fraud caused in the domestic motor vehicle market".
In September 2015, Environment Canada announced that it had begun an investigation to determine if "defeat devices" were installed in Volkswagen vehicles to bypass emission control tests in Canada. On 15 December 2016 an agreement was reached which allowed buybacks or trade-ins based on market value on 18 September 2015 or fitting an approved emissions modification. All three options also added a cash payment between CA$5,100 and CA$8,000.
Ontario provincial authorities executed a search warrant at Volkswagen Canada offices in the Toronto area on 19 September 2017 as part of its investigation into the emissions scandal that rocked the company two years ago. The Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change have charged Volkswagen AG with one count under the province's Environmental Protection Act, alleging the German company did not comply with Ontario emission standards. The allegations have not been proven in court.
In July 2018, Volkswagen Group Canada announced plans for its new Electrify Canada subsidiary to launch a network of public fast-charging stations in major cities and along major highways, starting with 32 charging sites in the four most-populated provinces: Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta.
In October 2015, China's General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine announced the recall of 1,946 imported Tiguan SUVs and four imported Passat B6 sedans, in order to fix the emissions software problems.
In September 2015, Government regulatory agencies and investigators initiated proceedings in France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Romania. Several countries[vague] called for a Europe-wide investigation. In October 2015 Werner Hoyer, President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) said the bank was considering recalling VW loans, and announced their own investigation into the matter. On 27 October 2015, the European Parliament voted a resolution urging the bloc to establish a federal authority to oversee car-emissions, following reports in the press that top EU environmental officials had warned, since early 2013, that manufacturers are tweaking vehicles to perform better in the lab than on the road. The resolution urged for tougher emissions tests to be fully implemented in 2017, instead of being phased in between 2017–2019, as had been originally planned. However, the European Commission proceeded with passing legislation that allowed the car industry an extra year before having to comply with the newer regulation. Also, it was revealed[by whom?] that the new "realistic" EU driving emissions test will continue to allow cars to emit more than twice the legal limit of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from 2019 and up to 50% more from 2021. The legislation, opposed only by the Netherlands, is considered[by whom?] a great victory for the car industry, and has drawn stern critique from other MEPs. Dutch MEP Bas Eickhout referred to the new test as "a sham", while liberal democrat MEP Catherine Bearder described the legislation as "a disgraceful stitch-up by national governments, who are once again putting the interests of carmakers ahead of public health". In December 2015, the EU Parliament voted to establish a special committee to investigate whether regulators and executive officials, including the European Commission, failed to oversee the car industry and its pollution testing regimes.
In June 2016, documents leaked to the press indicated that in 2010, European Commission officials had been warned by their in-house science team that at least one car manufacturer was possibly using a NOx-related defeat device in order to bypass emission regulation. Kathleen Van Brempt, the chair of the EU inquiry into the scandal, found the documents "shocking" and suggested that they raised serious concerns with regard to the future of commission officials: "These documents show that there has been an astonishing collective blindness to the defeat device issue in the European commission, as well as in other EU institutions".
Renault and Peugeot's headquarters were raided by fraud investigators in January and April 2016, respectively. As of January 2016, Renault recalled 15,000 cars for emission testing and fixing. French authorities opened an inquiry in March 2016 into Volkswagen over the rigging of emission tests, with prosecutors investigating suspicions of "aggravated deception".
In September 2015 former Volkswagen chief executive Martin Winterkorn resigned over the scandal, saying he had no knowledge of the manipulation of emissions results. One week later German prosecutors launched an investigation against him. On October 1 a German prosecutor clarified, it was looking into allegations of fraud from unidentified individuals, but that Winterkorn was not under formal investigation. On 8 October 2015 police raided VW headquarters. As of 16 October 2015, twenty investigators worked on the case, targeting "more than two, but a lot fewer than 10" VW staff. As of November 2015 the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA tested 50 cars from different manufacturers, both in laboratory and on-road with PEMS. In May 2016, German transport minister Alexander Dobrindt said that Volkswagen, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Opel and Porsche would all adjust settings that increased emission levels such as nitrogen dioxide in some diesel cars. On 16 March 2017, German authorities raided the headquarters of Audi in Bavaria and Volkswagen in Wolfsburg.
The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department banned the Volkswagen Caddy on 16 October 2015. As of 16 October 2015 the department had also tested the Amarok and Transporter commercial diesel vehicles but found them to be free of the defeat device.
As of 25 September 2015[update], the Indian government directed the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) to investigate whether Volkswagen's vehicles had circumvented Indian laws and regulations on vehicle emission testing. On 22 September 2015 the Indian Foundation of Transport, Research and Training (IFTRT) demanded a probe into Volkswagen's Confirmation of Production process for vehicles sold in India. In October the Government of India later extended its deadline for the test results to the end of October 2015. On 11 January 2017, ARAI's investigation into defeat devices was published and revealed that Volkswagen India had installed a derivation of the software used in the U.S. to defeat emission testing procedures in all of the Volkswagen group's product range in India with EA 189 engine series. This included 1.2-L, 1.5-L, 1.6-L and 2.0-L diesel engine variants across three different brands - Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen. The report called the defeat device "not a product failure but a clear case of cheating".
On 6 October 2015 Italy's regulator of competition announced plans to investigate whether VW engaged in "improper commercial practices" when promoting its affected diesel vehicles. On 15 October 2015, Italian police raided VW offices in Verona, and VW's Lamborghini offices in Bologna, placing six executives under investigation.
In December 2016 the Dutch consumers authority ACM decided to investigate whether Dutch laws were broken and consumers misled, a report was due by June 2017. 5,000 Dutch VW owners have signed up for a class action lawsuit.[when?] Netherlands has spent billions of euros on subsidies in energy-efficient cars in the recent years.[vague] Jesse Klaver from the political party GroenLinks responded[when?] that the Netherlands must claim back money from the car manufacturers if it emerges that they have committed fraud in the Netherlands.
Norway's prosecutors opened a criminal investigation into possible economic crimes committed by VW.
In May 2016, Norway's sovereign wealth fund, the world's largest ($850 bn) and also one of the company's biggest investors, announced legal action against Volkswagen, to be filed in Germany as part of a class-action lawsuit being prepared there.
On 1 October 2015 the Romanian Automotive Register (RAR) stopped issuing registration documents for VW vehicles equipped with Euro 5 diesel engines.
On 28 September 2015, the departments of Environmental Affairs and Transport and the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications said they still needed to determine whether local cars had been affected by the rigging of US vehicle emissions tests.
As of 19 January 2016 South Korea, the world's eighth-largest diesel-car market, planned a criminal case against VW executives. On 22 September 2015 South Korean authorities announced pollution control investigations into cars manufactured by Volkswagen and other European car-manufacturers. Park Pan-kyu, a deputy director at South Korea's environment ministry said: "If South Korean authorities find problems in the VW diesel cars, the probe could be expanded to all German diesel cars".
In November 2015, after defeat devices had been found in some Volkswagen models, the Environment Minister issued a fine of ₩14,100,000,000 and ordered the cars to be recalled. As of 20 January 2016, the country's environmental agency had filed criminal charges against VW, seeking up to $48 billion in penalties. Johannes Thammer, managing director of Audi Volkswagen Korea, was placed under investigation and faced up to five years in prison and a fine of up to ₩30,000,000. VW's recall plan for South Korea, submitted on 6 January 2016, was rejected by the authorities, as it failed to meet a number of key legal requirements. Authorities are also reported to have rejected a revised plan on 23 March 2016 for the same reasons. In May 2016, following a wider investigation of 20 diesel-powered cars, South Korean authorities accused Nissan of using a defeat device for manipulating emissions data for the British-built Nissan Qashqai, allegations which the Japanese carmaker denied.
As of 28 October 2015, a Spanish court had opened a criminal probe against Volkswagen AG, to establish whether the company's actions broke any local laws.
As of 29 September 2015, Sweden's chief prosecutor was considering starting a preliminary investigation into Volkswagen's emissions violations.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
On 26 September 2015 Switzerland banned sales of Volkswagen diesel cars, marking the most severe step taken so far by a government in reaction to the emissions crisis.
The Department for Transport announced on 24 September 2015 that it would begin re-testing cars from a variety of manufacturers to ensure the use of "defeat devices" was not industry wide. The UK Parliamentary Transport Select Committee opened an enquiry into Volkswagen Emissions Violations with evidence sessions on 12 October 2015 and 25 January 2016. The Select Committee published a letter from Paul Willis, Managing Director of Volkswagen Group UK Ltd of 21 December 2015 stating: "In very simple terms, the software did amend the NOx characteristics in testing. The vehicles did meet EU5 standards, so it clearly contributed to meeting the EU5 standards in testing".
A report on "real world" tests commissioned by the Government published in April 2016 showed emissions from 37 diesel engines up to 14 times higher than had been claimed, with every vehicle exceeding the legal limit of nitrogen oxide emissions. Only Volkswagen group vehicles were found to have test cycle detection software.
In January 2017, an action group announced it had 25,000 vehicle owners who were seeking compensation of £3,000-£4,000 per vehicle.
VW suspended sales of TDI-equipped cars in the US on 20 September 2015. On 21 September 2015 the EPA announced that should the allegations be proven, Volkswagen Group could face fines of up to US$37,500 per vehicle (about US$18 billion in total). In addition to possible civil fines, the United States Department of Justice Environment and Natural Resources Division were doing a criminal probe of Volkswagen AG's conduct. 22 September 2015 The United States House Energy Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations announced that it would hold a hearing into the Volkswagen scandal while New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said that his investigation was already underway. As of 29 October 2015, over 25 other states' attorneys general, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Detroit, were involved in similar investigations. On 12 November 2015, the FBI confirmed to engineering magazine Ingeniøren that it had an ongoing investigation, after previous unconfirmed reports.
As of 6 October 2015, the EPA decided to broaden its investigations onto 28 diesel-powered models made by BMW, Chrysler, General Motors, Land Rover and Mercedes-Benz. The agency would initially focus on one used vehicle of each model, and widen the probe if it encountered suspicious data. The EPA has described[when?] the hidden VW pollution as "knowing endangerment". In May 2016, the owners of Mercedes-Benz confirmed that the US Justice Department asked Daimler AG to run an internal investigation into its diesel emissions testing, as well.
On 4 January 2016, the Justice Department, on behalf of the EPA, filed a lawsuit against VW in a federal court in Detroit. The complaint, seeking up to $46 billion in penalties for Clean Air Act violations, alleged that VW equipped certain 2.0 and 3.0 liter diesel-engine vehicles with emissions cheating software, causing NOx pollution to exceed EPA's standards during normal driving conditions. It further claimed that VW entities provided misleading information and that material omissions impeded and obstructed ""efforts to learn the truth about the (excess) emissions". while "so far recall discussions with the company have not produced an acceptable way forward". On 9 January 2016, US officials criticized VW for citing German law in order to withhold documents from a group of states investigating the company's actions. Schneiderman also complained over VW's slowness in producing documents from its US files, claiming the company "has sought to delay responses until it completes its 'independent investigation' several months from now".
On 12 January 2016, US regulators rejected VW's recall plans for its affected 2.0 liter diesel engines, submitted to CARB in December 2015, claiming that these "do not adequately address overall impacts on vehicle performance, emissions and safety". Volkswagen confirmed that its discussions with CARB will continue, and said that the company is working on bringing "a package together which satisfies our customers first and foremost and then also the regulators". The states of West Virginia, New Mexico, Texas and Harris County, Texas, all filed separate lawsuits seeking restitution from VW. The company also faces investigations by 48 United States state attorneys (as of February 2016[update]).
On 29 March 2016, Volkswagen was additionally sued by the United States Federal Trade Commission for false advertising due to fraudulent claims made by the company in its promotion of the affected models, which touted the "environmental and economic advantages" of diesel engines and contained claims of low emissions output. The suit was consolidated into existing litigation over the matter in San Francisco, which would allow the FTC to participate in global settlements over the matter.
Charges against VW engineering/managementEdit
This section needs to be updated.January 2019)(
On 9 September 2016, James Robert Liang, a VW engineer working at VW's testing facility in Oxnard, California, admitted as part of a plea deal with the US Department of Justice that the defeat device had been purposely installed in US vehicles with the knowledge of his engineering team: "Liang admitted that beginning in about 2006, he and his co-conspirators started to design a new "EA 189" diesel engine for sale in the United States. ... When he and his co-conspirators realized that they could not design a diesel engine that would meet the stricter US emissions standards, they designed and implemented [the defeat device] software".
On 7 January 2017, former top emissions compliance manager for Volkswagen in the US Oliver Schmidt was arrested by the FBI on a charge of conspiracy to defraud the United States. On 11 January 2017 VW pleaded guilty to weaving a vast conspiracy to defraud the US government and obstructing a federal investigation and agreed to pay a US$2.8 billion criminal fine and US$1.5 billion in civil penalties. In addition, six executives have been criminally charged.
On 3 May 2018 former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn was indicted on fraud and conspiracy charges in the emissions scandal case. He has repeatedly denied any knowledge of the rigged emissions tests.
On 25 October 2016, a final settlement was approved by a judge. About 475,000 Volkswagen owners in the US can choose between a buyback or a free fix and compensation, if a repair becomes available. VW will begin administering the settlement immediately, having already devoted several hundred employees to handling the process. Buybacks range in value from $12,475 to $44,176, including restitution payments, and vary based on mileage. People who opt for a fix approved by the Environmental Protection Agency will receive payouts ranging from $5,100 to $9,852, depending on the book value of their car.
Of the buyback, 138,000 had been completed by 18 February 2017 with 150,000 more to be returned. 52,000 chose to keep their cars. 67,000 diesel cars from model year 2015 were cleared for repairs, but left uncertainty about the future of 325,000 "Generation One" diesel VWs from the 2009-2014 model years, which use the "lean NOx trap" and would be harder to repair.
In March 2018, Reuters reported that 294,000 cars from the buyback program have been stored at 37 regional US staging sites; some of the first reported sites included: Colorado Springs, Colorado; Pontiac, Michigan; Baltimore, Maryland; San Bernardino, California; and Gary, Indiana.
Volkswagen will also pay $2.7 billion for environmental mitigation and another $2 billion for clean-emissions infrastructure. Toward that end, VW formed a U.S. subsidiary called Electrify America, LLC., based in Reston, Virginia, that will manage the $2 billion brand-neutral zero-emission vehicle infrastructure programs and marketing campaigns for the next ten years. The group will get four installments of $500 million, at 2-1/2-year intervals, subject to California Air Resources Board and U.S. EPA approval. VW plans to install hundreds of chargers with 50, 150 and even some ultra-fast 320 kW charge rate, beginning in California in 2017. Competing charge networks (and automakers) saw the effort as controversial. In August 2018, Electrify America launched the first national media advertising campaign to promote electric vehicles; it featured the Chevy Bolt, with other EVs in cameo roles.
By 27 September 2015 at least 34 class-action lawsuits had been filed in the United States and Canada on behalf of Volkswagen and Audi owners, accusing VW of breach of contract, fraudulent concealment, false advertising, and violations of federal and state laws, and positing the "diminished value" of diesels that will be fixed to conform with pollution regulations, due to possible reductions in horsepower and fuel efficiency. According to Reuters, one reason class action lawyers were able to mobilize so fast is that the company's marketing to upscale professionals, including jurists, had backfired.
As of 30 September 2015[update] at least one investor lawsuit seeking class action status for holders of Volkswagen American Depositary Receipts had been filed in the United States seeking compensation for the drop in stock value due to the emissions scandal.
On 7 October, the Los Angeles Times reported that the number of class-action lawsuits filed had grown to more than 230.
On 19 November 2015, ABC News Australia reported that more than 90,000 VW, Audi and Skoda diesel vehicle owners had filed a class action lawsuit against VW in the country's Federal Court.
On 8 December 2015, the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation issued an order consolidating over 500 class actions against Volkswagen into a single multidistrict litigation, captioned In re: Volkswagen 'Clean Diesel' Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, MDL No. 2672, and transferred the entire MDL to judge Charles R. Breyer of the federal district court for the Northern District of California.
On 21 January 2016, Judge Breyer held a hearing on the requests by over 150 plaintiff's attorneys for some kind of leadership role in the gigantic Volkswagen MDL, of which over 50 sought to serve as lead counsel or to chair the plaintiffs' steering committee. More than 100 of those attorneys tried to squeeze into his San Francisco courtroom to argue their requests in person, and some of them had to stand in the aisles or in the outside hallway. That afternoon, Judge Breyer issued an order naming 22 attorneys to a plaintiffs' steering committee, and of those, selected Elizabeth Cabraser of Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein as chair of the committee. On the other side, Volkswagen hired Robert Giuffra of Sullivan & Cromwell as its lead defense counsel in the MDL.
On 14 March 2016, Volkswagen AG was sued in Germany for allegedly failing to inform financial markets in a timely manner about defeat devices used in diesel engines. The suit on behalf of 278 institutional investors seeks €3.3 billion (US$3.7 billion at March 2016 exchange rate) in compensation. BlackRock Inc., the world's largest asset manager, joined other institutional investors in the lawsuit in September 2016.
In November 2015, Moody's Investors Service downgraded VW's bond credit rating from A2 to A3. Fitch Ratings downgraded Volkswagen's Long-term Issuer Default Rating by two notches to BBB+, with a negative outlook.
In May 2016, The Children's Investment Fund Management, run by Chris Hohn and retaining a 2% stake in VW preference stock, launched a campaign aiming to overhaul the company's executive pay system, arguing that "for years management has been richly rewarded with massive compensation despite presiding over a productivity and profit collapse", thereby leading to an "aggressive management behavior" and contributing to the diesel emission scandal. Later the same month, German investor group DSW called for an independent audit of VW's emissions-cheating practices, arguing that the company's internal investigation might not necessarily make everything transparent to smaller shareholders.
On 28 June 2016, Volkswagen agreed to pay $15.3 billion to settle the various public and private civil actions in the United States, the largest settlement ever of an automobile-related consumer class action in United States history. On 25 October 2016, a U.S. federal judge approved the settlement. Up to $10 billion will be paid to 475,000 VW or Audi owners whose cars are equipped with 2.0 liter diesel engines. Owners can also opt to have their car repaired free of charge or can sell it back to the company, who will pay back its estimated value from before the scandal began. Leases can also be terminated without incurring penalty charges. Independent of which options are selected, owners will still receive compensation ranging from $5,000 to $10,000 per affected car. Additionally, should they choose to decline the offer, they are free to pursue independent legal action against the firm. The settlement also includes $2.7 billion for environmental mitigation, $2 billion to promote zero-emissions vehicles and $603 million for claims by 44 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. VW agreed not to resell or export any vehicles it repurchases unless an approved emission repair has been completed. As of 28 June 2016[update], no practical engineering solutions that would bring the vehicles into compliance with emission standards had been publicly identified. The consumer settlement will resolve all claims by participating consumers against VW and all its associates, except for any potential claims against Robert Bosch GmbH. Bosch supplied two exhaust treatment components and engine control software. In the case of 3.0-liter V6 TDI engines, VW suggested it can provide an uncomplicated fix that will bring the vehicles into compliance without adversely affecting performance, a move that the company hopes will avoid an expensive buyback of these cars.
European Investment Bank's possible involvementEdit
In January 2016, documents obtained by CEE Bankwatch Network provided more details for a European Investment Bank statement that its loans to Volkswagen may have been connected to the car makers use of cheating devices to rig emission tests. The 'Antrieb RDI' loan was supposedly for creating cleaner drive trains.
However, during the bank's annual press conference on 14 January 2016, the bank president, Werner Hoyer, admitted that the €400,000,000 loan might have been used in the creation of an emissions defeat device. Many redacted documents obtained by Bankwatch, along with the EIB not disclosing the details of the loan, hint to the bank possibly already knowing that there were some discrepancies with the 'Antrieb RDI' loan.
In 2017, the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) found that Volkswagen had misled the bank about the car company's use of emissions cheating software, in a scandal that has become known as Dieselgate.
Also in 2017, Hoyer said the bank did not find "any indication" that its loans had been misused. However, six months later news website Politico reported that Olaf had concluded that Volkswagen acquired the EIB loan through "fraud" and "deception".
By 22 September 2015, Volkswagen had admitted that 11 million vehicles sold worldwide are affected in addition to the 480,000 vehicles with 2.0 L TDI engines sold in the US. According to Volkswagen, vehicles sold in other countries with the 1.6 L and 2.0 L 4-cylinder TDI engine known as Type EA189 are also affected. This software is also said to affect EA188 and the 2015 EA288 generation of the four-cylinder. Worldwide, around 1.2 million Skodas and 2.1 million Audis may contain the software, including TTs and Qs. VW states that Euro6 model in Germany are not affected, while 2015 US models with the same EA288 engines are affected. This suggests that normal-operation measurements that place the EA288 NOx emissions between the two standards' limits were readily available at VW headquarters in Germany. According to Müller, the 1.2 and 2.0 liter models may be updated by software, whereas the around 3 million 1.6 liter require various hardware solutions, and some cars may even be replaced. The cars are so diverse that many different solutions are required.
The EPA revealed on 2 November 2015 that VW had shipped additional diesel models with defeat devices, including the 2014 VW Touareg and the 2015 Porsche Cayenne. Model year 2016 Audi Quattro diesels were also found affected, including several 2016 Audi Quattro models (the 2016 Audi Quattro A6, A7, A8, A8L, and Q5). Cynthis Giles, the EPA Assistant Administrator for Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, called out the company for further refusing to take responsibility for its failure to comply with the law. Under US federal Clean Air Act, VW could be liable for up to $375 million in fines.
As of 26 October 2015[update], the resale value of affected model cars in the US was down from 5 to nearly 16 percent depending on model as compiled by Black Book and Kelley Blue Book based on used car auction prices, the volume of which was also down.
Effects on Volkswagen corporateEdit
|Date||Adj Close||Volume||% diff from 17 Sep||% diff from previous day|
On 21 September 2015, the first day of trading after the EPA's Notice of Violation to Volkswagen became public, share prices of Volkswagen AG fell 20% on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. On 22 September, the stock fell another 12%. On 23 September, the stock quickly fell 10.5%, dropping below €100 to a record 4-year low before regaining some lost ground. Share prices of other German automakers were also affected, with BMW down 4.9% and Daimler down 5.8%. A year later VW stock was down by 30%.
Qatar, one of the biggest VW shareholders with a 17% stake in the company, lost nearly $5 billion as the company stock value fell.
In South Korea, sales in November rose 66% to 4,517 units from a year ago due to the Volkswagen's aggressive marketing efforts such as a discount of up to ₩18,000,000 (US$15,600 at December 2015 exchange rates) for some models.
In Great Britain, the scandal did not affect sales, which increased in 2016 to an all-point high, placing VW second in the league of best-selling cars.
VW sales across Europe returned to growth in April 2016 for the first time since the scandal broke, with a group market share of 25.2%, compared to its previous level of 26.1%.
Transgressions by other manufacturersEdit
The VW scandal more generally raised awareness over the high levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide range of carmakers, including Volvo, Renault, Mercedes, Jeep, Hyundai, Citroen, BMW, Mazda, Fiat, Ford and Peugeot. Independent tests carried out by ADAC proved that, under normal driving conditions, diesel vehicles including the Volvo S60, Renault's Espace Energy and the Jeep Renegade, exceeded legal European emission limits for nitrogen oxide (NOx) by more than 10 times. Researchers have criticized the inadequacy of current regulations and called for the use of a UN-sanctioned test called Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures that better reflects real-life driving conditions. The test is not due to come into force until 2017, with critics saying that car firms have lobbied fiercely to delay its implementation due to the high cost of meeting stricter environmental controls.
The VW scandal has increased scrutiny on combustion engines in general, and VW and several other car makes have been shown to pollute more than allowed. A French government report in 2016 investigated 86 different cars, and about 1/5th of those were found to comply with emission laws. Most did not. One car was measured to emit 17 times more than allowed. An overview of tests showed that cars turned off the exhaust improvement device in many ordinary conditions, with 5 out 38 cars complying with regulations in an English test. A German test showed 10 out of 53 cars compliant when exposed to temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius. A French test showed 4 out of 52 cars compliant when tested outside (not in a laboratory). A 2016 test showed VW diesel cars to emit at about twice the Euro6 limit, and several other manufacturers emitting more, up to 14 times higher.
38 out of 40 tested diesel cars failed a NOx-test since 2016.
Renault believes that diesel cars would become significantly more expensive when re-engineered to comply with new emissions regulations as a result of the VW disclosures, to the point that diesel cars may not be competitive. Industry-wide, small diesel engines are being replaced by bigger ones, and electric car sales have risen.
On 16 June 2016, Volkswagen announced plans to make major investments into the production of electric vehicles; Matthias Müller predicted that Volkswagen would introduce 30 all-electric models over the next 10 years, and that electric vehicles would account for around a quarter of its annual sales by 2025. Volkswagen plans to fund the initiative by streamlining its operations and engaging in cost-cutting. Müller stated that the changes would "require us - following the serious setback as a result of the diesel issue - to learn from mistakes made, rectify shortcomings and establish a corporate culture that is open, value-driven and rooted in integrity". VW plans a battery factory near Salzgitter to compensate for the reduced numbers of piston engines.
In November 2016, Volkswagen and its labour unions agreed to reduce the workforce by 30,000 people until 2021 as a result of the costs from the violations. However, 9,000 new jobs would come by producing more electric cars. Volkswagen CEO Herbert Diess stated to the German financial publication Handelsblatt that the company planned to stop marketing diesel models in the U.S., citing "the legal framework".
In January 2018, it leaked out VW had experimented on monkeys in May 2015 to prove that diesel exhaust was not harmful to primates. The disclosure of the tests was named monkeygate. However, the test car was a VW Beetle fitted with the defeat device that produced far less emissions in the experiment than it would on the highway. VW's top lobbyist, Thomas Steg, was suspended on 23 January 2018.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel stated she hoped that all facts in the matter would be made known promptly, urging "complete transparency". She additionally noted that Germany's Transport Minister, Alexander Dobrindt, was in ongoing communication with Volkswagen.
The German Green Party accused Merkel of knowing about the defeat devices with a "wink".
Catherine Bearder, MEP for South East England, commented on 27 October 2015 in the European Parliament that "we now have the political momentum for a radical overhaul that will ensure carmakers cannot dodge the rules", defending an EU resolution meant to specifically "cut deadly pollution from diesel vehicles". However, when the European Commission proceeded with passing legislation that allowed the car industry more time to comply with the newer regulation, while also permitting cars, even under the more "realistic" tests, to emit more than twice the legal limit of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from 2019 and up to 50% more from 2021, Bearder denounced the legislation as "a disgraceful stitch-up by national governments, who are once again putting the interests of carmakers ahead of public health".
London Assembly member Stephen Knight suggested on 1 November 2015 that diesel vehicles should either be banned in the future, or face stringent tests before being allowed to enter London's low-emissions zone. The city's deputy mayor for the environment, Matthew Pencharz, responded that such measures could lead to serious economic problems.
Automotive industry and other commentatorsEdit
Major car manufacturers, including Toyota, GM, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Mazda, Daimler (Mercedes Benz), and Honda, issued press statements reaffirming their vehicles' compliance with all regulations and legislation for the markets in which they operate; The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders described the issue as affecting "just one company", with no evidence to suggest that the whole industry might be affected.
Renault-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn said it would be difficult for an automaker to conceal internally an effort to falsify vehicle emissions data, such as has happened at Volkswagen AG: "I don't think you can do something like this hiding in the bushes."
Jim Holder, the editorial director of Haymarket Automotive, which publishes WhatCar and AutoCar, opined that there had never been a scandal in the automotive industry of this size.
Alan Brown, chairman of the Volkswagen National Dealer Advisory Council, commented on the scandal's negative impact on US dealers, who were already struggling with overpriced products and a deteriorating relationship between the company and the dealer body. Car and Driver similarly emphasized VW's inability to efficiently operate in the US market, while also suggesting that the company had grossly underestimated the EPA's power, and inexplicably failed to go public before the story broke, despite receiving ample warning.
Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk was asked about his opinion whether the scandal will weaken the consumer's view on green technologies; he responded saying he expects the opposite to happen: "What Volkswagen is really showing is that we've reached the limit of what's possible with diesel and petrol. The time has come to move to a new generation of technology."
Similarly, analysts at Fitch suggested the VW diesel emissions crisis was likely to affect the entire automotive industry, with petrol cars potentially enjoying a revival in Europe and greater investment being poured into electric vehicles. Other commentators argued that the diesel engine will nevertheless regain its footing in the market, due to its international indispensability, low CO2 emissions and strong presence in the US pickup– and commercial–truck segments.
On 29 September 2015, S&P Dow Jones Indices and RobecoSAM stated that Volkswagen AG's stock will be de-listed from the Dow Jones Sustainability indexes after close of trading on 5 October 2015. Among the reasons for the de-listing, the statement issued by RobecoSAM cited social and ethical reasons, and confirmed that VW will no longer be identified as an Industry Group Leader in the "Automobiles & Components" industry group.
In early October, Green Car Journal rescinded its Green Car of the Year awards, for models that "best raise the bar in environmental performance", that were given to the 2009 VW Jetta TDI and 2010 Audi A3 TDI models.
In December 2015, a group of business and environmental leaders, including Tesla CEO Elon Musk, addressed an open letter to CARB, urging the agency to absolve VW of recalling the 85,000 diesel vehicles affected by the scandal in the US, and argued that VW should instead be asked to allocate resources to an accelerated rollout of zero-emissions vehicles ("cure the air, not the cars"). The letter, which includes a 5-step legally enforceable plan, argues that this course of action could result in a "10 for 1 or greater reduction in pollutant emissions as compared to the pollution associated with the diesel fleet cheating", while suggesting that the affected vehicles on the road in California "represent an insignificant portion of total vehicles emissions in the State" and "do not, individually, present any emissions-related risk to their owners or occupants". Similar requests were put forward by the American Lung Association, who petitioned the EPA to determine Volkswagen to promote zero-emissions vehicles, build sustainable transport infrastructure and retrofit older diesel models with superior emissions controls.
Volkswagen got a 2016 Ig Nobel Prize in chemistry from the scientific humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research for "solving the problem of excessive automobile pollution emissions by automatically, electromechanically producing fewer emissions whenever the cars are being tested".
The Volkswagen TDI emissions scandal has received widespread negative media exposure, with headlines fronting the websites of multiple news gathering and reporting organizations. Reuters said that the crisis at Volkswagen could be a bigger threat to the German economy than the consequences of the 2015 Greek sovereign debt default. Deutsche Welle, one of Germany's state broadcasters, said that a "lawsuit tsunami" was headed for Volkswagen and that the scandal had dealt a blow to the country's psyche and "Made in Germany" brand. Popular Mechanics said that the scandal "is much worse than a recall", highlighting that Volkswagen had engaged in a pattern of "cynical deceit".
Despite the scandal, one poll conducted for Bild suggested that the majority of Germans (55%) still have "great faith" in Volkswagen, with over three-quarters believing that other carmakers are equally guilty of manipulation. Similarly, a poll conducted by the management consultancy Prophet in October 2015 indicated that two-thirds of Germans believe the scandal to be exaggerated and continue to regard VW as a builder of "excellent cars". A survey by Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management, Brand Imperatives and Survata said that nearly 50% of US consumers had either a positive or very positive impression of Volkswagen, while 7.5% had a "very negative" impression. Another US survey by market researcher AutoPacific found that 64% of vehicle owners do not trust Volkswagen and only 25% of them have a positive view of Volkswagen following the scandal.
- "Abgas-Skandal bei VW – Techniker warnte schon 2011 vor Manipulationen". Bild.
- "VW scandal: Carmaker was warned by Bosch about test-rigging software in 2007". International Business Times UK.
- "The Passat" (PDF). UK: Volkswagen Group. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "VW says sold first UK vehicle with emission test rigging software in 2008". Reuters UK. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "The Passat Estate" (PDF). UK: Volkswagen Group. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Volkswagen says 800,000 cars may have false CO2 levels – BBC News, BBC, 4 November 2015, retrieved 4 November 2015
- Volkswagen European TDI repair for diesel cars, Autoweek.com, retrieved 27 December 2015
- Bruce, Chris (25 November 2015). "VW explains fixes for 1.6, 2.0 diesels in Europe". Autoblog. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Cremer, Andreas (9 December 2015), VW says CO2 emissions scandal not as bad as feared, Reuters, retrieved 9 December 2015
- "Volkswagen's US chief leaves troubled German carmaker". BBC News. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Ewing, Jack (21 April 2016). "Volkswagen Reaches Deal in U.S. Over Emissions Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Boston, William (6 November 2016). "New Discovery Broadens VW Emissions-Cheating Crisis". The Wall Street Journal. US. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Ewing, Hiroko Tabuchi, Jack; Apuzzo, Matt (11 January 2017). "Six Volkswagen Executives Charged in Emissions Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Shepardson, David. "U.S. indicts six as Volkswagen agrees to $4.3 billion diesel settlement". Reuters UK. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Ewing, Jack (3 May 2018). "Ex-Volkswagen C.E.O. Charged With Fraud Over Diesel Emissions". The New York Times. US. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "Audi chief Rupert Stadler arrested in diesel emissions probe". BBC News. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- Ewing, Jack (16 October 2018). "Audi, Admitting to Role in Diesel-Cheating Scheme, Agrees to Pay Major Fine". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Cormack, Lucy; Hatch, Patrick (1 September 2016). "ACCC takes Volkswagen to court over diesel emission claims". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- Parloff, Roger (6 February 2018). "How VW Paid $25 Billion for 'Dieselgate' – and Got Off Easy". Fortune. US. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- "'It Was Installed For This Purpose', VW's U.S. CEO Tells Congress About Defeat Device". NPR. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "EPA, California Notify Volkswagen of Clean Air Act Violations / Carmaker allegedly used software that circumvents emissions testing for certain air pollutants". US: EPA. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Jordans, Frank (21 September 2015). "EPA: Volkswagon Thwarted Pollution Regulations For 7 Years". CBS Detroit. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "Abgasaffäre: VW-Chef Müller spricht von historischer Krise". Der Spiegel. Reuters. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Ewing, Jack (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen Says 11 Million Cars Worldwide Are Affected in Diesel Deception". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Franco, Vicente; Sánchez, Francisco Posada; German, John; Mock, Peter. "Real-World Exhaust Emissions From Modern Diesel Cars" (PDF). Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Thompson, Gregory J.; Carder, Daniel K.; et al. (15 May 2014). "In-Use Emissions Testing of Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles in the United States" (PDF). WVU Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Bigelow, Pete (23 September 2015). "West Virginia researcher describes how Volkswagen got caught". Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Procter, John; Foster, Jacqueline; Dalton, Daniel (25 July 2018). "Procter, Foster, Dalton: "4 things we've done to protect our environment"". Conservatives in the European Parliament.
- "VW could face 'long legal nightmare'". BBC News. 24 September 2015.
- Boston, William (18 April 2016). "Bad News? What Bad News? Volkswagen Bullish Despite Emissions Costs". The Wall Street Journal. US. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Leggett, Theo (12 January 2017). "VW papers shed light on emissions scandal". BBC. UK. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Rogers, Christina (21 April 2017). "Judge Slaps VW With $2.8 Billion Criminal Fine in Emissions Fraud". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Yang, Liuhanzi; Franco, Vicente; Campestrini, Alex; German, John; Mock, Peter (3 September 2015). "NOx control technologies for Euro 6 Diesel passenger cars" (PDF). International Council on Clean Transportation in collaboration with Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club (ADAC). Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Volkswagen emissions scandal: More carmakers implicated as tests reveal pollution levels of popular diesels", The Independent, retrieved 1 October 2015
- "Wide range of cars emit more pollution in realistic driving tests, data shows", The Guardian, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Schneier, Bruce (30 September 2015). "Volkswagen and Cheating Software]". Schneier on Security. US. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- VW's Cheating Proves We Must Open Up the Internet of Things, Klint Finley, Wired, 24 September 2015.
- Volkswagen's Diesel Fraud Makes Critic of Secret Code a Prophet, New York Times on Eben Moglen, 22 September 2015.
- "Ingenieure gestehen Installation von Manipulations-Software". Bild.
- Ewing, Jack (4 October 2015). "Volkswagen Engine-Rigging Scheme Said to Have Begun in 2008". The New York Times.
- Boston, William (5 October 2015). "Volkswagen Emissions Investigation Zeroes In on Two Engineers". The Wall Street Journal.
- Jääskeläinen, Hannu; Khair, Magdi K. (May 2015). "Common Rail Fuel Injection". DieselNet.com Technology Guide. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "The Common Rail Diesel Injection System Explained" (Press release). Robert Bosch GmbH. 7 June 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2015 – via Swedespeed.com.
- "400,000 VW cars in UK need engine modification". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Yerak, Becky; Karp, Gregory (21 September 2015). "Volkswagen owners should be nervous about emissions scandal, experts say". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Hall, Steve (5 March 2015). "VW Touts TDI Clean Diesel With 'Golden Sisters' Video Series on Tumblr". Marketing Land. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen Engineer Pleads Guilty for His Role in Conspiracy to Cheat U.S. Emissions Tests" (Press release). US: Department of Justice. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- Mearian, Lucas (24 September 2015). "EPA details how VW software thwarted emission tests". Computerworld.
- Hawranek, Dietmar (14 October 2015). "Volkswagen: Dutzende Manager in VW-Skandal verwickelt". Der Spiegel.
- Hicks, Maurice (December 2014). "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance (Public Version)" (PDF). NHSTA.gov. NHTSA/CAFE. p. 9. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Taxpayers Paid $51M in Green Car Subsidies Linked to VW Diesels". Motor Trend. 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- "VW's Clean Diesel Ads Now Make Us Feel Dirty". New York. 23 September 2015.
- "VW Plays 'Truth & Dare' Online". AdWeek. 5 May 2009.
- "Volkswagen launches 'truth & dare' site to dispel diesel myths". Motor Authority. 4 May 2009.
- "VW launches TDI Truth & Dare with coffee filter test". AutoBlog Magazine. 3 May 2009.
- Kågeson, Per (March 1998). "Cycle beating and the EU test for cycle for cars" (PDF). Brussels: European Federation for Transport and Environment. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "Volkswagen's emissions cheating scandal has a long, complicated history", Ars Technica, 8 October 2015, retrieved 10 October 2015
- Analyzing on-road emissions of light-duty vehicles with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) Archived 30 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Weiss, M., Bonnel, P., Hummel, R., Manfredi, U., Colombo, R., Lanappe, G., Le Lijour, P., and Sculati, M., JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, EUR 24697 EN, (2011).
- A complimentary emissions test for light-duty vehicles: Assessing the technical feasibility of candidate procedures (2013) Joint Research Center Institute for Energy and Transport
- Jim Brunsden and Christian Oliver. "EU failed to heed emissions warnings in 2013" Financial Times, October 2015
- Oliver, Christian; Brunsden, Jim; Vasagar, Jeevan; Pickard, Jim. "EU warned on devices at centre of VW scandal two years ago". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Air Pollution in the UK report". United Kingdom: defra.gov.uk.
- "Meet John German: the man who helped expose Volkswagen's emissions scandal". The Guardian. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Abgasexperte Peter Mock: Der Mann, der aus Versehen VW ins Wanken brachte, der Spiegel, 23 September 2015.
- Jaffe, Eric (24 September 2015). "The Study That Brought Down Volkswagen". US: CityLab. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "WVU study found elevated levels of emissions from Volkswagen vehicles". West Virginia University. 24 September 2015.
- Vlasic, Bill; Kessler, Aaron M. (21 September 2015). "It Took E.P.A. Pressure to Get VW to Admit Fault". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "How A Little Lab In West Virginia Caught Volkswagen's Big Cheat". NPR. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- Franco, Vicente; Posada Sánchez, Francisco; et al. (11 October 2014). "Real-world exhaust emissions from modern diesel cars". International Council on Clean Transportation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Ramsey, Mike (23 September 2015). "Volkswagen Emissions Problem Exposed by Routine University Research". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Thompson, Gregory J. (15 May 2014). "In-Use Emissions Testing of Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles in the United States" (PDF). Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines & Emissions, West Virginia University. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Colorado pollution data helped expose VW emissions cheat". The Denver Post.
- "Researchers find computer code that Volkswagen used to cheat emissions tests". Phys.org. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "Background on the 2.0L diesel engines at the core of the Volkswagen emissions testing debacle". Green Car Congress. 21 September 2015.
- "California: Light-duty: Emissions". Transport Policy.
- "US: Light-duty: Emissions". Transport Policy.
- REGULATION (EC) No 715/2007 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 20 June 2007. Articles 3, 5, 13 on pages 5–9
- FAQ – Air pollutant emissions standards European Commission, 25 September 2015. Quote: Article 5 (2) of Euro 6 Regulation 715/2007/EC prohibits the use of defeat devices. Article 3(10) defines defeat device as any element of design which senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine speed (RPM), transmission gear, manifold vacuum or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system, that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use.
- Schiermeier, Quirin (24 September 2015). "The science behind the Volkswagen emissions scandal". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18426. (updated 25 September 2015)
- Mathiesen, Karl (11 March 2015), "Have diesel cars been unfairly demonised for air pollution?", The Guardian, retrieved 30 September 2015
- Brooks, Phillip A. (18 September 2015). "VW Notice of Violation, Clean Air Act (September 18, 2015)" (PDF). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "EPA, California Notify Volkswagen of Clean Air Act Violations". US Environmental Protection Agency. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "Enforcement Basic Information". EPA. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "What is a Notice of Violation (NOV)". EPA. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Grimmelmann, James (24 September 2015). "The VW Scandal Is Just the Beginning". Mother Jones. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Hruska, Joel (23 September 2015). "How independent researchers tracked down VW's diesel software hacks". Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Davenport, Coral; Ewing, Jack (20 September 2015). "Volkswagen to Stop Sales of Diesel Cars Involved in Recall". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen: Israelischer Geheimdienst wusste früh über Dieselskandal Bescheid". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Treffen mit Piëch: Israelischer Geheimdienst in VW-Abgasskandal involviert?" (in German). FOCUS Online. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Henrik Mortsiefer Israelischer Geheimdienst gab offenbar Hinweise auf VW-Manipulationen 09.02.2017, Tagesspiegel (in German)
- Jean-Michel Hauteville Martin Murph Report: Israeli Secret Service Knew of Dieselgate February 9, 2017
- "Volkswagen Drops 23% After Admitting Diesel Emissions Cheat". Bloomberg. 21 September 2015.
- "VW's Emissions Cheating Found by Curious Clean-Air Group". Bloomberg. 20 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen under investigation over illegal software that masks emissions", The Guardian
- Ewing, Jack; Mouawad, Jad (23 October 2015). "Directors Say Volkswagen Delayed Informing Them of Trickery". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- Gardner, Timothy; Lienert, Paul; Morgan, David (24 September 2015), After year of stonewalling, VW stunned US regulators with confession, Reuters, retrieved 25 September 2015
- "Volkswagen Group Statement by Prof. Dr. Winterkorn". Volkswagen Group. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- Landler, Mark (8 November 2006). "After Power Struggle, Volkswagen Ousts Its Chief".
- Martin Winterkorn (22 September 2015). Video statement Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn. Volkswagen. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Volkswagen admits it 'totally screwed up' as emissions rigging scandal spreads". euronews.com. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen diesel scandal threatens to ruin its credibility and value". Los Angeles Times. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Farrell, Sean (23 September 2015). "Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn quits over diesel emissions scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Moore, Thad (23 September 2015). "Volkswagen CEO quits amid emissions cheating scandal". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Woodyard, Chris (23 September 2015). "VW CEO resigns in cheating scandal". The Detroit Free Press. p. 1B.
- "Volkswagen staff acted criminally, says board member". BBC News. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Hinweise gab es seit 2007: Wieso überhörte VW so viele Warnungen?" [There were hints since 2007: Why Did VW Ignore So Many Warnings?]. Bild (in German). Germany. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Olaf Lies wirft Volkswagen-Managern kriminelles Verhalten vor" [Olaf Lies Accuses Volkswagen Managers of Criminal Behaviour]. Der Spiegel (in German). 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "VW-Skandal: Topmanager schwer belastet" [VW Scandal: Top Managers Under Intense Pressure]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Cremer, Andreas (28 September 2015). "Germany investigates VW's ex-boss over fraud allegations". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Doll, Nikolaus (28 September 2015). "Abgas Skandal: Für die Trickser wird es eng" [Exhaust Fume Scandal: It Will Be Tight For The Tricksters]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Mearian, Lucas (23 September 2015). "A diesel whodunit: How software let VW cheat on emissions". Computerworld.
- "VW's Crisis Strategy: Forward, Reverse, U-Turn", The New York Times, retrieved 27 February 2016
- Volkswagen hires compliance manager Christine Hohmann-Dennhardt from rival Daimler to help clean up emissions scandal, Cityam.com, retrieved 27 February 2016
- Volkswagen says false Carbon dioxider emissions affect only 36,000 cars, CNBC, retrieved 9 December 2015
- "EPA: Volkswagen cheated emissions standards on 2009 to 2016 diesel vehicles", USA Today, retrieved 21 November 2015
- "United States Files Complaint Against Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche for Alleged Clean Air Act Violations". US Dept of Justice. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Volkswagen admits rigging of 8 mln cars in EU -Handelsblatt". Reuters.
- 1.2m UK vehicles affected in VW scandal, BBC News, 30 September 2015, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Kröger, Michael (30 September 2015), "Volkswagen: Aufsichtsrat sucht die Schuldigen", Der Spiegel, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Geuss, Megan (17 December 2015). "Germany approves 30-minute software update fix for cheating Volkswagen diesels". Ars Technica. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "What happens if my VW car has emissions cheating software?". The Daily Telegraph. 30 September 2015.
- Davies, Alex (22 September 2015), "VW Owners Aren't Going to Like the Fixes for Their Diesels", Wired, retrieved 1 October 2015
- New Volkswagen chairman Poetsch pleads for time, BBC News, 7 October 2015, retrieved 7 October 2015
- "Volkswagen U.S. CEO: It may take years to fix cars", USA Today, retrieved 8 October 2015
- "VW's U.S. Chief Tells Congress of a Wait to Fix Diesel Cars". The New York Times. 8 October 2015.
- "VW emissions scandal: everything you need to know". Auto Express. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Bryant, Chris; Wright, Robert; Sharman, Andy (13 October 2015), "Volkswagen changes diesel technology plan after emissions scandal", Financial Times, retrieved 13 October 2015
- Charlton, Alistair. "VW emissions scandal: Volkswagen Group begins sending recall letters to UK drivers". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Collie, Jason (13 October 2015). "First UK drivers get letters their Volkswagen is affected by emissions scandal". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "VW emissions scandal: recalls, compensation & is your car affected?", Auto Express, retrieved 19 November 2015
- Ruddick, Graham. "VW to recall 8.5m diesel cars across Europe". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
VW had proposed a voluntary recall of the cars, which would have meant that motorists only took their car in for repairs if they wanted to remove the defeat device. VW has told motorists their cars remain legal to drive on the basis that they passed emissions tests, even if this was only due to the defeat device.
Alexander Dobrindt, the German transport minister, confirmed there would be a compulsory recall. He said: "VW is ordered to remove the software from all vehicles and to take appropriate measures to ensure that the emissions rules are fulfilled."
- "Volkswagen recalls 8.5M European diesels amid global probes". CNET. 16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
Originally, the brand wanted to issue a voluntary recall, which would have placed the onus on individual drivers to come in for any remedy. However, Germany's Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA) ordered a compulsory recall of every single affected vehicle.
Volkswagen chose to expand the recall beyond German borders in order to treat the issue as a European one
- "VW says can bounce back as recalls 8.5 million EU cars". Reuters.
- "VW-Abgas-Skandal: Dieselgate: KBA spricht von "illegal" – und kämpft gegen Kritik". shz. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
Das KBA hält die Software in den betroffenen Diesel-Fahrzeugen des VW-Konzerns für illegal
- "VW ruft im Abgas-Skandal viel mehr betroffene Autos zurück". t-online.de. 16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
KBA ist der Meinung, dass die von Volkswagen eingesetzte Software rechtswidrig sei
- "VW Will Recall 8.5 Million Rigged Diesels After German Hard Line". Bloomberg L.P. 15 October 2015.
The mandatory recall is the basis for callbacks throughout Europe
- "Germany orders mandatory recall of VW's scandal-hit cars". Financial Times.
The KBA's decision is expected to set a precedent for how other regulators with similar responsibilities across the EU deal with the scandal
- Ramsey, Jonathon (18 November 2015). "VW demonstrates a fix for the 1.6-liter TDI engine". Autoblog. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Hetzner, Christiaan (26 November 2015). "VW's surreal fix turns diesel scandal into a comedy". Automotive News. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Boston, William; Dauer, Ulrike (16 December 2015). "Auto-Parts Supplier Robert Bosch Probed Amid Emissions Scandal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Technical measures for the EA 189 diesel engines affected. Volkswagengroup. Retrieved 29 November 2015 – via YouTube.
- "8,2 Millionen VW-Autos können umgerüstet werden" [8.2 million VW cars can be retrofitted]. Norddeutscher Rundfunk (in German). 25 November 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Reiter, Chris (19 February 2016). "Your Rigged VW Will Get Fixed Sometime Between Now and 2048". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- Gulde, Dirk. "VW-Diesel-Update: Leistung gleich gut – Verbrauch leicht erhöht" [VW diesel Update: performance equally well – consumption increased slightly]. Auto Motor und Sport (in German) (05/2016). Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- Cremer, Andreas; Orr, Bernard (16 March 2016). "VW diesel recalls in Germany delayed by weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Volkswagen delays recall of 160,000 cars due to software glitch". Reuters. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "Dieselgate: Volkswagen cars lose power after fix". 5 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- "Le chantage de Volkswagen pour faire taire la presse francaise", Le Canard Enchaine, 30 September 2015
- Meier, Christian (4 October 2015), VW entschuldigt sich mit riesiger Werbekampagne, retrieved 4 October 2015
- "Volkswagen plans to refit diesel cars affected by emissions scandal VW's Spanish unit", Autonews, Europe, retrieved 29 September 2015
- Volkswagen to refit cars affected by emissions scandal, Reuters, retrieved 29 September 2015
- Moylan, John (2 October 2015), VW takes 4,000 cars off the UK market – BBC News, BBC, retrieved 2 October 2015
- "VW dealers in US running out of cars to sell as emissions scandal deepens", The Guardian, Associated Press, 8 October 2015, retrieved 8 October 2015
- "More VW trouble: 2016 diesels have new suspect software". The Big Story. 14 October 2015.
- Tovey, Alan (8 October 2015). "Volkswagen scandal on the same scale as Enron, say US lawmakers". UK: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- O'Kane, Sean (8 October 2015). "Volkswagen America's CEO blames software engineers for emissions cheating scandal". The Verge. US. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Schrage, Michael (15 October 2015). "VW's Problem Is Bad Management, Not Rogue Engineers". Harvard Business Review. US.
- Ivory, Danielle; Bradsher, Keith (8 October 2015). "Regulators Investigating 2nd VW Computer Program on Emissions". US: New York Times.
- "VW diesel owners to get $1,000 in gift cards and vouchers". Yahoo Finance. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Volkswagen faces major spending cuts and regulatory deadlines, CNBC, retrieved 19 November 2015
- "VW repair bill rises as Germany says 540,000 recalled cars need hardware changes", The Guardian, retrieved 10 November 2015
- Volkswagen emissions scandal: Class action lawsuit filed on behalf of Australian owners – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 19 November 2015
- Volkswagen to offer generous compensation for U.S. customers: fund head, Reuters, retrieved 9 February 2016
- "VW emissions scandal: all owners to receive compensation", Auto Express, retrieved 15 December 2015
- Hetzner, Christiaan (21 November 2015), VW refuses compensation for European owners of rigged diesels, Autonews.com, retrieved 22 November 2015
- Saarinen, Martin (13 January 2016). "VW emissions scandal: no compensation for UK car owners". Auto Express. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "European Commission to pursue VW over EU consumer compensation", Financial Times, retrieved 9 February 2016
- "VW reaches US deal in emissions scandal". UK: BBC. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- Geuss, Megan (22 April 2016). "Volkswagen makes it official – it's buying back 500,000 2.0L diesels". Ars Technica. US. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- Barrett, Steven R H (2015). "Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health". Environmental Research Letters. 10: 114005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/11/114005. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
Integrated over the sales period (2008–2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US
- Vaughan, Adam (29 October 2015). "VW emissions cheat estimated to cause 59 premature US deaths". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Krall, Jenna R; Peng, Roger D (9 December 2015). "The difficulty of calculating deaths caused by the Volkswagen scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Davenport, Coral; Ewing, Jack (18 September 2015), "VW Is Said to Cheat on Diesel Emissions; U.S. Orders Big Recall", The New York Times, retrieved 18 September 2015
- Stickoxide (NOx), Stickoxide, Federal Agency for Envoriment / Bundesamt für Umwelt, Switzerland, 16 January 2015.
- Federal Office for Environment, Germany, 27 July 2015.
- Borenstein, Seth (3 October 2015). "AP analysis: Dozens of deaths likely from VW pollution dodge". Associated Press.
- Oldenkamp, Rik (2016). "Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen". Environmental Pollution. 212: 121–127. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.053.
- Ewing, Jack (9 June 2016). "Volkswagen Not Alone in Flouting Pollution Limits". New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Nitrous Oxide Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA". www3.epa.gov. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "ACCC update on VW enforcement investigation" (Press release). Australia: ACCC. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Han, Esther (8 March 2017). "ACCC takes court action against Audi over use of emissions-cheating software". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australia. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Torr, Feann (8 November 2017). ""No reason" for dieselgate class action, says VW - motoring.com.au". Motoring. Australia. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Kamer richt bijzondere commissie op rond 'dieselgate'" [Chamber sets up special committee on 'dieselgate'] (in Dutch). Belgium: Het Nieuwsblad. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- Nollet, Jean-Marc; Dierick, Leen; Janssens, Dirk; Wollants, Bert (18 March 2016). "Parlementair Document 54K1720 – Dieselgate" (in Dutch). Belgium: Chamber of Representatives. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Baert, Denny (26 February 2016). "Peeters schakelt versnelling hoger in Zafira-onderzoek" [Peeters switches gear in Zafira investigation]. De Redactie (in Dutch). Belgium. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- "Dieselgate – Volkswagen pode ser multada em até R$ 50 milhões no Brasil". 26 October 2015.
- "Dieselgate: Volkswagen do Brasil é condenada a pagar R$ 1 bilhão por fraude em motores" [Dieselgate: Volkswagen of Brazil is ordered to pay R$ 1 billion for engine fraud]. AUTO ESPORTE (in Portuguese). Brazil. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Keenan, Greg (22 September 2015). "Environment Canada opens investigation into VW scandal". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Settlement Agreement" (PDF). Volkswagen/Audi 2.0-Litre TDI Emissions Settlement Program in Canada. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Exhibit 5: Estimated Settlement Payments" (PDF). Volkswagen/Audi 2.0-Litre TDI Emissions Settlement Program in Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Healing, Dan (20 September 2017). "Ontario government searches Volkswagen offices in emissions scandal investigation". The Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Evarts, Eric C. (20 July 2018). "VW electric charger network spreads to Canada". Green Car Reports. US. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Volkswagen Group Canada forms Electrify Canada to install network of ultra-fast electric vehicle chargers". Green Car Congress. 23 July 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "VW Recalls Diesel Vehicles in China to Correct Emissions". The New York Times. 11 October 2015.
- "质检总局关于进口大众汽车的风险警示通告 (AQSIQ Risk warning notice for imported Volkswagen vehicles)". General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. 10 October 2015.
- "Volkswagen: The scandal explained". UK: BBC. 23 September 2015.
- Bender, Ruth; Geiger, Friedrich (24 September 2015). "Volkswagen Cars in Europe Affected by Tainted Software". The Wall Street Journal. US. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Bărbuţă, Florin. "RAR cere reprezentanței Volkswagen din România lista cu mărcile care au dispozitive de manipulare a emisiilor". Agerpres (in Romanian). Romania. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- EU bank chief 'could recall VW loans', BBC, 12 October 2015, retrieved 12 October 2015
- Oliver, Christian; Brunsden, Jim (27 October 2015), "EU calls for investigation into Brussels' Volkswagen blunders", Financial Times, retrieved 29 October 2015
- Neslen, Authur (29 October 2015). "EU caves in to auto industry pressure for weak emissions limits". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- EU to investigate Volkswagen emissions scandal, BBC, retrieved 17 December 2015
- Neslen, Arthur; Harmsen, Vincent (20 June 2016). "European commission warned of car emissions test cheating, five years before VW scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Toor, Amar (19 January 2016). "Renault to recall 15,000 vehicles for emissions tests in wake of VW scandal". The Verge. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Renault to modify 15,000 new cars in emission scare". UK: BBC News. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Peugeot raided by French emissions investigators". UK: BBC. 21 April 2016.
- "France opens Volkswagen emissions scandal probe". Reuters. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- VW: Prosecutors launch probe into former boss Winterkorn BBC News. 28 September 2015
- Cremer, Andreas; Lewis, Barbara (1 October 2015), VW says emission scandal investigations to take months, Reuters, retrieved 1 October 2015
- "VW-Abgasmanipulationen". Niedersächsische Staatsanwaltschaften. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "VW crisis: 'Fewer than 10' targeted in emissions probe". BBC News. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Pressemitteilung Nr. 29/2015 Nachprüfungen des Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) Ermittlung des Stickoxidausstoßes bei mehr als 50 Fahrzeugen" [Press release no. 29/2015 inspections of the Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA) determination of the nitrogen oxide emissions by more than 50 vehicles] (PDF) (Press release) (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Johnston, Chris (17 May 2016). "VW more than doubles emissions bill to €16.2bn". UK: BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Ewing, Jack (19 March 2017). "Offices of Volkswagen and Audi Chiefs Searched in Raid, Warrant Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "VW Caddy model banned". Hong Kong Government. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Exhaust emission type approval for one Volkswagen diesel commercial vehicle model withdrawn with immediate effect". Hong Kong Government. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "India orders probe into Volkswagen cars". Reuters.
- "Volkswagen scandal: Govt asks ARAI to inspect India-spec models". NYSE Post. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen scandal: India likely to go for a probe". The Economic Times. 22 September 2015.
- "Probe into VW India emission standards extended till October end". The Hindu. 1 October 2015.
- Raj, Amrit (12 January 2017). "Volkswagen used a derivative of its defeat device in India: Arai". Live Mint. India. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Kollewe, Julia; Ruddick, Graham (6 October 2015), "VW scandal widens as France and Italy launch deception inquiries", The Guardian, retrieved 6 October 2015
- "Police raid VW and Lamborghini offices in Italy", The Local, retrieved 16 October 2015
- "Dutch consumers authority investigates Volkswagen emissions scandal". dutchnews.nl. 19 December 2016.
- "GroenLinks: Miljarden terugvorderen van autofabrikanten". RTL Nieuws (in Dutch).
- Anderson, Elizabeth (29 September 2015). "Volkswagen crisis: how many investigations is the carmaker facing?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Volkswagen to be sued by Norway fund over emissions scandal – BBC News, BBC, retrieved 16 May 2016
- Neagu, Alina (1 October 2015), "Registrul Auto Roman nu mai elibereaza carti de identitate pentru masinile noi diesel Volkswagen euro 5 – Auto", HotNews.ro, retrieved 1 October 2015
- "Sa regulators to probe VW unit after emissions scandal". Zimbabwe mail. 28 September 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017.
- Jung-a, Song (19 January 2016). "South Korea plans criminal case against VW executive". Financial Times. UK. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Pressure builds on Volkswagen CEO as emissions-cheating probe spreads". Reuters. 22 September 2015.
- Lee, Hyun-jeong (26 November 2015). "Korea confirms VW emissions rigging, suspends sales". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- Edelstein, Stephen (20 January 2016). "VW Hires Former FBI Director To Deal With U.S. Regulators: News Updates". Green Car Reports. US. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Jhoo, Dong-chan (23 March 2016). "Volkswagen's recall plan rejected again". The Korea Times. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Nissan to be fined over $380,000 for emissions cheating in South Korea, environment ministry says". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Roman, David (28 October 2015), "Spanish Court Opens Criminal Probe of Volkswagen", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved 29 October 2015
- Andreas Cremer Volkswagen to refit cars affected by emissions scandal Reuters. 29 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen emissions scandal: Switzerland bans sale of some models", The Guardian, 26 September 2015
- "VW scandal: Porsche boss 'named new Volkswagen chief executive' – as it happened". The Daily Telegraph. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- UK Transport Select Committee publishes response from Volkswagen UK MD (PDF), 21 December 2015, archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016
- "Diesel cars' emissions far higher on road than in lab, tests show". The Guardian. 21 April 2016.
- "More than 25,000 drivers join legal action against Volkswagen over 'dieselgate' emissions scandal as they take their fight to the High Court today". Daily Mail. 30 January 2017.
- Dalton, Daniel (19 April 2018). "New rules will prevent another Dieselgate scandal". Conservatives in the European Parliament. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- Ewing, Jack (21 September 2015). "Volkswagen Stock Falls as Automaker Tries to Contain Fallout". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Viswanatha, Aruna (21 September 2015). "U.S. Conducts Criminal Probe of Volkswagen, Sources Say". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Gibson, Kate (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen's stock is a car wreck". CBS. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "VW chief Martin Winterkorn defiant over emissions cheating scandal". The Guardian. 22 September 2015.
- Steffen McGhie. "FBI bekræfter: Efterforskning af Volkswagen i gang" FBI confirms: Investigation of Volkswagen started Ingeniøren, 12 November 2015.
- Smythe, Christie; Hurtado, Patricia (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen Probed by States Over Pollution Cheating". Bloomberg L.P.
- "EPA extends VW diesel emissions probe to other brands in US", Financial Times, retrieved 6 October 2015
- "Notice of Violation" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- VW blasted for shielding emissions documents from U.S. probe, Reuters, retrieved 9 January 2016
- "VW sued by US justice department". BBC. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Volkswagen recall plans rejected by US regulators". BBC News. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "Air Resources Board rejects VW 2-liter diesel recall plan and issues Notice of Violation" (Press release). California Air Resources Board. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- New Jersey sues Volkswagen over excess diesel emissions, Reuters, retrieved 10 February 2016
- Pettersson, Edvard (6 October 2015). "Volkswagen Sued by West Virginia Over Clean Diesel Claims". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Randazzo, Sara; Spector, Mike (29 March 2016). "FTC Sues Volkswagen Over Advertising of Diesel Vehicles". The Wall Street Journal. US. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "F.B.I. Arrests Volkswagen Executive on Conspiracy Charge in Emissions Scandal". The New York Timess. 9 January 2017.
- "VW pleads guilty to conspiracy, obstruction of justice; 6 execs charged". USA today. 11 January 2017.
- Beene, Ryan (10 April 2017). "VW Doesn't Know What to Do With All its Emissions-Cheating Cars". Retrieved 10 April 2017 – via www.bloomberg.com.
- "In re: Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices and Products Liability Litigation Case No. 3:15-md-02672-CRB". 28 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Shepardson, David. "VW storing around 300,000 diesels at 37 facilities around U.S." Reuters. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- Backes, Thierry (30 August 2017). "Volkswagen bought back almost 300,000 cheating diesel cars. A bunch of them are parked outside of Colorado Springs". The Denver Post. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Raven, Benjamin. "Drone footage shows Silverdome lot jam-packed with VW's cheating diesels". MLive.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Campbell, Colin. "Thousands of diesel Volkswagens await their fate in Baltimore parking lots". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Stern, Marc (28 January 2017). "Do You Know Where VW Sends Repurchased Diesels? All Over The Place | Torque News". Torque News. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Pete, Joseph S. (27 April 2017). "Volkswagen cars being stored at Gary/Chicago International Airport". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Bomey, Nathan (25 October 2016). "Judge approves $15B Volkswagen settlement". USA Today. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Shepardson, David. "VW launches U.S. electric vehicle infrastructure unit". Yahoo Finance. Reuters. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "VW is installing ultra-fast 320 kW chargers in California as part of its $2 billion EV infrastructure plan". Electrek.co. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Welcome to Electrify America". Electrify America. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Megerian, Chris (6 April 2017). "Volkswagen's required $800-million investment in California draws criticism". LA Times. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- "VW's charging station plan for Calif. faces objections from competitors". AutoNews. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- Schultz, E.J. "Why VW paid for an ad in U.S. featuring Chevy's Bolt". Automotive News Europe. Ad Age. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- 34 And Maybe More: Class Action Lawsuits Pile Up Against VW : NPR, NPR, retrieved 1 October 2015
- "Volkswagen faces lawsuits over emissions deception". USA Today. 22 September 2015.
- Angry diesel owners joining lawsuits against Volkswagen (w/video), Autoblog.com, retrieved 10 February 2016
- "Windsor law firm launches $1B class-action suit against Volkswagen". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen owners join class-action lawsuit after emissions scandal". City News Canada. 22 September 2015.
- Yerak, Becky; Karp, Gregory (21 September 2015). "Volkswagen owners should be nervous about emissions scandal, experts say". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Frankel, Alison (1 October 2015), How U.S. lawyers were so quick off the mark to sue Volkswagen, Reuters, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Chew, Jonathan (30 September 2015). "Investors are suing Volkswagen over its stock drop". Fortune. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Apologizing for emissions scandal, VW exec promises to 'make things right'". Los Angeles Times. 7 October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Bronstad, Amanda (8 December 2015). "VW Cases Head to San Francisco". Law.com. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Todd, Ross (21 January 2016). "VW Judge Names 22 Lawyers to Class Action 'Dream Team'". The Recorder. ALM Media Properties. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Hancock, Ben (21 April 2016). "VW Judge Asks for Secrecy in Settlement Talks". The Recorder. ALM Media Properties. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Matussek, Karin (14 March 2016). "VW Sued for $3.7 Billion in Germany Over Diesel Scandal". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Rauwald, Christoph (15 September 2016). "BlackRock Joins Investors Taking Legal Action Against VW - Bloomberg". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- Moody's downgrades Volkswagen's ratings to A3/P-2; negative outlook Moody's Investors Service, 4 November 2015
- "Fitch Downgrades Volkswagen to 'BBB+'; Outlook Negative" (Press release). London. Fitch Ratings. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "TCI launches campaign against executive pay at Volkswagen", Financial Times, retrieved 7 May 2016
- Taylor, Edward (23 May 2016), Potter, Mark, ed., German investor group calls for independent probe of VW scandal, Reuters, retrieved 23 May 2016
- "Volkswagen/Audi Diesel Emissions Settlement Program". Volkswagen/Audi Diesel Emissions Settlement Program. US: Volkswagen. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Lewis, Michael (28 June 2016). "Volkswagen agrees to landmark $15.3-billion emissions settlement in U.S." Toronto Star. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Peltz, James F.; Masunaga, Samantha (25 October 2016). "The largest auto-scandal settlement in U.S history was just approved. VW buybacks begin next week". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "VW owners in US to get up to $10,000 in emissions deal". BBC News. UK. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Biesecker, Michael; Krisher, Tom; Durbin, Dee-Ann (28 June 2016). "Volkswagen settles emissions-cheating cases for up to $15.3B". The Washington Times. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Lorio, Joe (1 July 2016), "VW Says It Can Fix 3.0-liter Diesels, Aims to Avoid Buy-Back – News – Car and Driver", Blog.caranddriver.com, retrieved 2 July 2016
- Teffer, Peter (18 January 2018). "EIB 'more sensitive' to fraud after Dieselgate". EUobserver. Brussels. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "New documents on European Investment Bank loans to Volkswagen". CEE Bankwatch Network. 18 January 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Dreyfuss, Emily (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen Says Emissions Deception Actually Affects 11 Million Cars". Wired. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "VW TDI "Dieselgate" Scandal Affects 11 Million Cars, VW CEO Rumored to Step Down". TFL Car. 22 September 2015.
- "Skoda: 1,2 millioner biler er udstyret med snydeprogram". politiken.dk.
- Simonsen, Peter. "To millioner Audi-biler udstyret med snydesoftware". finans.dk.
- "Neuer Volkswagen-Chef: VW will Mängel an Fahrzeugen bis 2016 beheben". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Plungis, Jeff; Hall, Dana (20 September 2015). "VW's Emissions Cheating Found by Curious Clean-Air Group". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen apologizes, stops diesel sales in wake of US emissions scandal". CNET. 22 September 2015.
- "The dirty drive behind diesel". The Globe and Mail. 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen's appalling clean diesel scandal, explained". Vox. 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen scandal: the cost of a car crash like no other". The Daily Telegraph. 26 September 2015.
- "Notices of Violations". EPA. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Goldstein, Steve. "EPA tells VW it's found more diesels with defeat devices". MarketWatch.
- "EPA Finds 10,000 Additional Audi, Porsche And VW Diesels Faked Emissions". Yahoo!. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Beene, Ryan (26 October 2015). "Used VW diesel prices nosedive as fix remains unclear". Autoweek. US. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Taylor, Edward (15 March 2016). "VW Financial Services takes writedown for emissions scandal". Frankfurt. Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Volkswagen AG (VOW.DE) Historical Prices, Yahoo! Finance, retrieved 5 October 2015
- Cremer, Andreas (21 September 2015). "Volkswagen AG shares plummet after admitting it cheated on emission tests". Financial Post. Reuters. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen shares slump for third consecutive day as emissions scandal escalates". The Daily Telegraph. 23 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen shares swing amid pressure on chief executive". Financial Times. 23 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen CEO's future is in doubt after $7.3 billion hit". Fortune. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal: the toxic legacy". The Independent. 17 September 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Kottasova, Ivana. "Volkswagen emission cheating costs Qatar $5 billion". CNNMoney. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Korosec, Kirsten (1 December 2015). "Volkswagen's U.S. Auto Sales Got Crushed in November". Fortune. US.
- Welch, David; Hull, Dana (2 December 2015). "Volkswagen of America November Vehicle Sales Down 24.7%". Bloomberg. US.
- Nam, In-Soo (2 December 2015). "Volkswagen Sales in South Korea Make Sharp Upturn". The Wall Street Journal. US. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
- Schmidt, Hendrik (7 May 2016). "The whiff of scandal is no brake for Volkswagen". The Times. UK. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Kollewe, Julia (31 May 2016). "VW sales rise for first time since emissions scandal". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Rapport final de la commission indépendante mise en place par la Ministre Ségolène Royal après la révélation de l'affaire Volkswagen: Contrôle des émissions de polluants atmosphériques et de CO2 mené sur 86 véhicules" (PDF). 29 July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2016.
- "#Dieselgate continues: new cheating techniques" (PDF). Transport & Environment. May 2016.
- "Government publishes findings of diesel emissions testing programme - News stories - GOV.UK".
- "Government publishes findings of diesel emissions testing programme" (PDF). Department for Transport, The Rt Hon Patrick McLoughlin MP,Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs and + others. 21 April 2016.
- "Contrôles des émissions de polluants atmosphériques et de CO2 : Résultats détaillés des 52 premiers véhicules testés" (PDF). 28 April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2016.
- "Dieselgate: Who? What? How?" (PDF). Transport & Environment. September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- Buric, Christian (20 March 2017). "Verschärfter ADAC EcoTest: auch Benziner mit zu hohen Feinstaubwerten" [Stronger ADAC EcoTest: also petrol with too high fine particle count]. ADAC (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "Exclusive: Renault sees diesel disappearing from most of its European cars". Reuters. 6 September 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
Renault (RENA.PA) expects diesel engines to disappear from most of its European cars, company sources told Reuters, after the French automaker reviewed the costs of meeting tighter emissions standards following the Volkswagen scandal.
- "Exclusive: Carmakers forced back to bigger engines in new emissions era". Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Car engines to increase in size following VW emissions scandal". 17 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "VW plans huge investment to become electric cars leader". BBC News. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- "Volkswagen-Konzernchef Müller: Erste VW-Batteriefabrik soll in Deutschland gebaut werden - cio.de". 9 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Volkswagen to step up savings in wake of emissions scandal: report". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Volkswagen Is Said to Be Cutting 30,000 Jobs". Fortune. 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "VW will no longer sell diesels in U.S., CEO says". The Detroit News. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Patrascu, Daniel (31 January 2018). "Did Volkswagen Experiment on Humans? Angela Merkel Asks for Full Disclosure". Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Monkeygate doctor says car firms were not kept in dark". 31 January 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- Ewing, Jack (25 January 2018). "10 Monkeys and a Beetle: Inside VW's Campaign for 'Clean Diesel'". The New York Times. US. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Tovey, Alan (1 February 2018). "Daimler races to record profits but 'monkey-gate' casts cloud over results". The Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Connolly, Kate (30 January 2018). "VW suspends media chief amid scandal over fume tests on monkeys". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- "Merkel calls for 'full transparency' in Volkswagen emissions scandal". France 24. Reuters. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Massey, Ray (24 September 2015). "Did Angela Merkel cover up Volkswagen emissions scandal?". Daily Mail. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Kalamur, Krishnadev (22 September 2015). "Clean Diesel No More: Volkswagen Scandal Grows". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Calls to ban diesel cars from London over VW emissions scandal – BBC News, BBC, retrieved 1 November 2015
- VW Emissions Scandal: Motor Industry Reaction, Sky (United Kingdom), retrieved 1 October 2015
- "Nissan CEO says it would be hard to hide any effort to falsify emissions data". Reuters.
- "Volkswagen board gathers for crisis meeting". BBC. 23 September 2015.
- "VW Scandal Shows German Companies Are No Longer Big League – SPIEGEL ONLINE", Spiegel.de/international/business/vw-scandal-shows-german-companies-are-no-longer-big-league-a-1055098.html, retrieved 1 October 2015
- "The Other Victims of the Volkswagen Scandal: Dealers", The New York Times, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Meiners, Jens (30 September 2015), "Shame and Degradation in Wolfsburg: The Fallout from the VW Diesel Scandal", Car and Driver, retrieved 1 October 2015
- Stone, Maddie. "Elon Musk: Dieselgate Proves It's Time to Go Electric". Gizmodo.
- "VW's stock to be removed from Dow Jones indexes". Detroit News. 29 September 2015.
- "VW and Audi Returning Green Car Of The Year Awards, Vehicles Deemed Ineligible". Green Car Journal. PR Newswire. 30 September 2015.
- An Open Letter to California Air Resources Board Chairman Mary Nichols, Takepart.com, retrieved 20 December 2015
- "Elon Musk Has Some Thoughts On VW's Punishment", The Huffington Post, retrieved 20 December 2015
- Plungis, Jeff (22 February 2016). "VW May Be Forced to Clean the Air Its Diesel Cars Polluted". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Yuhas, Alan (23 September 2016). "Ig Nobel prizes: trousers for rats and the truthfulness of liars". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- "What Was Volkswagen Thinking?". The New York Times. 23 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen scandal widens". CNN. 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen has made a fool of its customers with emissions scandal". The Globe and Mail. 23 September 2015.
- "Shocking Volkswagen emissions scandal grows worse". Japan Times. 22 September 2015.
- "'We totally screwed up': Volkswagen scandal threatens 'Made in Germany' image". The Times of India. 22 September 2015.
- "VW scandal threatens 'Made in Germany' brand". BBC. 22 September 2015.
- Wolff Mann, Ethan (21 September 2015). "The Volkswagen Diesel Emissions Scandal, By the Numbers". Money. Time Inc. Network. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Rocco, Matthew (21 September 2015). "Emissions Scandal Rocks Volkswagen, Diesel Sales Halted". Fox Business Network. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Volkswagen could pose bigger threat to German economy than Greek crisis". Reuters. 23 September 2015.
- "Lawsuit tsunami headed for Volkswagen". Deutsche Welle. 24 September 2015.
- Dyer, Ezra (21 September 2015). "This VW Diesel Scandal Is Much Worse Than a Recall". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Norman, Andrew (10 January 2017), "Volkswagen Executive Arrested Over Dieselgate Scandal", Tech Times, archived from the original on 11 April 2017
- Cormack, Lucy; Hatch, Patrick (1 September 2016), "ACCC takes Volkswagen to court over diesel emission claims", Sydney Morning Herald
- Zimmermann, Nils (25 September 2015), "What the emissions scandal means for the environment", Deutsche Welle
- "VW urged to come clean over which UK diesel vehicles are affected", The Guardian, Para 11, retrieved 29 September 2015
- Loehr, Julia, "Two-thirds of Germans still trust Volkswagen after emissions scandal", The Guardian, retrieved 21 October 2015
- Hennessy, Julie (9 October 2015), "VW Messed Up, But the Emissions Scandal won't Turn off Customers", Fortune, retrieved 11 October 2015
- Isidore, Chris. "Volkswagen sold 3,060 diesels in US last month before scandal". CNNMoney. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Volkswagen's Reputation Takes Big Hit with Vehicle Owners; AutoPacific Predicts Tough Road Ahead". AutoPacific. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Plungis, Jeff; Hull, Dana (20 September 2015). "VW's Emissions Cheating Found by Curious Clean-Air Group". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Duffer, Robert (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen diesel scandal: What you need to know". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Bryant, Chris; Milne, Richard (4 October 2015). "Volkswagen's 'uniquely awful' governance at fault in emissions scandal". Wolfsburg and Frankfurt: CNBC. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Hyde, Justin (3 November 2015). "EPA Finds 10,000 Additional Audi, Porsche And VW Diesels Faked Emissions". Yahoo! Autos. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Sura, Marissa. "Double Exposure: WVU researchers uncovered an emissions cheating scandal that made headlines around the world, but the real story is how their work will create safer, healthier cities". Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
|EA 189 engine, starboard side|
|EA 189 engine, port side|
- EPA Notice of Violation
- EPA Notices of Violation FAQ
- State of California EPA In-Use Compliance Letter
- VW diesel official FAQ
- Written Testimony of Michael Horn, CEO of Volkswagen Group of America Before the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 8 October 2015
- Analysis of the emission scandal from a procedural, organizational and technical level: The exhaust emissions scandal ("Dieselgate"), talk at 2015 Chaos Communication Congress.
- U.S. v. Volkswagen AG, Complaint, Filed 4 January 2016
- Infographic - simple overview
- Hans Koberstein: The VW emissions scandal – past, present and future, DW-TV Close Up documentary 15 August 2017