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The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure. FAS was founded in 1945 by scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project to develop the first atomic bombs. The Federation of American Scientists also aims to reduce the amount of nuclear weapons that are in use, and prevent nuclear and radiological terrorism. They hope to present high standards for nuclear energy’s safety and security, illuminate government secrecy practices, as well as track and eliminate the global illicit trade of conventional, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.[1] With 100 sponsors,[2] the Federation of American Scientists claims that it promotes a safer and more secure world by developing and advancing solutions to important science and technology security policy problems by educating the public and policy makers, and promoting transparency through research and analysis to maximize impact on policy.[3] FAS projects are organized in three main programs: nuclear security, government secrecy, and biosecurity. FAS played a role in the control of atomic energy and weapons, as well as better international monitoring of atomic activities.[4]

Federation of American Scientists
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
Leaders
• President
Ali Nouri
Establishment
• Founded
6 January 1946
Website
fas.org

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
FAS logo

FAS was founded as the Federation of Atomic Scientists on November 30, 1945, by a group of scientists and engineers within the Associations of Manhattan Project Scientists, Oak Ridge Scientists, and Los Alamos Scientists. Its early mission was to support the McMahon Act of 1946, educate the public, press, politicians, and policy-makers, and promote international transparency and nuclear disarmament. The group was frustrated with the control of the nation's nuclear arsenal and advocated for public control of the nuclear arsenal.[5] A group of the early members of the Federation of American Scientists went to Washington D.C. and set up there sending letters to representatives in the House of Representatives and in the Senate to request support for their original goal to not support the May-Johnson Bill.[5] The group of scientists were opposed to the fact that, under the proposed May-Johnson Bill, the United States military would have the majority of control over the development and control of atomic weapons.[6] Working with congressmen, they worked to create the bill that brought forth the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).[5] The Atomic Energy Commission oversaw the research into atomic energy and atomic weapons.[5] On January 6, 1946, FAS changed its name to the Federation of American Scientists, but its purpose remained the same—to agitate for the international control of atomic energy and its devotion to peaceful uses, public promotion of science and the freedom and integrity of scientists and scientific research. For this purpose, permanent headquarters were set up in Washington, D.C., and contacts were established with the several branches of government, the United Nations, professional and private organizations, and influential persons.[citation needed] The explosion of postwar political activism demonstrated by the group became known as the "scientists' movement" with the basis of being unhappy with the United States' monopoly on nuclear weapons. During this movement, the idea was also established that no defense against an atomic bomb was feasible in the near future. Using these two ideas, the FAS proposed the United States and other technologically advanced nations had to work in unison to create a solution that would not end in complete destruction.[7]

In 1946, the FAS worked with the Ad Council to broadcast a list of facts regarding the state of the United Nations atomic energy negotiations as well as the American proposal for atomic development. In a rare example of an effort to simply give listeners facts with little to no political or personal bias, the scientists at FAS were able to broadcast this information to the public in hopes of informing the public to be "armed with the facts -- instead of swayed by emotions or prejudices." Throughout the course of trying to give the public information, the FAS attempted to coordinate with PR agencies to better connect with the audience. Most of these plans fell through as the agencies typically did not see eye-to-eye with members of the FAS. Scientists realized the importance of getting their point across, but conveying that to someone who had little to no background knowledge on the subject of atomic energy proved to be a challenge, a challenge that would stick with the FAS for many years. Many scientists from more localized organizations had comments like "We have failed. The people have not understood us or our foreign policy would have changed."[7]

By 1948, the Federation had grown to twenty local associations, with 2,500 members, and had been instrumental in the passage of the McMahon Act and the National Science Foundation, and had influenced the American position in the United Nations with regard to international control of atomic energy and disarmament.[citation needed]

In addition to influencing government policy, it undertook a program of public education on the nature and control of atomic energy through lectures, films, exhibits, and the distribution of literature, coordinating its own activities with that of member organizations through the issue of memorandum, policy statements, information sheets, and newsletters.

Nearly ninety percent of Manhattan Project personnel were in approval of the FAS. With few comparing the group to a "scientists' lobby." [8]

MissionEdit

The mission of FAS is to promote a safer and more secure world by developing and advancing solutions to important science and technology security policy problems by educating the public and policy makers, and promoting transparency through research and analysis to maximize impact on policy. This mission was established early on and was deemed necessary for the federation, as decisions made by the United States during the conception of the FAS were critical in terms of shaping international relations.[9] The FAS wanted the public to become more critical and aware of the government, in order to monitor the decisions that were made to ensure that they matched what the public actually wanted. The FAS would act to inform the public about how destructive the improper use of atomic energy could be and emphasize the need to enforce international control of atomic weapons and energy.[7]

MembershipEdit

In 1969 the FAS had a rough annual budget of $7,000 and relied on mostly volunteer staff. In 1970 Jeremy J. Stone was selected as president of the organization and was the only staff member for the next 5 years. Due to Stone being the president and only member of the organization he influenced the future and direction of the organization heavily. With an increased budget in the 1990s FAS was able to employ a staff of about a dozen people and expand membership of the organization.[8]

In the mid 1980’s the FAS began relying more heavily on professional staff and analysts, and journalists rather than famous scientists as it did previously in its history. The organization shifted toward public information and transparency in the government and away from secrecy in covert projects and finances. In 2000 Henry C. Kelly, a former senior scientist in the Office of Technology Assessment and science policy adviser in the Clinton administration, became the new president. He further pursued the goals of the program of bolstering science in policy and focusing on using that science to further benefit the public. During his eight-year tenure as president, FAS received significant funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, including a $2.5 million grant for Creative and Effective Institutions.[8]

In a 2002 survey conducted within the FAS found that nearly thirty percent of members were physicists. While the next largest fields represented were medicine, biology, engineering, and chemistry. With the latter four fields making up another sixty one percent of the total member population. Members also received complementary copies of "Secrecy News," an electronic newsletter regarding government secrecy and intelligence.[8]

FinancesEdit

In the 2004 fiscal year, the FAS ran on a $3 million budget. Over sixty percent of the budget came from private contributions while another third came from government grants. With membership dues alone, the federation achieved a profit of $125,000.[8] The Federation of American Scientists receive many grants for the work that they do. They have received grants from the Ploughshares Fund and from the New Land Foundation for continuing their work to keep the public informed of the state of nuclear weapons across the world.[10] In addition the Federation of American Scientists receives grants from the Carnegie Corporation of New York for their work on the Nuclear Information Project.[11]

Funding from the MacArthur FoundationEdit

Federation of American Scientists was awarded $10,586,000 between 1984 and 2017, including 25 grants in International Peace & Security, MacArthur Award for Creative & Effective Institutions, and Nuclear Challenges.[12] In 2004 the Federation of American Scientists received their largest grant from the MacArthur Foundation of $2,400,000 in support of everything that they do.[12]

The Chronological List of the Grants that the Federation of American Scientists has received from the MacArthur Foundation (As of April 16, 2019) is as follows:

2018 - The Federation of American Scientists received a grant for $210,000 through the International Peace and Security program. The project title was, "For modifying liability structures and market incentives to give insurance and financial institutions leverage tools to enhance nuclear security." Through this project, the (FAS) will convene a small task force of experts from legal, nuclear, and financial domains to generate and review options for improving nuclear-security-related incentives that apply to insurance companies, banks, and corporations. The task force will seek areas where the law is unsettled or inadequately focused on security risks, and will identify and promote practical steps to address these gaps. This grant is still in use until June 2019. [13]

2017 - The Federation of American Scientists received two grants, one for $1,870,000 and a second grant for $50,000 to continue their efforts to promote stability in the world. The MacArthur Foundation found that their work with Nuclear Arms and the Nuclear Information Project (see below), and their effort to help with the disposal of nuclear material after using it for nuclear energy was helping the stability and safety of the world.[12]

2015 - The Federation of American Scientists received two grants, one for $684,000 and a second grant for $200,000. The MacArthur foundation awarded them these grants because of the Federation of American Scientist's work in regards to Naval use of nuclear energy, specifically in the nuclear reactors found on aircraft carriers and submarines. In addition to the naval nuclear energy, the MacArthur foundation awarded the second grant of $200,000 so that the Federation of American Scientists could independently verify information about the Iran Nuclear Deal.[12]

2014 - The Federation of American Scientists received a $140,000 grant.[12]

2013 - The Federation of American Scientists received a $145,000 grant for their work on the naval propulsion reactors that work with uranium.[12]

2012 - The Federation of American Scientists received a grant for $50,000 through the International Peace and Security program. This grant was to help assist in strategic planning. It lasted for 12 months. [13]

2009 - Received a grant for $25,000.[12]

2009- The Federation of American Scientists received a grant for $250,000 through the International Peace and Security program. This grant was in use for 33 months and was used to assist in finding new approaches to nuclear transparency.[13]

2008 - Received a grant for $300,000 to make information about nuclear weapons available to the public.[12]

2007 - The Federation of American Scientists received a grant for $612,318 through the International Peace and Security program. This grant was in use for 48 months, or four years, and was a final grant used toward a project to strengthen the link between the biological research and security policy communities.[13]

2006 - Received a grant for $590,000 by the Peace and Security Program.[12]

2006 - Received a grant for $500,000 through the International Peace and Security program. This grant was in use for 24 months, and was used toward a project to strengthen the link between the biological research and security policy communities.[13]

2004 - Received grant for $2,500,000 for Creative and Effective Institutions.[12]

Nuclear Security ProgramEdit

Continuing the FAS tradition of international control of atomic energy and devotion to its peaceful uses, the Nuclear Security Program pursues projects that create a more secure world. The Nuclear Security Program (NSP) includes program work that focuses on reducing the risks of further nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism.

The NSP has key areas of research in order to promote nuclear security around the world. The program focuses on:

  • Signatures of nuclear materials and processes [14]
  • Prevention, detection, interdiction, and response for illicit nuclear/radioactive threats[14]
  • Applications of nuclear probes for detection of security-relevant materials[14]
  • Application of nuclear security in real-world settings[14]
  • Policy, law, and diplomacy relating to global nuclear security.[14]

Nuclear Information ProjectEdit

The Nuclear Information Project provides the general public and policy-makers with information and analysis on the status, number, and operation of nuclear weapons, the policies that guide their potential use and nuclear arms control. The project reports on developments in the nuclear fuel cycle that are relevant to nuclear weapons proliferation.[10] The project puts technical information into a nonproliferation context and looks at case studies by conducting independent calculations and analyses. In addition to covering information over the quantities of nuclear arms in the world, they make it user friendly for those who are not nuclear physicists.[10] In the nuclear fuel part of the report, the Federation of American Scientists covers the state of nuclear fuel and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP).[11] The whole goal of the Nuclear Information Project is to keep the public the most educated on nuclear weapons so that they can make the most educated decisions when it comes to policy making in regards to nuclear energy or nuclear weapons.[11]

The Nuclear Information Project is run by Hans M. Kristensen.[15]

Government SecrecyEdit

The Government Secrecy Project works to promote public access to government information and to illuminate the apparatus of government secrecy, including national security classification and declassification policies. The project also publishes previously undisclosed or hard-to-find government documents of public policy interest, as well as resources on intelligence policy.

The project publication is Secrecy News,[16] which reports on new developments in government secrecy and provides public access to documentary resources on secrecy, intelligence, and national security policy.[17]

The Government Secrecy Project is directed by Steven Aftergood, who is also editor and author of Secrecy News.[18]

Legacy programs and projectsEdit

Arms Sales Monitoring ProjectEdit

The Arms Sales Monitoring Project (ASMP) worked to increase transparency, accountability and restraint in the legal arms trade; eradicate the illicit arms trade; and served as a repository of data on U.S. arms transfers and arms export controls. Project work focused on the arms trade, U.S. arms export policies, and the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons through the publication of reports and articles, media outreach, and public speaking.[19]

The Advisory Board for the Arms Sales Monitoring Project included Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala, Dr. Bruce Hoffman, and Dr. Moisés Naím.

The project was sponsored by: CarEth Foundation, Compton Foundation, Inc., Greenville Foundation, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Stewart R. Mott Charitable Trust,  Ploughshares Fund, Samuel Rubin Foundation, Spanel Foundation, Inc., and Winston Foundation for World Peace.[20]

The Arms Sales Monitoring Project was discontinued in 2014.

Biosecurity ProgramEdit

The Biosecurity Program concentrates on researching and advocating policies that balance science and security without compromising national security or scientific progress. This includes preventing the misuse of research and promoting the public understanding of the real threats from biological and chemical weapons.[21] The Federation of American Scientists also concentrates on researching and keeping the public informed on genetic engineering and genetic modification as a subset of their biosecurity program.[22] One of their major concerns is resistance that species can develop to certain modifications from genetic resistance or from the use of antibiotics.[22]

The biosecurity program is specifically designed to prevent the use of biological agents and pathogens. Because there have only been few instances in which individuals have attempted to misuse life sciences, the effectiveness of biosecurity programs is currently difficult to detect. Improving biosecurity programs in the future will rely heavily on using metrics to determine outcomes (the impact of what was done). Goals of the programs are quantitative in nature, including an increase in agents secured as well as scientists engaged.[23]

The big concerns with biosecurity are accidental biological threats, intentional malicious biological threats, and natural biological threat occurrences.[24] Because of these threats the Virtual Biosecurity Center (VBC) was set up.

The Virtual Biosecurity Center (VBC) was founded in 2011 and is spearheaded by the Federation of American Scientists. The VBC is committed to counteracting threats posed by the development of biological weapons as well as ensuring individuals use science and technology responsibly.[25] The Virtual Biosecurity Center provides the public with a resource to find the latest updates on biosecurity policy, bioterrorism information, and biodefense research.[26]

The Virtual Biosecurity Center provides and promotes biosecurity information, education, best practices and collaboration. Additionally, VBC offers significant news and events regarding biosecurity, a regularly updated education center and library, a global forum on Bio risks, an online informative policy tool, empowering partnerships among other professional biosecurity communities around the world, scheduled global conferences to raise awareness and develop plans for current and future biosecurity issues, as well as partnerships to tighten the gap between the scientific, public health, intelligence and law enforcement communities.[27]

In addition to the Virtual Biosecurity Center, the Federation of American Scientists has a public resource available known as the Biosecurity and Biodefence Resource.[25] The purpose of the Biosecurity and Biodefence Resource is to keep the public informed on information about biological policy of governments and research institutes across the world.[25]

Military Analysis NetworkEdit

The Military Analysis Network offered information on U.S. and Foreign Weapon Systems, Munitions, and Weapons in Space.[28] The Network provided resources and databases in several categories including:

  • A guide to United States Munitions and Weapons Systems[29]
  • Rest of World Military Equipment by Country Index[30]
  • United States Military Logistics Index[31]
  • Selected Country Military Summaries Index[32]
  • Report on Weapons in Space[33]

This is a legacy project and information is no longer updated by FAS staff.

Learning Technologies ProgramEdit

The Learning Technologies Program (LTP) focused on ways to use innovative technologies to improve how people teach and learn. The LTP created prototype games and learning tools and assembled collaborative projects consisting of NGOs, design professionals, and community leaders to undertake innovative education initiatives at both the national and local level.

The Project worked to help create learning tools to bring about major gains in learning and training. The major project of the Program is Immune Attack, a fully 3-D game in which high school students discover the inner workings of the body's circulatory and immune systems, as they pilot a tiny drone through the bloodstream to fight microscopic invaders.

Immune Attack was jointly developed by the Federation of American Scientists, the University of Southern California, Brown University, and Escape Hatch Entertainment.[34] Immune Attack is a supplemental teaching tool, designed to be used in addition to middle school and high school biology textbooks. It introduces molecular biology and cellular biology in detail that is usually reserved for college students. However, it uses the familiar and motivational video game format to introduce the strange and new world of cells and molecules.[35]

The Learning Technologies Program was discontinued in 2013.

Earth Systems ProgramEdit

The Earth Systems Program (ESP) examined the increased stresses on the environment, including issues relating to energy, food, agriculture, water, and other natural resources, and to analyze how they interact with respect to international security. ESP was created out of the idea that technology should allow people worldwide to improve their living standards and amenities through secure and environmentally friendly ways. The program worked improve dialogue and trust between environmental scientists, policy makers, and the public, as well as to develop science partnerships to solve critical environment and energy problems.[36]

The Earth Systems Program achieves its goals under one specific mission statement:

Over the next century the earth’s resilience and adaptive capabilities will be stressed by the demands of global climate change, environmental degradation, a population of over six billion people, and the accompanying increased resource and energy demand. These stresses will place an additional burden upon the earth’s natural systems and the processes and resources that drive these systems. Future system scarcities and imbalances represent a security concern with the potential to destabilize and weaken existing political, social, and economic structures. And as these natural systems are inherently highly interdependent, it is necessary for them to be analyzed and considered systemically.[36]

To meet their goals, ESP puts a focus on these specific plan areas:

  • Transparency
  • Technology
  • Inquiry
  • Policy
  • Partnership

Building Technologies ProjectEdit

The FAS Building Technologies Project was initiated in 2001 to focus the efforts of scientists and engineers who specialize in building materials on a range of issues such as structural engineering, indoor air quality, energy efficiency, and architectural design to create homes that are safe, affordable, and attractive to builders and owners in the United States and abroad.

The Building Technologies Program worked to advance innovation in building design and construction that can improve quality, affordability, energy efficiency and hazard protection while lowering construction and operating costs. Technical advances, including new composite materials and prefabricated components, help to meet these goals in ways that are beneficial for builders and owners. The Building Technologies Project combined the talents of renowned architects and engineers along with the nation’s leading energy experts to embark upon housing issues in the United States and abroad.[37]

Program areas included:

  • Manufactured housing[38]
  • Relief housing[39]
  • Advanced technologies[40]
  • Learning technologies and training[41]
  • Policy issues[42]

The Building Technologies Project was discontinued in 2012.

PublicationsEdit

Some of the recent article and report publications are as follows:

  • September 15, 2017, "Nuclear Monitoring and Verification in the Digital Age: Seven Recommendations for Improving the Process"[43]
  • August 23, 2017, "The Nonproliferation and Disarmament Challenges of Naval Nuclear Propulsion"[44]
  • August 3, 2017, "Nuclear Dynamics in a Multipolar Strategic Ballistic Missile Defense World"[45]
  • April 6, 2017, "Life-of-the-Ship Reactors and Accelerated Testing of Naval Propulsion Fuels and Reactors"[46]
  • December 5, 2016, "France’s Choice for Naval Nuclear Propulsion: Why Low-Enriched Uranium Was Chosen"[47]
  • January 27, 2014: "Negotiated Cuts: A New Nuclear Weapons Treaty Is Not The Only Option"[48]

LeadershipEdit

The Federation of American Scientists is led by a Board of Directors made up of members of the science, business and academic communities.[49]

Blog SitesEdit

Secrecy News BlogEdit

The Secrecy News Blog (ISSN 1939-1986) is a publication of the Federation of American Scientists project on government secrecy. The secrecy blog provides readers with informal coverage of new developments in secrecy, security and intelligence policies, as well as links to new acquisitions on the FAS website. Typically, the blog is updated with a new publication two to three times a week, or as events arise. In addition to the public blogging page, secrecy news is available if one wishes to subscribe to their emails. Archived issues are available on their website, with articles dating back to September 2000.[50]

Strategic Security BlogEdit

The Strategic Security Blog covers national and international security issues. [51]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Official LinkedIn for the Federation of American Scientists". LinkedIn. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  2. ^ "Advisory & Sponsor Boards". Federation of American Scientists. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
  3. ^ "About FAS". Federation of American Scientists. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  4. ^ Hewlett, Richard G. (1972). A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. OCLC 904027231.
  5. ^ a b c d "Narrative - 6. Federation of American Scientists - Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement". scarc.library.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  6. ^ "Narrative - 5. May-Johnson - Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement". scarc.library.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  7. ^ a b c Sethi, Megan Barnhart (2012-02-01). "Information, Education, and Indoctrination: The Federation of American Scientists and Public Communication Strategies in the Atomic Age". Hist Stud Nat Sci. 42 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1525/hsns.2012.42.1.1. ISSN 1939-1811. PMID 27652414.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Federation of American Scientists | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  9. ^ Higinbotham, William (April 1966). "A Peril, a Hope, and a Movement". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. XXII (4): 34–35.
  10. ^ a b c "The Nuclear Information Projet". Federation of American Scientists. 2013.
  11. ^ a b c "About the Nuclear Information Project". Federation of American Scientists. 2013.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Federation of American Scientists - MacArthur Foundation". www.macfound.org. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Federation of American Scientist Grant Database".
  14. ^ a b c d e "Nuclear Security Program (NSP)". African Centre for Science and International Security. April 18, 2019.
  15. ^ Kristensen, Hans; Kristensen, Hans. "Hans Kristensen". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  16. ^ "Secrecy News". Fas. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  17. ^ "About the Government Secrecy Project". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  18. ^ "Steven Aftergood" (biography). Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  19. ^ "The Arms Sales Monitoring Project". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  20. ^ "Our Funders and Contributors". Federation of American Scientists. March 7, 2000.
  21. ^ "Biological and Chemical Weapons". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  22. ^ a b Stebbins, Michael (February 28, 2008). "NSABB Meeting Biosecurity Project" (PDF).
  23. ^ "Examining Global Biosecurity Programs". The Federation of American Scientists. 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  24. ^ "Virtual Biosecurity Center". www.dni.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  25. ^ a b c "Biosecurity and Biodefense Resource". The Federation of American Scientists.
  26. ^ "Biosecurity". FAS. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  27. ^ "About Us | Virtual Biosecurity Center". Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  28. ^ "Military Analysis Network". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  29. ^ "United States Munitions and Weapon Systems". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  30. ^ "Rest of World Military Equipment by Country Index". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  31. ^ "United States Military Logistics Index". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  32. ^ "Selected Country Military Summaries Index". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  33. ^ "Weapons in Space". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  34. ^ "Immune Attack". Fas.org. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  35. ^ "Immune Attack blog". Fas.org. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  36. ^ a b "Earth Systems Program Overview". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  37. ^ "Building Technologies Project". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  38. ^ "The Building Technologies Program". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  39. ^ "Relief Housing Policy and Procedures". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  40. ^ "Advanced Technologies". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  41. ^ "Learning Technology & Training". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  42. ^ "The Building Technologies Program". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  43. ^ Bidwell, Christopher (Fall 2017). "Nuclear Monitoring and Verification in the Digital Age: Seven Recommendations for Improving the Process" (PDF): 29.
  44. ^ Shea, Thomas (August 23, 2017). "The Nonproliferation and Disarmament Challenges of Naval Nuclear Propulsion" (PDF): 26.
  45. ^ Ferguson, Charles (August 2017). "Nuclear Dynamics in a Multipolar Strategic Ballistic Missile Defense World" (PDF): 40.
  46. ^ Moore, George (Spring 2017). "Life-of-the-Ship Reactors and Accelerated Testing" (PDF). Special Report: 20.
  47. ^ Tournyol du Clos, Alain (Winter 2016). "France's Choice for Naval Nuclear Propulsion: Why Low-Enriched Uranium Was Chosen" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists.
  48. ^ Péczeli, Anna (January 27, 2014). "Negotiated cuts: A new nuclear weapons treaty is not the only option". The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.
  49. ^ "Board of Directors". Federation of American Scientists. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  50. ^ "Secrecy News Blog". Federation of American Scientists. 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  51. ^ "Strategic Security Blog". Federation of American Scientists. 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.

External linksEdit