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A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery.[1][2] The low power, low bit rate and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to connect users or businesses, and carry more data, using more power. The LPWAN data rate ranges from 0.3 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s per channel.[3]

A LPWAN may be used to create a private wireless sensor network, but may also be a service or infrastructure offered by a third party, allowing the owners of sensors to deploy them in the field without investing in gateway technology.


Platforms and technologiesEdit

There are a number of competing standards and vendors in the LPWAN space, the most prominent of which include[4]:

Chirp spread spectrum basedEdit

Ultra-narrow bandEdit

Ultra-narrow band (UNB), modulation technology used for LPWAN by various companies including:

  • Sigfox, UNB-based technology and French company.[6]
  • Telensa[7] A Cambridge based company using UNB-based technology to connect and control streetlights and other city infrastructure.
  • Nwave,[8] proprietary technology developed in cooperation with MIT. Its first release without error correcting codes also forms the basis of the Weightless-N open protocol.[9][10]
  • Weightless, a set of communication standards from the Weightless SIG.[11]
  • NB-Fi Protocol, developed by WAVIoT company.[12]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Beser, Nurettin Burcak. "Operating cable modems in a low power mode." U.S. Patent No. 7,389,528. 17 June 2008.
  2. ^ Schwartzman, Alejandro, and Chrisanto Leano. "Methods and apparatus for enabling and disabling cable modem receiver circuitry." U.S. Patent No. 7,587,746. 8 September 2009.
  3. ^ Ferran Adelantado, Xavier Vilajosana, Pere Tuset-Peiro, Borja Martinez, Joan Melià-Seguí and Thomas Watteyne. Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN (January 2017).
  4. ^ Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Maria-Dolores Cano (2016). "State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services". Sensors. 16: 708. doi:10.3390/s16050708.
  5. ^ "LoRa Integration - Link Labs". Link Labs. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  6. ^ "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  7. ^ "UNB Wireless - Telensa". Telensa. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  8. ^
  9. ^ Nwave
  10. ^ "Nwave Network | Nwave". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  11. ^ "Weightless-N - Weightless". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  12. ^ "What is NB-Fi Protocol – WAVIoT LPWAN". WAVIoT LPWAN. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  13. ^ "Framework Details". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  14. ^ Flynn, Kevin. "Evolution of LTE in Release 13". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  15. ^ "LTE-M, NB-LTE-M, & NB-IOT: Three 3GPP IoT Technologies To Get Familiar With". Link Labs. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  16. ^ Huawei. "Huawei and partners Leading NB-IoT Standardization -- PHOENIX, Sept. 21, 20 15 /PR Newswire UK/ --". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  17. ^ "Ingenu's RPMA Technology". Ingenu. Retrieved 2016-02-01.