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The Three Seas Initiative, also known as the Baltic, Adriatic, Black Sea (BABS) Initiative, is a forum of European Union countries in Central and Eastern Europe. It aims to create a cardinal[clarification needed] dialogue on a variety of questions affecting the member states. The twelve members met for their first summit in 2016, in Dubrovnik.

Three Seas Initiative
Map of Europe indicating the twelve member states of the Three Seas Initiative
Map of Europe indicating the twelve member states of the Three Seas Initiative
Establishment 2016
• Total
1,218,975 km2 (470,649 sq mi)
• Estimate



The Three Seas Initiative has twelve member countries along a north-south axis from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea:[1] Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. All, except Austria, are formerly communist countries.[2] With the exception of two Nordic states (Sweden and Finland) and the Mediterranean island states (Cyprus and Malta) it includes all states that have joined the European Union since 1986.


The initiative held its first summit in Dubrovnik on 25–26 August 2016. The two-day event ended with a declaration of co-operation in economic matters, particularly in the field of energy as well as transport and communications infrastructure.[1] Polish President Andrzej Duda called the initiative "a new concept to promote Europe's unity and cohesion, it is an idea of cooperation among 12 countries located between the Adriatic, Baltic and Black Seas, the three seas of Central Europe."[3] Guest speakers included Chinese Ministerial Assistant for Foreign Affairs Liu Haixing, who talked about the interconnectedness with the New Silk Road, and former US National Security Advisor, General James L. Jones, who stressed the initiative's role in European development and security.[4][5]

The initiative's second summit was held 6–7 July 2017 in Warsaw. US President Donald Trump attended the summit.[6][7] The participating countries set up a Three Seas Business Forum.[8]


Date Location Hosting leader Notes
1st 25–26 August 2016 Dubrovnik, Croatia Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
2nd 6–7 July 2017 Warsaw, Poland Andrzej Duda U.S. President Donald Trump attended
3rd 2018 Bucharest, Romania[9] Klaus Iohannis


The initiative is closely related to two major infrastructure projects in the region:[10]

See alsoEdit