Kim dynasty (North Korea)
The Kim dynasty, referred to as the Mount Paektu/Baekdu bloodline in ideological discourse by the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descending from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung. In 1948, Kim came to rule the North after the end of Japanese rule in 1945 split the region. He began the Korean War in 1950 in a failed attempt to reunify the Korean Peninsula. By the 1980s, Kim developed a cult of personality closely tied to their state philosophy of Juche, which would later be passed on to his two successors: son Kim Jong-il and grandson Kim Jong-un.
|Place of origin||Mangyongdae, Pyongyang, Korea|
|Current head||Kim Jong-un|
|Connected members||Kim Il-sung's wives: Kim Jong-suk, Kim Song-ae|
Kim Il-sung's sons: Kim Man-il, Kim Pyong-il, Kim Yong-il
Kim Il-sung's daughters: Kim Kyong-hui, Kim Kyong-jin
Kim Jong-il's wives: Hong Il-chon, Ko Yong-hui, Kim Young-sook
Kim Jong-il's sons: Kim Jong-nam (murdered), Kim Jong-chul
Kim Jong-il's daughters: Kim Yo-jong, Kim Sol-song, Kim Hye-kyung
Kim Jong-un's wife: Ri Sol-ju
|Distinctions||Leaders of North Korea|
|Estate(s)||Kumsusan Palace of the Sun|
Residences of North Korean leaders
In 2013, Clause 2 of Article 10 of the new edited Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System adopted by the government, states that the Party and revolution must be carried "eternally" by the "Baekdu bloodline".
Unlike governance in all other few remaining socialist countries (communism), North Korea's governance is comparable to a royal family. The Kim dynasty has ruled North Korea since 1948 for three generations, and still little about the family is publicly confirmed. Kim Il-sung rebelled against Japan's rule of Korea in the 1930s, which led to his exile in the Soviet Union. Korea was divided after Japan's defeat in World War II. Kim came to lead the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea (Soviet-backed North Korea's provisional government), becoming the first premier of its new government, the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (commonly known as North Korea), in 1948. He started the Korean War with a massive invasion of the "Republic of Korea" (South Korea) on 25 June 1950 with hopes to militarily reunify the peninsula.
Kim developed a personality cult that contributed to his nearly uncontested 46-year totalitarian rule and extended to his family, including his mother Kang Pan-sok (known as the "mother of Korea"), his brother Kim Yong-ju ("the revolutionary fighter") and his first wife Kim Jong-suk (the "mother of the revolution"). The strong and absolute leadership of a solitary great leader, known as the Suryong, is central to the North Korean ideology of Juche. Four years after Kim Il-sung's 1994 death, a constitutional change wrote the presidency out of the constitution and named him as Eternal President of the Republic in order to honor his memory forever. Kim Il-sung was known as the Great Leader, and his eldest son and successor, Kim Jong-il, became known as the Dear Leader and later the Great General. Kim Jong-il altogether had over 50 titles.
Kim Jong-il was appointed to the Workers Party's Politburo (and its Presidium), Secretariat and the Central Military Commission at the 6th Workers Party Congress in October 1980, which formalized his role as heir apparent. He led their military beginning in 1990, and had a 14-year grooming period before he became North Korea's ruler. Kim Jong-il had a sister, Kim Kyung-hee, who was North Korea's first female four-star general and married to Jang Sung-taek, who was the second most powerful person in North Korea before his December 2013 execution for corruption. Kim Jong-il had four partners, and at least five children with three of them. His third and youngest son, Kim Jong-un, succeeded him. Scholar Virginie Grzelczyk wrote that the Kim Dynasty represented "one of the last bastions of totalitarianism as well as perhaps 'the first Communist Dynasty'".
The North Korean government denies that there is a personality cult surrounding the Kims. Rather, it claims that the people's devotion to the Kims is a manifestation of genuine hero worship.
In 2013, Clause 2 of Article 10 of the new edited Ten Fundamental Principles of the Korean Workers' Party states that the party and revolution must be carried "eternally" by the "Baekdu (Kim's) bloodline".
Kim Il-sung was born in Mangyongdae-guyok to Methodist parents. His father Kim Hyong-jik was 15 when he married Kang Pan-sok two years his elder. Kim Hyong-jik had attended a school founded by Protestant missionaries, which influenced his own family. Kim Hyong-jik became a father at the age of 17, and left school to work as a teacher in a nearby school he once attended. He later practiced Chinese herbal medicine as a doctor. Kim Hyong-jik protested against Japanese rule, and was arrested several times for his activism. He was a founding member of the Korean National Association in 1917, participated in the 1919 March 1st Movement, and fled Korea for Manchuria with his wife and young Kim Il-sung in 1920. There is a teacher's college named for him in Pyongyang.
Kim Il-sung married twice and had six children. He met his first wife, Kim Jong-suk, in 1936, marrying her in 1940. She bore sons Kim Jong-il (born 1941 or 1942) and Kim Man-il (born 1944), and daughter Kim Kyong-hui (born 1946) before dying while bearing a stillborn daughter in 1949. Kim Jong-suk was born 24 December 1917 in Hoeryong in (North) Hamgyo’ng Province. Her family and she fled Korea to Yanji, Jilin (Kirin) Province around 1922. In October 1947, Kim Jong-suk presided over the establishment of a school for war orphans in South P’yo’ngan Province, which became the Mangyo’ngdae Revolutionary School. When the school opened in west Pyongyang one year after its foundation, Kim Jong-suk also unveiled the country's first statue to Kim Il-sung. In 1949, Kim Jong-suk was once again pregnant. She continued public activities, but her health diminished. She died on 19 September 1949 due to complications from pregnancy. Kim Il-sung had three children with his second wife, Kim Song-ae: Kim Kyong-il (born 1951), Kim Pyong-il (born 1953), and Kim Yong-il (born 1955). He had two younger brothers, Kim Chol-ju and Kim Yong-ju and a sister.
When Kim Il-sung's first wife died, Kim Song-ae was not recognized as Kim Il-sung's wife for several years. Neither partnerships had public weddings. Born Kim So’ng-p’al in the early 1920s in South P’yo’ngan Province, Kim Song-ae began her career as a clerical worker in the Ministry of National Defense where she first met Kim Il-sung in 1948. She was hired to work in his residence as an assistant to Kim Jong-suk. In addition to doing secretarial work for the Kims, she also looked after Kim Jong-il and Kim Kyong-hui. After Kim Jong-suk's 1949 death, Kim Song-ae began managing Kim Il-sung's household and domestic life.
In 1953, Kim Song-ae gave birth to her first child with Kim Il-sung, a daughter named Kim Kyong-jin (Kim Kyo’ng-chin). She went on to have at least two other children with him, sons Kim Pyong-il (b. 1954) and Kim Yong-il (b. 1955).
Kim Kyong-hui became North Korea's first female four-star general. Her husband Jang Sung-taek was the second most powerful person in Korea before his December 2013 execution for corruption. Their 29-year-old daughter overdosed on sleeping pills in 2006 while in Paris. It has also been reported that Kim Yong-il, who was dispatched to serve in Germany, died from cirrhosis of the liver in 2000.
Kim Jong-il had four partners, and at least five children with three of them. He married his first wife, Hong Il-chon, at the behest of Kim Il-sung in 1966. They had one daughter, Kim Hye-kyung (born 1968), before divorcing in 1969. He later fathered Kim Jong-nam (born 1971) with his first consort, film star Song Hye-rim. Due to Song being a divorcee, Kim concealed the relationship and son from his father. In 1974, Kim Jong-il married his second wife, Kim Young-suk. They had two daughters, Kim Sol-song (born 1974) and Kim Chun-song (born 1976). Kim Jong-il divorced her in 1977, after she lost his personal interest. In 1980, Kim Jong-il married his third wife, Ko Yong-hui. Ko was the de facto First Lady of North Korea from Kim Jong-il’s becoming of leader in 1994 until her death in 2004. The couple had two sons, Kim Jong-chul (born 1981) and Kim Jong-un (born 1982, 1983, or 1984), and one daughter, Kim Yo-jong (born 1987). After Ko Yong-hui’s death, Kim Jong-il was married to his personal secretary, Kim Ok. The two were married until Kim Jong-il’s death, and did not have any children. The two half-brothers Kim Jong-un and Kim Jong-nam never met, because of the ancient practice of raising potential successors separately. From the early 1980s onward, Kim Jong-il dichotomized the Kim Family between its main, or central, branch (won kaji) and its side, or extraneous, branch (kyot kaji). The main branch referred to Kim Il-sung’s family with Kim Jong-suk and publicly included Kim Jong-il and Kim Kyong-hui. The side branch referred to Kim Il-sung’s family with Kim Sung-ae and included the three children from their marriage.
Kim Jong-un's two older brothers were considered "black sheep" of the family. Kim Jong-nam likely fell out of favor when caught in a plot to visit Tokyo Disneyland in 2001, though Kim Jong-nam himself stated that he was not favored due to advocating for reform in the government. He had a reputation as a troublemaker within the family, and publicly stated in 2011 that North Korea should transition out of his family's dynasty. On 14 February 2017, Kim Jong-nam was assassinated with the chemical nerve agent VX at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia. Two women, an Indonesian and a Vietnamese, smeared the agent on Kim Jong-nam's face; both women were released after it was determined that they had been tricked by North Korean operatives, who had told them that the act was a prank for a Japanese comedy program and that the substance was lotion. Four North Koreans fled Malaysia on the day of the murder. Kim Jong-nam was survived by his wife and two children. His son, Kim Han-sol, has also criticized the regime. In an interview with Finnish media in 2012, Kim Han-sol openly criticized the reclusive regime and the government saying that he has always dreamed that one day he would return to his homeland to "make things better". Ever since the death of his father, his whereabouts have been unknown.
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Kim Jong-un became North Korea's Supreme Leader on 29 December 2011. He married Ri Sol-ju in either 2009 or 2010, and the couple reportedly had a daughter, Kim Ju-ae, in 2012. His sister Kim Yo-jong had fallen out of favor with her brother for a few years but in 2017, she was elevated by Kim Jong-un to the powerful Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. Kim Jong-un made an effort to distinguish himself from the reputations of his father and brothers, and has promoted the image of an academic who possesses a masculine and extroverted demeanor. In April 2020, unconfirmed rumours of Kim Jong-un's death or severe disability following a botched coronary PCI (angioplasty) began to circulate in the world's media. Kim Jong-un was sighted on May 1, 2020 at a ribbon-cutting ceremony to open a new fertilizer factory, but there is talk about him using a body double.
The power struggles within the dynasty have been violent, with Kim Jong-il's brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek, and Kim Jong-un's half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, having been killed by the regime by execution and assassination, respectively.
Kim Yo-jong, the younger sister of Kim Jong-un, is considered a "rising star" within North Korean politics. She has been groomed since an early age, and has represented North Korea in the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea, becoming the first member of the Kim dynasty to visit since the end of the war, and has also played a key role behind the scenes. She met US President Donald Trump in 2018.
Kim Pyong-il is the last living son of the country's founder, Kim Il-sung. After losing out to Kim Jong-il, he spent four decades as an ambassador to various European countries, until returning in 2019. He has been considered as having an advantage over Kim Yo-jong due to being male, but a disadvantage in lacking connections.
Kim Jong-un's reported daughter, Kim Ju-ae, is still a young child.
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