List of multiple Olympic medalists

This article provides a list of multiple Olympic medalists, i.e. those athletes who have won multiple Olympic medals at either the Summer Olympic Games or the Winter Olympic Games.

American swimmer Michael Phelps is the most decorated Olympian, having won 28 medals in both individual and team events (23 gold, 3 silver, and 2 bronze). Has also won more individual events than any other Olympian, with 16 medals (13 gold, 2 silver, and 1 bronze).

Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen is the most decorated Winter Olympian, with 15 medals (8 gold, 4 silver, and 3 bronze).

List of Olympic medals over careerEdit

This list includes athletes who have won seven or more Olympic medals over their sporting career. It includes top-three placings in the 1896 Olympic Games and 1900 Olympic Games, before medals were actually awarded for those placings. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included.

For simplicity, when an athlete has won medals for more than one nation, their entry in this list only mentions the last Nation represented. The Years listed for each athlete only include the Games in which they won medals. More detailed information is provided in the linked articles for the individual athletes.

In cases where two or more athletes have the same number of total medals, the first tiebreaker is the number of gold medals, followed by the number of silver medals. If the tied athletes have exactly the same number of gold, silver and bronze medals, the ranking is given as a tie and the athletes are listed in order first by career years and then alphabetically by surname.

No. Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Gender Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Michael Phelps   United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 23 3 2 28
2 Larisa Latynina   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 9 5 4 18
3 Marit Bjørgen   Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2018 Winter F 8 4 3 15
4 Nikolai Andrianov   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 7 5 3
5 Ole Einar Bjørndalen   Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 8 4 1 13
6 Boris Shakhlin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 7 4 2
7 Edoardo Mangiarotti   Italy Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 5 2
8 Takashi Ono   Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 5 4 4
9 Paavo Nurmi   Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 9 3 0 12
10 Birgit Fischer   East Germany
  Germany
Canoeing 1980–2004 Summer F 8 4 0
Bjørn Dæhlie   Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 8 4 0
12 Sawao Kato   Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 8 3 1
Jenny Thompson   United States Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 8 3 1
14 Ryan Lochte   United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 6 3 3
15 Dara Torres   United States Swimming 1984–2008 Summer F 4 4 4
16 Alexei Nemov   Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 4 2 6
17 Natalie Coughlin   United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 3 4 5
18 Mark Spitz   United States Swimming 1968–1972 Summer M 9 1 1 11
19 Matt Biondi   United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 8 2 1
20 Věra Čáslavská   Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 4 0
21 Viktor Chukarin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 7 3 1
22 Ireen Wüst   Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 5 5 1
23 Carl Osburn   United States Shooting 1912–1924 Summer M 5 4 2
24 Carl Lewis   United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 9 1 0 10
25 Aladár Gerevich   Hungary Fencing 1932–1960 Summer M 7 1 2
26 Isabell Werth   Germany Equestrian 1992–2016 Summer F 6 4 0
27 Akinori Nakayama   Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 6 2 2
28 Vitaly Scherbo   Unified Team
  Belarus
Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 6 0 4
29 Ágnes Keleti   Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 5 3 2
Gary Hall Jr.   United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer M 5 3 2
31 Polina Astakhova   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 5 2 3
32 Raisa Smetanina   Soviet Union
  Unified Team
Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 4 5 1
33 Alexander Dityatin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 3 6 1
34 Stefania Belmondo   Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 Winter F 2 3 5
35 Franziska van Almsick   Germany Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 0 4 6
36 Hubert Van Innis   Belgium Archery 1900–1920 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Lyubov Yegorova   Unified Team
  Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 Winter F 6 3 0
Allyson Felix   United States Athletics 2004–2016 Summer F 6 3 0
39 Valentina Vezzali   Italy Fencing 1996–2012 Summer F 6 1 2
40 Nadia Comăneci   Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 3 1
Ian Thorpe   Australia Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 5 3 1
42 Claudia Pechstein   Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 5 2 2
43 Mitsuo Tsukahara   Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 1 3
44 Alexander Popov   Unified Team
  Russia
Swimming 1992–2000 Summer M 4 5 0
45 Sixten Jernberg   Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 4 3 2
Ludmilla Tourischeva   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer F 4 3 2
47 Sven Kramer   Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter M 4 2 3
48 Charlotte Kalla   Sweden Cross-country skiing 2010–2018 Winter F 3 6 0
49 Anky van Grunsven   Netherlands Equestrian 1992–2012 Summer F 3 5 1
Leisel Jones   Australia Swimming 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 1
51 Giulio Gaudini   Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 3 4 2
52 Alfred Swahn   Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 3 3 3
53 Mikhail Voronin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 6 1
54 Uschi Disl   Germany Biathlon 1992–2006 Winter F 2 4 3
55 Heikki Savolainen   Finland Gymnastics 1928–1952 Summer M 2 1 6
56 Yuri Titov   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 1 5 3
57 Merlene Ottey   Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 3 6
58 Ray Ewry   United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
Usain Bolt   Jamaica Athletics 2008–2016 Summer M 8 0 0
60 Gert Fredriksson   Sweden Canoeing 1948–1960 Summer M 6 1 1
61 Reiner Klimke   United Team of Germany
  West Germany
Equestrian 1964–1988 Summer M 6 0 2
Ahn Hyun-Soo
Viktor Ahn
  South Korea
  Russia
Short track speed skating 2006–2014 Winter M 6 0 2
63 Ville Ritola   Finland Athletics 1924–1928 Summer M 5 3 0
64 Elisabeta Lipă   Romania Rowing 1984–2000 Summer F 5 2 1
65 Bradley Wiggins   Great Britain Cycling 2000–2016 Summer M 5 1 2
Nathan Adrian   United States Swimming 2008–2016 Summer M 5 1 2
67 Dawn Fraser   Australia Swimming 1956–1964 Summer F 4 4 0
Kornelia Ender   East Germany Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 4 4 0
69 Otto Olsen   Norway Shooting 1920–1924 Summer M 4 3 1
Georges Miez   Switzerland Gymnastics 1924–1936 Summer M 4 3 1
Ricco Groß   Germany Biathlon 1992–2006 Winter M 4 3 1
Emil Hegle Svendsen   Norway Biathlon 2010–2018 Winter M 4 3 1
73 Roland Matthes   East Germany Swimming 1968–1976 Summer M 4 2 2
Allison Schmitt   United States Swimming 2008–2016 Summer F 4 2 2
Galina Kulakova   Soviet Union Cross-country skiing 1972–1980 Winter F 4 2 2
Kjetil André Aamodt   Norway Alpine skiing 1992–2006 Winter M 4 2 2
Sven Fischer   Germany Biathlon 1994–2006 Winter M 4 2 2
Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer F 4 2 2
Jason Lezak   United States Swimming 2000–2012 Summer M 4 2 2
80 Giovanna Trillini   Italy Fencing 1992–2008 Summer F 4 1 3
81 Katalin Kovács   Hungary Canoeing 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 0
82 Roger Ducret   France Fencing 1920–1928 Summer M 3 4 1
Philippe Cattiau   France Fencing 1920–1936 Summer M 3 4 1
Karin Enke   East Germany Speed skating 1980–1988 Winter F 3 4 1
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann   Germany Speed skating 1992–1998 Winter F 3 4 1
Petria Thomas   Australia Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 3 4 1
87 Veronica Campbell-Brown   Jamaica Athletics 2000–2016 Summer F 3 3 2
88 Shirley Babashoff   United States Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 2 6 0
89 Susie O'Neill   Australia Swimming 1992–2000 Summer F 2 4 2
90 Margit Korondi   Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 2 2 4
Sofia Muratova   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1960 Summer F 2 2 4
Dmitri Sautin   Unified Team
  Russia
Diving 1992–2008 Summer M 2 2 4
Apolo Ohno   United States Short track speed skating 2002–2010 Winter M 2 2 4
94 Arianna Fontana   Italy Short track speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 1 2 5
95 Chris Hoy   Great Britain Cycling 2000–2012 Summer M 6 1 0 7
Jason Kenny   Great Britain Cycling 2008–2016 Summer M 6 1 0
97 Pál Kovács   Hungary Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 0 1
98 Yukio Endo   Japan Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer M 5 2 0
Aaron Peirsol   United States Swimming 2000–2008 Summer M 5 2 0
Martin Fourcade   France Biathlon 2010–2018 Winter M 5 2 0
101 Willis Augustus Lee   United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 5 1 1
Clas Thunberg   Finland Speed skating 1924–1928 Winter M 5 1 1
Hans Günter Winkler   United Team of Germany
  West Germany
Equestrian 1956–1976 Summer M 5 1 1
Tom Jager   United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 5 1 1
Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1
Larisa Lazutina   Unified Team
  Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 5 1 1
Dana Vollmer   United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 5 1 1
Minxia Wu   China Diving 2004–2016 Summer F 5 1 1
109 Ivan Patzaichin   Romania Canoeing 1968–1984 Summer M 4 3 0
110 Einar Liberg   Norway Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 4 2 1
Ivar Ballangrud   Norway Speed skating 1928–1936 Winter M 4 2 1
112 Charles Daniels   United States Swimming 1904–1908 Summer M 4 1 2
Lloyd Spooner   United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 4 1 2
Kosuke Kitajima   Japan Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 4 1 2
Libby Trickett   Australia Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 4 1 2
116 Vilhelm Carlberg   Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 3 4 0
Kōhei Uchimura   Japan Gymnastics 2008–2016 Summer M 3 4 0
118 Veikko Hakulinen   Finland Cross-country skiing 1952–1960 Winter M 3 3 1
119 Eero Mäntyranta   Finland Cross-country skiing 1960–1968 Winter M 3 2 2
Irena Szewińska   Poland Athletics 1964–1976 Summer F 3 2 2
Agneta Andersson   Sweden Canoeing 1984–1996 Summer F 3 2 2
Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 3 2 2
123 Shirley Strickland   Australia Athletics 1948–1956 Summer F 3 1 3
Simona Amânar   Romania Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer F 3 1 3
Felix Gottwald   Austria Nordic combined 2002–2010 Winter M 3 1 3
126 Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi   Finland Cross-country skiing 1984–1994 Winter F 3 0 4
Yelena Välbe   Unified Team
  Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 3 0 4
128 Gustavo Marzi   Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 2 5 0
Maria Gorokhovskaya   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952 Summer F 2 5 0
130 Amanda Beard   United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1
Svetlana Khorkina   Russia Gymnastics 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1
Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1
133 Ildikó Újlaky-Rejtő   Hungary Fencing 1960–1976 Summer F 2 3 2
Karin Janz   East Germany Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer F 2 3 2
135 Shannon Miller   United States Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer F 2 2 3
Manuela Di Centa   Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 2 2 3
Aliya Mustafina   Russia Gymnastics 2012–2016 Summer F 2 2 3
138 Andrea Ehrig-Mitscherlich   East Germany Speed skating 1976–1988 Winter F 1 5 1
139 Vladimir Smirnov   Kazakhstan Cross-country skiing 1988–1998 Winter M 1 4 2

TimelineEdit

This is a progressive list of Olympians that have held the record for most medals won. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included. It includes top-three placings in 1896 and 1900, before medals were awarded for top-three placings. All record-holders have competed at Summer Games rather than Winter Games.

Medal count Date Athlete Nation Sport Record medal event Earlier medal events
1 6 April 1896[1] James Connolly   United States Athletics Triple jump G
Alexandre Tuffère   France Triple jump S
Ioannis Persakis   Greece Triple jump B
Robert Garrett   United States Athletics Discus G
Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos   Greece Discus S
Sotirios Versis   Greece Discus B
2 7 April 1896[1] Robert Garrett   United States Athletics Long jump S See above
James Connolly   United States Long jump B
3 Robert Garrett   United States Athletics Shot put G 18961 G, 2 S
9 April 1896[1] Carl Schuhmann   Germany Gymnastics Vault G 18961 G, 2 G
Hermann Weingärtner   Germany Vault B 18961 G, 2 G
4 Gymnastics Pommel horse S
5 Rings S
6 Horizontal bar G
16 July 1900 Robert Garrett   United States Athletics Standing triple jump B 18961 G, 2 S, 3 G, 4 S
19005 B
3 September 1904 Ray Ewry   United States Athletics Standing triple jump G 19001 G, 2 G, 3 G
19044 G, 5 G
7 20 July 1908 Athletics Standing long jump G
8 23 July 1908 Standing high jump G
29 July 1920 Carl Osburn   United States Shooting Team 300 m / 600 m military rifle, prone G 19121 B, 2 S, 3 S, 4 G
19205 B, 6 S, 7 G
9 30 July 1920 300 m military rifle, standing G
10 31 July 1920 Team free rifle G
11 27 June 1924 Shooting 600 m free rifle S
3 August 1928 Paavo Nurmi   Finland Athletics 5000 m S 19201 S, 2 G, 3 G, 4 G
19245 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G, 9 G
192810 G
12 4 August 1928 3000 m steeplechase S
2 September 1960 Edoardo Mangiarotti   Italy Fencing Team foil S 19361 G
19482 S, 3 S, 4 B
19525 S, 6 S, 7 G, 8 G
19569 G, 10 G, 11 B
13 9 September 1960 Team épée G
21 October 1964 Larisa Latynina   Soviet Union Gymnastics Team G 1956 – 1 G, 2 B, 3 G, 4 G, 5 G, 6 S
1960 – 7 G, 8 G, 9 S, 10 S, 11 B, 12 G
14 All-around S
15 22 October 1964 Vault S
16 Uneven bars B
17 23 October 1964 Balance beam B
18 Floor exercise G
31 July 2012 Michael Phelps   United States Swimming 200 m butterfly S 20041 G, 2 B, 3 B, 4 G, 5 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G
20089 G, 10 G, 11 G, 12 G, 13 G, 14 G, 15 G, 16 G
201217 S
19 4 × 200 m freestyle G
20 2 August 2012 200 m individual medley G
21 3 August 2012 100 m butterfly G
22 4 August 2012 4 × 100 m medley relay G
23 7 August 2016 4 × 100 m freestyle relay G
24 9 August 2016 200 m butterfly G
25 4 × 200 m freestyle relay G
26 11 August 2016 200 m individual medley G
27 12 August 2016 100 m butterfly S
28 13 August 2016 4 × 100 m medley relay G

Legend: G = Gold, S = Silver, B = Bronze.

List of most career medals in individual eventsEdit

This list contains only medals won in individual events, so no relays or team events count for this section.

No. Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Sex Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Michael Phelps   United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 13 2 1 16
2 Larisa Latynina   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 6 5 3 14
3 Nikolai Andrianov   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 6 3 3 12
4 Boris Shakhlin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 6 2 2 10
5 Marit Bjørgen   Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2018 Winter F 5 3 2
6 Takashi Ono   Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 3 3 4
7 Alexei Nemov   Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 3 2 5
8 Paavo Nurmi   Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Bjørn Dæhlie   Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 6 3 0
10 Viktor Chukarin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 5 3 1
Sawao Kato   Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 3 1
Ole Einar Bjørndalen   Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 5 3 1
13 Vitaly Scherbo   Unified Team
  Belarus
Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 5 0 4
14 Ireen Wüst   Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 4 4 1
15 Ray Ewry   United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
16 Věra Čáslavská   Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 1 0
Carl Lewis   United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 7 1 0
18 Akinori Nakayama   Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 4 2 2
Kjetil André Aamodt   Norway Alpine skiing 1992–2006 Winter F 4 2 2
Claudia Pechstein   Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 4 2 2
21 Karin Enke   East Germany Speed skating 1980–1988 Winter F 3 4 1
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann   Germany Speed skating 1992–1998 Winter F 3 4 1
23 Alexander Dityatin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 2 5 1
24 Clas Thunberg   Finland Speed skating 1924–1928 Winter M 5 1 1 7
Gert Fredriksson   Sweden Canoeing 1948–1960 Summer M 5 1 1
Nadia Comăneci   Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 1 1
Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1
28 Lyubov Yegorova   Unified Team
  Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 Winter F 4 3 0
29 Ivar Ballangrud   Norway Speed skating 1928–1936 Winter M 4 2 1
30 Sixten Jernberg   Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 3 3 1
31 Mikhail Voronin   Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 4 1
Raisa Smetanina   Soviet Union
  Unified Team
Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 2 4 1
Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1
34 Stefania Belmondo   Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 Winter F 2 3 2
35 Ryan Lochte   United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 2 2 3
36 Andrea Ehrig-Mitscherlich   East Germany Speed skating 1976–1988 Winter F 1 5 1
37 Merlene Ottey   Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 2 5

Athletes with medals in different disciplinesEdit

In the Summer and Winter GamesEdit

Athlete (Nation) Summer Games Winter Games Ref
Year Medal Event Year Medal Event
    Eddie Eagan (USA) 1920 Antwerp   Gold Boxing (light heavyweight) 1932 Lake Placid   Gold Bobsleigh (four-man) [2]
    Jacob Tullin Thams (NOR) 1936 Berlin   Silver Sailing (8-metre) 1924 Chamonix   Gold Ski jumping (individual large hill) [3]
    Christa Luding-Rothenburger (GDR) 1988 Seoul   Silver Cycling (sprint) 1984 Sarajevo   Gold Speed skating (500 m) [4]
1988 Calgary   Gold Speed skating (1000 m)
  Silver Speed skating (500 m)
1992 Albertville   Bronze Speed skating (500 m)
    Clara Hughes (CAN) 1996 Atlanta   Bronze Cycling (road race) 2002 Salt Lake City   Bronze Speed skating (5000 m) [5]
2006 Turin   Silver Speed skating (team pursuit)
  Bronze Cycling (time trial)   Gold Speed skating (5000 m)
2010 Vancouver   Bronze Speed skating (5000 m)
    Lauryn Williams (USA) 2004 Athens   Silver Athletics (100 m) 2014 Sochi   Silver Bobsleigh (two-woman) [6]
2012 London   Gold Athletics (4 × 100 m relay)
  • Gillis Grafström became the first person to win a medal in the same event in Summer and Winter Olympics, winning figure skating golds at the 1920 Olympics and at the first Winter Olympics in 1924.
  • Eddie Eagan became the first person to win a medal in the Winter Olympics and in the Summer Olympics in different events. He is the only Summer and Winter medalist to win gold medals in different events.
  • Christa Luding-Rothenburger is the only person to win medals at the Winter and Summer Games in the same year. (This feat is no longer possible due to the staggering of the Winter and Summer Olympic years). She is also the first person to win medals in successive Winter and Summer Games or vice versa.
  • Clara Hughes is the first person to win multiple medals in both Summer and Winter Games and holds the highest number of medals of any Olympian to win medals in both the Summer and Winter Games.

In the Summer GamesEdit

Swimming and water poloEdit

Others in Summer GamesEdit

In the Winter GamesEdit

Cross-country skiing and Nordic combinedEdit

Others in Winter GamesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Coubertin, Pierre de; Timoleon J. Philimon; N. G. Politis; Ch. Anninos (1897). "Second Part: The Olympic Games in 1896" (PDF). The Olympic Games, B.C. 776 – A.D. 1896. IOC official Olympic reports. translated by A. v. K. London: Grevel. pp. 55–81 (passim). Retrieved 13 August 2008. (note: the source gives dates in the Julian calendar; this table uses the Gregorian calendar)
  2. ^ "Eddie Eagan". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  3. ^ "Jacob Tullin Thams". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  4. ^ "Christa Rothenburger-Luding". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  5. ^ "Clara Hughes". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  6. ^ Borden, Sam (19 February 2014). "Canada Catches U.S. in Final Bobsled Run". New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2014.