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Moon Jae-in (Korean pronunciation: [mun dʑɛ̝.in]; born 24 January 1953) is the 12th and current President of South Korea. He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye, in the 2017 presidential election.
|President of South Korea|
10 May 2017
|Prime Minister||Hwang Kyo-ahn
Yoo Il-ho (acting)
|Preceded by||Park Geun-hye
Hwang Kyo-ahn (acting)
|Leader of the Democratic Party|
9 February 2015 – 27 January 2016
|Preceded by||Ahn Cheol-soo
|Succeeded by||Kim Chong-in|
|Member of the National Assembly
30 May 2012 – 29 May 2016
|Preceded by||Chang Je-won|
|Succeeded by||Chang Je-won|
|Chief Presidential Secretary|
12 March 2007 – 24 February 2008
|Preceded by||Lee Byung-wan|
|Succeeded by||Yu Woo-ik|
24 January 1953 |
Geoje, South Korea
|Spouse(s)||Kim Jung-sook (m. 1981)|
|Alma mater||Kyung Hee University (LLB)|
|Service/branch||Republic of Korea Army|
|Years of service||1975–1977|
|Rank||Sergeant (Korean: Byeongjang)|
|Unit||Army Special Warfare Command|
|Revised Romanization||Mun Jaein|
A former student activist, human rights lawyer, and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun, Moon once served as leader of Minjoo Party of Korea (2015–2016) and a member of the 19th National Assembly (2012–2016). He was also a candidate of the former Democratic United Party in the 2012 presidential election in which he lost narrowly to Park Geun-hye.
Early life, education and military serviceEdit
Born in Geoje, South Korea during the last year of the Korean War, Moon Jae-in was the second child and oldest son among five children of father Moon Yong-hyung and mother Kang Han-ok. His parents were refugees from South Hamgyeong Province, North Korea who fled their native city of Hungnam during the Hungnam evacuation.
His family eventually settled in Busan. Since his father did not want to become a government employee, as he had been in North Korea, his father started a business selling socks which only left his family in great debt. His mother became the breadwinner by selling clothes received from relief organisations and delivering briquettes. Moon's family became attached to the Catholic church when his mother went to the local cathedral to receive whole milk powder. Moon once said in an interview that he doesn't know how to ride a bike since his family was desperately poor to afford a bike or monthly school tuition.
Moon entered Kyungnam High School at the top of his class. He was accepted to study law at Kyunghee University where he met his future wife, Kim Jung-sook, with full scholarships. He was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned and expelled from the university after he organized a student protest against the Yushin Constitution. Later, he was conscripted into the military and assigned to the South Korean special forces, where he participated in "Operation Paul Bunyan" during the Axe murder incident in Panmunjom. He was suggested to build his career in the military due to his outstanding works which was awarded by then-president Chun.
After his discharge, the death of his father influenced him to decide to pass the Bar Exam. He went into Daeheungsa, the Buddhist temple, to study the exam and passed its first of two rounds in 1979. In 1980 he returned to school to complete his remaining year of studies. In 1980 he passed the second round and was admitted to the Judicial Research and Training Institute. He graduated second in his class but was not admitted to become a judge or government prosecutor due to his history of activism against the Yushin dictatorship under Park Chung-hee's rule as a student. Moon chose to become a private lawyer instead.
Human rights attorneyEdit
After becoming a lawyer, he partnered and worked with future President Roh Moo-hyun in the 1980s. Along with Roh, he took cases involving human rights and civil rights issues defending labor rights activists and students persecuted for opposing Korea's then military dictatorship. They remained friends up until Roh's suicide in 2009.
Roh Moo-hyun administrationEdit
Due to Roh's insistence, Moon became Roh's campaign manager during his presidential bid. After Roh's victory, Moon became Roh's chief presidential secretary and close aide holding various roles in a presidential administration. Moon held roles as Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Society, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, and Chief Presidential Secretary (equivalent to Chief-of-Staff) from 2003-2008.
Moon was also the chairperson of the Promotion of the 2nd North-South Korea Summit.
Political career before the presidency (2012–2017)Edit
Entrance to politicsEdit
Despite his earlier indifference, he began to get involved in politics. He published a memoir called Moon Jae-in: The Destiny which became a bestseller. His popularity had been rising steady against the likely opponent in the presidential race, Park Geun-hye. For instance, in a February 2012 poll, Moon managed to gain parity with Park in popularity.
Moon managed to capitalize on the conservatives' decline in popularity amid a series of corruption scandals. As one pundit said, "Moon had managed to portray himself as a moderate and rational leader who has the backing of the younger generation".
2012 general electionEdit
In 2012, Moon entered a bid for a seat in the National Assembly in the 19th legislative election. Moon won a seat in the Sasang District of Busan on 11 April 2012 as a member of the Democratic United Party with 55% of the vote.
2012 presidential campaignEdit
On September 16, 2012, Moon received the presidential nomination for the Democratic United Party.
He ran for the 2012 presidential election as the Democratic United Party's candidate in a three-way race against Park Geun-hye, the incumbent ruling party’s candidate and daughter of the late president Park Chung-hee, as well as independent software mogul Ahn Cheol-soo. Ahn dropped out of the race and endorsed Moon after polls showed a most likely definitive loss for both candidates were there to be a three-way race against Park. Moon went to lose the election.
Leader of the Democratic PartyEdit
Moon was elected as the leader of New Politics Alliance for Democracy (NPAD) on February 2, 2015. Prior to his election, Moon and NPAD party leader and 2012 presidential candidate rival Ahn Cheol-soo had many public disputes over the direction of the party.
Moon's official role led Ahn Cheol-soo to quit and form the centrist People's Party. Ahn's departure and Moon's new tenure as party leader led to the newly renaming the liberal, NPAD Party as the new Democratic Party.
During his leadership, Moon scouted several politically prominent people, including police studies/criminology expert Pyo Chang-won, political critic Lee Chul-hee, and former president Park's secretary Cho Ung-chun to prepare for upcoming 2016 legislative elections. After his recruitment, Moon resigned his position for another scouted advisor/former Park advisor Kim Chong-in.
2017 presidential electionEdit
Primary and general electionEdit
The general election originally had 15 announced candidates. Moon faced four other major party nominees during the election, including 2012 presidential rival and past party colleague Ahn Cheol-soo of the People's Party and Hong Jun-pyo of the Liberty Korea Party. He was elected the 19th President of South Korea in Korea's 19th presidential election by a large plurality over two other major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo.
On May 10, 2017, Moon ended his campaign by winning 41.1% votes (with 13,423,800 votes) to win the plurality of votes. As Moon was elected at a special election, he did not have the 60 days of transitional period of previous administrations, but was instead inaugurated the day after the election.
Campaign positions on domestic policyEdit
Moon's campaign promise in 2017 included intentions to put a 10 trillion won ($8.9 billion) fiscal stimulus to support job creation, start-ups, and small to mid-sized companies. His announced goal is to create 810,000 public sector jobs through raising taxes on the wealthy.
In a televised presidential debate, Moon said he opposes homosexuality, in response to conservative candidate Hong Jun-pyo's remarks that gay soldiers were a source of weakness in the South Korean military. Moon's remark prompted immediate criticism during the debate from Sim Sang-jung, the sole presidential candidate to support LGBT rights and a member of the leftist Justice Party. The conservative remark also prompted outrage from gay rights activists, considering Moon's representation as the leading liberal candidate and former human rights lawyer. Some of Moon's supporters dismissed the comments as a necessity to win, as South Koreans tend to be conservative in social issues. Moon later clarified his comments suggesting that he still believes there should be no discrimination based on sexual orientation while opposing legalize same-sex marriage.
Campaign positions on foreign policyEdit
Moon has favored a peaceful reunification between the two Koreas. He was both widely criticized and widely praised for his comments stating that his first visit if elected president would be to visit North Korea, a visit that would be not unlike Roh Moo-hyun's visit to the country in 2007. Similarly, Moon's foreign policy towards North Korea is considered to closely align with the Sunshine Policy embraced by former liberal presidents Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun.
Moon's relatively liberal stance in foreign policy is reflected in his writing in a book: “I’m pro-U.S., but now South Korea should adopt diplomacy in which it can discuss a U.S. request and say no to the Americans.” He opposes a re-balance of the security alliance with the United States, but has also stated that he would like South Korea "to be able to take the lead on matters on the Korean Peninsula." At the same time, Moon has stated that he considers America as a "friend" for its role in helping South Korea avoid communism while helping its economic growth.
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Moon was sworn into office immediately after official votes were counted on May 10, replacing Acting President and Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn. There was no transition period between the election and inauguration, unlike other presidential elections due to the nature of an election following a presidential impeachment. He will serve out the typical single five-year term with his presidential term concluding in 2022.
Chaebol (Korean Inc.) ReformEdit
South Korea's economic growth has been attributed in large part to chaebols, or family-owned conglomerates. Prominent examples of conglomerates include Samsung and Hyundai. Following various corruption scandals (Samsung's Vice Chairman Lee Jae-yong serving a suspended jail sentence), concentrated power (collusion), connections with the government including most recently the 2016 Choi Soon-sil scandal which ultimately led to the special election Moon won, one of Moon's biggest areas of focus during the campaign was reforms at chaebols including greater transparency in the companies' corporate governance structure. Moon appointed "chaebol sniper" Kim Sang-jo, a well-known shareholder activist, to the role of fair-trade commissioner aimed at reforming chaebols.
Moon's predecessor and daughter of Park Chung-hee, Park Geun-hye, originally planned to mandate usage of state-issued history textbooks in 2018. Moon reversed these plans in May 2017 in one of his first major acts as president. Critics of Park's original plan saw this as a way for Park to mitigate some representations of her father's oppressive policies under a dictatorial rule, only highlighting the positive accomplishments of the past. Park had stated she wanted to replace the "left-leaning" books with those created from the government that would instill greater patriotism. Although the Park government had switched its official position on requiring the textbooks and allowed schools to choose the state-issued version from the backlash, Moon's action scrapped the program altogether. Schools will continue to choose privately published, government-approved textbooks written under educational guidelines instead.
Animal Rights/Adoption of "First Dog"Edit
Moon had promised during his campaign to adopt a dog from an animal sanctuary. This was considered relevant to South Korean politics as the country allows for consumption of dog meat. His administration adopted Tory, a four-year-old black mongrel who was saved from a dog meat farm, from an animal rights group. The move was considered to send "a strong message against the [dog meat] trade".
Moon's administration has focused on increasing South Korea's consumption of natural gas, away from nuclear and coal as sources of energy. These plans include delaying construction on nuclear reactors as well as re-opening dialogue around a natural gas pipeline that would come from Russia and pass through North Korea. At the event on June 19, 2017 marking the end of operations at South Korea's oldest nuclear reactor, Kori Unit 1, Moon outlined his plan for the future of energy in Korea, saying "we will abandon the development policy centred on nuclear power plants and exit the era of nuclear energy." This would be implemented by canceling plans for new nuclear power plants and not renewing licenses for operating plants. In addition, he shut down eight coal-fired power plants upon assuming office in May 2017, and pledged to shut down the remaining ten coal plants by the end of his term. In the long term, he envisioned renewable sources would eventually be able to meet Korea's demand, but in the interim, proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a stopgap measure while coal and nuclear were taken offline in the coming decades.
Moon visited the United States to meet with U.S. President Donald Trump in June 2017, discussing U.S.-Korea trade relations as well as North Korea's missile programs. Moon revealed in a joint news conference that President Trump accepted an invitation to visit South Korea.
This article needs to be updated.(July 2017)
Outlining his North Korea strategy in a speech in Berlin, Germany, on July 6, 2017, Moon characterized the process leading to unification as a long-term project, rather than laying out any detailed plans for a unified Korea. He emphasized alliance with the United States and specified the need to assure dismantlement of North Korea's nuclear weapons program. At the same time he presented the question of unification in a regional context and signaled his hopes of working in cooperation with the international community. He supported sanctions against North Korea, while leaving open the possibility of their being rescinded, and indicated that it is crucial to establish a peace treaty with North Korea to end the Korean War officially in exchange for denuclearization.
Moon opposed the full deployment of THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) systems during his presidential campaign and called for more peace talks engaging with North Korea.
As of late July, following North Korea's latest missile launch and increasingly aggressive actions, Moon asked the U.S. permission to build up its domestic defense systems and temporarily set up a full THAAD system.
|Election||Year||Position||Party Affiliation||Votes||Percentage of votes||Results|
|19th General Election||2012||Member of the National Assembly
(Sasang District, Busan)
|Democratic United Party||65,336||55.05%||Won|
|18th Presidential Election||2012||President||Democratic United Party||14,692,632||48.02%||Lost (2nd)|
|19th Presidential Election||2017||President||Democratic Party of Korea||13,423,800||41.08%||Won|
Moon married Kim Jung-sook, a vocalist from the same university he attended. He and Kim both individually revealed in separate Korean talk shows that they both met each other when Moon was a student activist protesting the Yushin Constitution.
Moon has three pets: two dogs (Korean: 마루, translit. Maru, a Pungsan dog, and Korean: 토리, translit. Tory, a mixed-breed) and one cat (Korean: 찡찡, translit. Jjing-jjing). Jjing-jjing is the country's first-ever "first cat", and Tory was adopted from a shelter, in contrast with other "first dogs", which had traditionally been purebred Jindo dogs. Moon stated at Tory's adoption that "we need to pay more attention to abandoned animals and care for them as a society" and that he wanted to remove the stigma against Tory's dark coat, which contributed to him being virtually unadoptable for two years after he was rescued in 2015.
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- (in Korean) Moon Jae-in Camp
|National Assembly of South Korea|
|Member of the National Assembly
from Sasang District
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Democratic Party
|Chief Presidential Secretary
|President of South Korea