This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
High-dynamic-range television (HDR or HDR-TV) is a technology improving the signal that displays receive. It is contrasted with the retroactively-named standard dynamic range (SDR). HDR changes the way the luminance and colors of videos and images are represented in the signal. It allows to represent brighter and more detailed highlights, darker and more detailed shadows, and a wider array of more intense colors.
HDR allows compatible displays to receive a higher quality image source. It does not improve a display's intrinsic properties (brightness, contrast, and color capabilities). Not all HDR displays have the same capabilities, and HDR content will thus look different depending upon the display used.
HDR-TV came about in 2014 first for video. It is now also available for still pictures. HDR-TV is a part of HDR imaging, an end-to-end process of increasing the dynamic range of images and videos from their capture and creation, to their storage, distribution and display. Beside dynamic range, HDR-TV also improves color gamut as Rec. 2100 and all common HDR formats requires HDR to be delivered with wide color gamuts (WCG).
Before HDR, improvements in the fidelity of displays were typically achieved by increasing the pixel quantity and density (resolution) and the display's frame rate. By contrast, HDR improves the perceived fidelity of the existing individual pixels themselves. Standard dynamic range (SDR) is still based on, and limited by, the characteristics of older cathode ray tubes (CRT), despite the huge advances in screen and display technologies since CRT's obsolescence. HDR aims to overcome these limits.
SDR formats are able to represent a maximum luminance level of around 100 nits. For HDR, this number goes up to at least 1000 nits, and in some cases up to 10000 nits. HDR also enables the representation of lower (i.e. darker) black levels and more saturated (i.e. more colorful) colors. The most common SDR formats are limited to the Rec. 709/sRGB gamut, while common HDR formats use Rec. 2100, which is a wide color gamut (WCG).
In practice, HDR is not always used at its limits. HDR contents are often limited to a peak brightness of 1000 or 4000 nits and DCI-P3 colors, even if they are stored in formats capable of more. Content creators can choose to what extent they make use of HDR capabilities. They can constrain themselves to the limits of SDR even if the content is delivered in an HDR format.
The benefits of HDR depends on the display capabilities which vary. No current display is able to reproduce the maximal range of brightness and colors that can be represented in HDR formats.
The highlights (i.e. the brightest parts of an image) can be brighter, more colorful, and more detailed. The larger capacity for brightness can be used to increase the brightness of small areas without increasing the overall image's brightness, resulting in, for example, bright reflections from shiny objects, bright stars in a dark night scene, and bright and colorful light-emissive objects (e.g. fire, and sunset).
The shadows/lowlights (i.e. the darkest parts of an image) can be darker and more detailed.
The colour dynamism and wider range of colours frequently attributed to HDR video is actually a consequence of a wide colour gamut (WCG). This has become a point of significant confusion among consumers, whereby HDR and WCG are either confused for each other or treated as interchangeable. Whilst HDR displays typically have WCGs and displays with WCGs are usually capable of HDR, one does not imply the other. Crucially, there are SDR displays with WCGs. Some HDR standards specify WCG as a prerequisite of compliance. Regardless, when a WCG is available on an HDR display, as is typically the case, the image as a whole can be more colourful due to the wider range of colours.
More subjective, practical benefits of HDR video include:
- More realistic luminance variation between scenes (such as sunlit, indoor, and night scenes).
- Better surface material identification.
- Better in-depth perception, even with 2D imagery.
Preservation of content creator' intentsEdit
Modern display's capabilities are often higher than the capability of SDR to represent brightness, contrast and colors. The SDR images need to be altered by the display to make use of all of its capabilities. Content creators have no control on the process and the resulting image doesn't always preserve their creative intents. HDR allow them to decide how the image will look on high capable displays.
When the display's capabilities are insufficient to reproduce all the brightness, contrast and colors that are represented in the HDR content, the image need to be adjusted to fit the display's capabilities. Some HDR formats (such as Dolby Vision and HDR10+) allows the content creator to choose how the adjustment will be done. Other HDR formats (such as HDR10 and HLG) don't offer this possibility and thus, the content creator's intents are not ensured to be preserved on lower capable displays.
For optimal quality, standards require video to be created and viewed in a relatively dark environment. Dolby Vision IQ and HDR10+ Adaptive adjust the content according to the ambient light.
Other HDR technologiesEdit
HDR image capture techniques have been used for years in photography to increase the dynamic range of photographs. Older formats with HDR support, such as raw and logarithmic formats, were only intended to be used for storage. Now, the additional range can either be kept through export to a consumer HDR image format (e.g. HDR10) or reduced via tone mapping to SDR and exported to one of the many SDR image formats for legacy displays.
Dolby Vision and HDR10+ include dynamic metadata while HDR10 and HLG do not. The dynamic metadata are used to improve image quality on limited displays that are not capable of reproducing an HDR video to its fullest intended extent. Dynamic metadata allows content creators to control and choose the way the image is adjusted. When less capable displays are used and dynamic metadata is not available, the result will vary dependent upon the display, and the creator's intent may not be preserved.
HDR10 Media Profile, more commonly known as HDR10, is an open HDR standard announced on 27 August 2015 by the Consumer Technology Association. It is the most widespread of the HDR formats. It is not backward compatible with SDR displays. It is technically limited to a maximum of 10,000 nits peak brightness; however, HDR10 content is commonly mastered with a peak brightness between 1000 and 4000 nits.
HDR10 lacks dynamic metadata. On HDR10 displays that have lower color volume than the HDR10 content (e.g. lower peak brightness capability), the HDR10 metadata provides information to help the display adjust to the video. The metadata, however, is static and constant with respect to each individual video and doesn't inform the display exactly how the content should be adjusted. The interaction between display capabilities, video metadata, and the ultimate output (i.e. the presentation of the video) is mediated by the display, with the result that the original producer's intent may not be preserved.
Dolby Vision is an end-to-end ecosystem for HDR video. It covers content creation, distribution, and playback. It is a proprietary solution from Dolby Laboratories that emerged in 2014. It does use dynamic metadata and is capable of representing luminance levels up to 10,000 nits. Dolby Vision certification requires displays for content creators to have a peak luminance of at least 1000 nits.
HDR10+, also known as HDR10 Plus, is an HDR video format, announced on 20 April 2017. It is the same as HDR10 but with the addition of a system of dynamic metadata developed by Samsung. It is free to use for content creators and has a maximum $10,000 annual license for some manufacturers. It has been positioned as an alternative to Dolby Vision without the same expenses.
HLG10 (HLG format)Edit
HLG10, commonly simply referred as the HLG format, is an HDR format that can be used for both video and still images. It uses the HLG transfer function, Rec. 2020 color primaries, and a bit depth of 10 bits. The format is backwards compatible with SDR UHDTV but not with older SDR displays that do not implement the Rec. 2020 color standards. It doesn't use metadata and is royalty free.
PQ10 (PQ format)Edit
PQ10, sometimes simply referred as the PQ format, is an HDR format that can be used for both video and still images. It is the same as the HDR10 format without any metadata. It uses the PQ transfer function, Rec. 2020 color primaries and a bit depth of 10-bits. It is not backward compatible with SDR.
- Technicolor Advanced HDR: An HDR format which aims to be backwards compatible with SDR. As of 19 December 2020[update] there is no commercial content available in this format.
- SL-HDR1 (Single-Layer HDR system Part 1) is a HDR standard that was jointly developed by STMicroelectronics, Philips International B.V., and Technicolor R&D France. It was standardised as ETSI TS 103 433 in August 2016. SL-HDR1 provides direct backwards compatibility by using static (SMPTE ST 2086) and dynamic metadata (using SMPTE ST 2094-20 Philips and 2094-30 Technicolor formats) to reconstruct a HDR signal from an SDR video stream that can be delivered using existing SDR distribution networks and services. SL-HDR1 allows for HDR rendering on HDR devices and SDR rendering on SDR devices using a single-layer video stream. The HDR reconstruction metadata can be added either to HEVC or AVC using a supplemental enhancement information (SEI) message. Version 1.3.1 was published in March 2020.
Comparison of HDR formatsEdit
|Developed by||CTA||Samsung||Dolby||NHK and BBC|
|Cost||Free||Free (for content company)
Yearly license (for manufacturer) 
|Bit Depth||10 bit||10 bit (or more)||10 bit or 12 bit[note 1]||10 bit|
|Peak luminance||Technical limit||10,000 nits||10,000 nits||10,000 nits||Variable|
1,000 - 4,000 nits (common)
1,000 - 4,000 nits (common)
|(At least 1,000 nits)
4,000 nits common
|1,000 nits common|
|Color primaries||Technical limit||Rec. 2020||Rec. 2020||Rec. 2020||Rec. 2020|
|Contents||DCI-P3 (common)||DCI-P3 (common)||At least DCI-P3||DCI-P3 (common)|
||Dependent on profile and compatibility level:
|Notes||PQ10 format is same as HDR10 without the metadata||Technical characteristics of Dolby Vision depend on the profile used, but all profiles support the same Dolby Vision dynamic metadata.||HLG backward compatibility is acceptable for SDR UHDTV displays that can interpret the BT.2020 colour space. It is not intended for traditionnal SDR displays that can only interpret BT.709 colorimetry.|
TV sets with enhanced dynamic range and upscaling of existing SDR/LDR video/broadcast content with reverse tone mapping have been anticipated since early 2000s. In 2016, HDR conversion of SDR video was released to market as Samsung's HDR+ (in LCD TV sets) and Technicolor SA's HDR Intelligent Tone Management.
As of 2018, high-end consumer-grade HDR displays can achieve 1,000 cd/m2 of luminance, at least for a short duration or over a small portion of the screen, compared to 250-300 cd/m2 for a typical SDR display.
Video interfaces that support at least one HDR Format include HDMI 2.0a, which was released in April 2015 and DisplayPort 1.4, which was released in March 2016. On 12 December 2016, HDMI announced that Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) support had been added to the HDMI 2.0b standard. HDMI 2.1 was officially announced on 4 January 2017, and added support for Dynamic HDR, which is dynamic metadata that supports changes scene-by-scene or frame-by-frame.
As of 2020, no display is capable of rendering the full range of brightness and color of HDR formats. A display is called an HDR display if it can accept HDR content and map them to its display characteristics. Thus, the HDR logo only provides information about content compatibility and not display capability.
Certifications have been made in order to give consumers information about the display rendering capability of a screen.
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: criteria changed for the new version (DisplayHDR v1.1).(September 2021)
The DisplayHDR standard from VESA is an attempt to make the differences in HDR specifications easier to understand for consumers, with standards mainly used in computer monitors and laptops. VESA defines a set of HDR levels; all of them must support HDR10, but not all are required to support 10-bit displays. DisplayHDR is not an HDR format, but a tool to verify HDR formats and their performance on a given monitor. The most recent standard is DisplayHDR 1400 which was introduced in September 2019, with monitors supporting it released in 2020. DisplayHDR 1000 and DisplayHDR 1400 are primarily used in professional work like video editing. Monitors with DisplayHDR 500 or DisplayHDR 600 certification provide a noticeable improvement over SDR displays, and are more often used for general computing and gaming.
|Minimum peak luminance
(Brightness in cd/m2)
|Range of color
|Minimum||Typical dimming technology||Maximum black level luminance
(Brightness in cd/m2)
|Maximum backlight adjustment latency
(Number of video frames)
|DisplayHDR 400||400||sRGB||8 bit (24-bit)||Screen-level||0.4||8|
|DisplayHDR 500||500||WCG*||10-bit (30-bit)||Zone-level||0.1||8|
|DisplayHDR 400 True Black||400||WCG*||Pixel-level||0.0005||2|
|DisplayHDR 500 True Black||500||WCG*||Pixel-level||0.0005||2|
|DisplayHDR 600 True Black||600||WCG*||Pixel-level||0.0005||2|
*Wide Color Gamut, at least 90% of DCI-P3 in specified volume (peak luminance)
UHD Alliance certifications:
HDR is mainly achieved by the use of PQ or HLG transfer function. Wide Color Gamut (WCG) is also commonly used along HDR. Rec. 2020 color primaries. A bit-depth of 10 or 12 bits is used to not see banding across the extended brightness range. Some additional metadata are sometimes used to handle the variety in displays brightness, contrast and colors. HDR video is defined in Rec. 2100.
ITU-R Rec. 2100Edit
Rec. 2100 is a technical recommendation by ITU-R for production and distribution of HDR content using 1080p or UHD resolution, 10-bit or 12-bit color, HLG or PQ transfer functions, the Rec. 2020 wide color gamut and YCBCR or ICTCP as color space.
SDR uses a gamma curve transfer function that is based on CRT's characteristics and that is used to represent luminance levels up to around 100 nits. HDR uses newly developed PQ or HLG transfer functions instead of the traditionnal gamma curve. If the gamma curve would have been extended to 10,000 nits, it would have required a bit-depth of 15 bits to avoid banding. PQ and HLG are more efficient.
HDR transfer functions:
- Perceptual Quantizer (PQ), or SMPTE ST 2084, is a transfer function developed for HDR that is able to represent luminance level up to 10,000 cd/m2. It is the basis of HDR video formats (such as Dolby Vision, HDR10 and HDR10+) and is also used for HDR still picture formats. PQ is not backward compatible with SDR. PQ can be encoded in 12 bits without showing any banding.
- Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a transfer function developed by the NHK and BBC. It is backward compatible with SDR's gamma curve. It is the basis of an HDR format that is also named HLG or sometimes referred to as HLG10. (The HLG10 format uses Rec. 2100 color primaries and is therefore not backward compatible with all SDR displays). The HLG transfer function is also used by other video formats such Dolby Vision profile 8.4 and for HDR still picture formats.
SDR for HD video uses a system chromaticity (chromaticity of color primaries and white point) specified in Rec. 709 (same as sRGB). SDR for SD used many different primaries, as said in BT.601, SMPTE 170M.
HDR is commonly associated to a Wide Color Gamut (a system chromaticity wider than BT.709). Rec. 2100 (HDR-TV) uses the same system chromaticity that is used in Rec. 2020 (UHDTV). HDR formats such as HDR10, HDR10+, Dolby Vision and HLG also use Rec. 2020 chromaticities.
|Color space||Chromaticity coordinate (CIE, 1931)|
|Primary colors||White point|
|P3-D60 (ACES Cinema)||0.32168||0.33767|
P3-D65 (common HDR contents)
Because of the increased dynamic range, HDR contents need to use more bit depth than SDR to avoid banding. While SDR uses a bit depth of 8 or 10 bits, HDR uses 10 or 12 bits. This, combined with the use of more efficient transfer function (i.e. PQ or HLG), is enough to avoid banding.
Signaling color spaceEdit
Coding-independent code points (CICP) is used to signal the transfer function, color primaries and matrix coefficients. It is defined in both ITU-T H.273 and ISO/IEC 23091-2. It is used by multiple codecs including AVC, HEVC and AVIF. Common combinations of H.273 parameters are summarized in ITU-T Series H Supplement 19.
|Code point value||Meaning|
|Transfer function||1, 6, 14, 15||SDR's gamma curve|
|Color primaries||1||Rec. 709 primaries|
|9||Rec. 2020 primaries
Rec. 2100 primaries
|1||Y'CbCr (for Rec. 709)|
|9||Y'CbCr (for Rec. 2020)
Y'CbCr (for Rec. 2100)
Static HDR metadatas gives informations about the whole video.
- SMPTE ST 2086 or MDCV (Mastering Display Color Volume): It describes the color volume of the mastering display (i.e. the color primaries, the white point and the maximum and minimum luminance). It has been defined by SMPTE and also in AVC and HEVC standards.
- MaxFALL (Maximum Frame Average Light Level)
- MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level)
Those metadatas do not describe how the HDR content should be adapted to an HDR consumer displays that have lower color volume (i.e. peak brightness, contrast and color gamut) than the content.
The values of MaxFALL and MaxCLL should be calculated from the video stream itself (not including black borders for MaxFALL) based on how the scenes appear on the mastering display. It is not recommended to set them arbitrarily.
Dynamic metadatas are specific for each frame or each scene of the video.
Dynamic metadatas of Dolby Vision, HDR10+ and SMPTE ST 2094 describe what color volume transform should be applied to contents that are shown on displays that have different color volume from the mastering display. It is optimized for each scene and each display. It allows for the creative intents to be preserved even on consumers displays that have limited color volume.
SMPTE ST 2094 or Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform (DMCVT) is a standard for dynamic metadata published by SMPTE in 2016 as six parts. It is carried in HEVC SEI, ETSI TS 103 433, CTA 861-G. It includes four applications:
- ST 2094-10 (from Dolby), used for Dolby Vision.
- ST 2094-20 (from Philips). Colour Volume Reconstruction Information (CVRI) is based on ST 2094-20.
- ST 2094-30 (by Technicolor). Colour Remapping Information (CRI) conforms to ST 2094-30 and is standardized in HEVC.
- ST 2094-40 (by Samsung), used for HDR10+.
Some Dolby Vision profiles use a dual-layer video composed of a base layer (BL) and an enhancement layer (EL). Depending on the Dolby Vision profile (or compatibility level), the base layer can be backward compatible with SDR, HDR10, HLG, UHD Blu-ray or no other format in the most efficient IPTPQc2 color space (uses full range and reshaping).
ETSI GS CCM 001 describes a Compound Content Management functionality for a dual-layer HDR system, icluding MMR (multivariate multiple regression) and NLQ (non linear quantisation).
Ultra HD Forum guidelinesEdit
UHD Phase A are guidelines from the Ultra HD Forum for distribution of SDR and HDR content using Full HD 1080p and 4K UHD resolutions. It requires color depth of 10 bits per sample, a color gamut of Rec. 709 or Rec. 2020, a frame rate of up to 60 fps, a display resolution of 1080p or 2160p, and either standard dynamic range (SDR) or high dynamic range that uses Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) transfer functions. UHD Phase A defines HDR as having a dynamic range of at least 13 stops (213=8192:1) and WCG as a color gamut that is wider than Rec. 709. UHD Phase A consumer devices are compatible with HDR10 requirements and can process Rec. 2020 color space and HLG or PQ at 10 bits.
UHD Phase B will add support to 120 fps (and 120/1.001 fps), 12 bit PQ in HEVC Main12 (that will be enough for 0.0001 to 10000 nits), Dolby AC-4 and MPEG-H 3D Audio, IMAX sound in DTS:X (without LFE). It will also add ITU's ICtCp and Color Remapping Information (CRI).
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2021)
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2021)
HDR image formatsEdit
- HEIC (HEVC codec in HEIF file format)
- AVIF (AV1 codec in HEIF file format), supports even ICTCP
- JPEG XL
- HSP (a format used by Panasonic cameras for photo capture in HDR with the HLG transfer function)
Other images formats, such as JPEG, JPEG 2000, PNG, WebP, don't support HDR by default. They could in theory support it by the use of ICC profile. However, usually, existing applications do not take into account the absolute luminance value defined in ICC profiles. W3C is working to add HDR support to PNG.
Adoption of HDR in still imagesEdit
Panasonic: Panasonic's S-series cameras (including Lumix S1, S1R, S1H and S5) can capture photos in HDR using the HLG transfer function and output them in a HSP file format. The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HLG-compliant display with an HDMI cable. A plug-in allowing to edit the HLG stills (HSP) in Photoshop CC has been released by Panasonic. The company also released a plug-in for displaying thumbnails of those HDR images on a PC (for Windows Explorer and macOS Finder).
Canon: EOS-1D X Mark III and EOS R5 are able to capture still images in the Rec.2100 color space by using the PQ transfer function, the HEIC format (HEVC codec in HEIF file format), the Rec. 2020 color primaries, a bit depth of 10 bit and a 4:2:2 YCbCr subsampling. The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HDR display with an HDMI cable. Captured HDR pictures can also be converted to SDR JPEG (sRGB color space) and then viewed on any standard display. Canon refers to those SDR pictures as "HDR PQ-like JPEG". Canon's Digital Photo Professional software is able to show the captured HDR pictures in HDR on HDR displays or in SDR on SDR displays. It is also able to convert the HDR PQ to SDR sRGB JPEG.
Sony: Sony α7S III and α1 cameras can capture HDR photos in the Rec.2100 color space with the HLG transfer function, the HEIF format, Rec. 2020 color primaries, a bit depth of 10 bit and a 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling. The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HLG-compliant display with an HDMI cable.
On 8 April 2015, The HDMI Forum released version 2.0a of the HDMI Specification to enable transmission of HDR. The Specification references CEA-861.3, which in turn references SMPTE ST 2084 (the standard of PQ). The previous HDMI 2.0 version already supported the Rec. 2020 color space.
On 17 November 2016, the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Steering Board approved UHD-1 Phase 2 with a HDR solution that supports Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and Perceptual Quantizer (PQ). The specification has been published as DVB Bluebook A157 and will be published by the ETSI as TS 101 154 v2.3.1.
On 2 January 2017, LG Electronics USA announced that all of LG's SUPER UHD TV models now support a variety of HDR technologies, including Dolby Vision, HDR10, and HLG (Hybrid Log Gamma), and are ready to support Advanced HDR by Technicolor.
On 13 October 2020, Apple announced the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro series, the first smartphone that can record and edit video in Dolby Vision right in the camera roll. iPhone uses HLG compatible profile 8 of Dolby Vision with only L1 trim.
- We need to talk about HDR by Yoeri Geutskens
- ITU-R Rep. BT.2390 "High dynamic range television for production and international programme exchange", a report by ITU providing background information on HDR in general, and for the perceptual quantization (PQ) and hybrid log–gamma (HLG) HDR signal parameters specified in the Rec.2100.
- "HDR (High Dynamic Range) on TVs explained". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "ITU-R Report BT.2390 - High dynamic range television for production and international programme exchange". ITU. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "Why Your HDR Monitor is (Probably) Not HDR at All – and Why DisplayHDR 400 Needs to Go". TFT Central. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- "Understanding HDR10 and Dolby Vision". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- "CES 2014: Dolby Vision promises a brighter future for TV, Netflix and Xbox Video on board". Expert Reviews. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "The advent of a new age in which cameras demonstrate their true potential". Canon Global. 26 December 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
- Pocket-lint (10 September 2019). "What is HLG Photo? Panasonic S1 feature explained in full". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- Morrison, Geoffrey. "HDR is a big step in TV picture quality. Here's why". CNET. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "BT.2100 : Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "HDR10 vs HDR10+ vs Dolby Vision: Which is better?". RTINGS.com. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- "Dolby Vision for Content Creators - Workflows". professional.dolby.com. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "We need to talk about HDR". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "ST 2086:2018 - SMPTE Standard - Mastering Display Color Volume Metadata Supporting High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images". St 2086:2018: 1–8. April 2018. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2086.2018. ISBN 978-1-68303-139-0.
- "BT.2100 : Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 4 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "BT.2035 : A reference viewing environment for evaluation of HDTV program material or completed programmes". www.itu.int. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- January 2020, Becky Roberts 22. "Dolby Vision IQ: everything you need to know". whathifi. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- January 2021, Becky Roberts 04 (4 January 2021). "Samsung HDR10+ Adaptive adjusts HDR pictures based on room lighting – yes, like Dolby Vision IQ". whathifi. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "Dolby Vision and Independent Filmmaking". Mystery Box. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- Rachel Cericola (27 August 2015). "What Makes a TV HDR-Compatible? The CEA Sets Guidelines". Big Picture Big Sound. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Michael Bizzaco; Ryan Waniata; Simon Cohen (19 December 2020). "HDR TV: What it is and why your next TV should have it". Digital Trends. Designtechnica Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- Consumer Technology Association (27 August 2015). "CEA Defines 'HDR Compatible' Displays". Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Dolby. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper - An introduction to Dolby Vision" (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "CES 2014: Dolby Vision promises a brighter future for TV, Netflix and Xbox Video on board". Expert Reviews. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "Samsung and Amazon Video Deliver Next Generation HDR Video Experience with Updated Open Standard HDR10+". Samsung. 20 April 2017. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- John Laposky (20 April 2017). "Samsung, Amazon Video Team To Deliver Updated Open Standard HDR10+". Twice. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform — Application #4. September 2016. pp. 1–26. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2094-40.2016. ISBN 978-1-68303-048-5.
- "SMPTE ST 2094 and Dynamic Metadata" (PDF). Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "License Program - HDR10+". hdr10plus.org. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- "HDR video formats - the prospects". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
- "Ultra HD Forum Guidelines v2.4" (PDF). 19 October 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- "UHD Forum Guidelines" (PDF). Ultra HD Forum. 19 October 2020.
- "HDR terminology demystified". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "High-Performance Single Layer Directly Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) Compatible High Dynamic Range (HDR) System for use in Consumer Electronics devices (SL-HDR1)". ETSI. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- "ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 433 V1.1.1" (PDF). ETSI. 3 August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- ETSI (March 2020). "ETSI TS 103 433-1 V1.3.1" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- ETSI (March 2021). "ETSI TS 103 433-2 V1.2.1" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- ETSI (March 2020). "ETSI TS 103 433-3 V1.1.1" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "License Program - HDR10+". hdr10plus.org. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Dolby. "Dolby Vision Profiles and Levels Version 1.3.2 - Specification" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "ETSI GS CCM 001 V1.1.1 - Compound Content Management Specification" (PDF). Compound Content Management (CCM) ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG). February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- "Dolby Vision for Content Creators". professional.dolby.com. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Guidance for operational practices in HDR television production". www.itu.int. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- HDR10+ Technologies, LLC (4 September 2019). "HDR10+ System Whitepaper" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Archer, John. "Samsung And Amazon Just Made The TV World Even More Confusing". Forbes. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Dolby. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper - An introduction to Dolby Vision" (PDF). Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Pocket-lint (13 October 2020). "What is Dolby Vision? Dolby's own HDR tech explained". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Dolby (14 May 2021). "Dolby Vision Metadata Levels". Retrieved 11 September 2021.
- Karol Myszkowski; Rafal Mantiuk; Grzegorz Krawczyk (2008). High Dynamic Range Video (First ed.). Morgan & Claypool. p. 8. ISBN 9781598292145. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Ldr2Hdr: on-the-fly reverse tone mapping of legacy video and photographs Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. SIGGRAPH 2007 paper
- Steven Cohen (27 July 2016). "Samsung Releases HDR+ Firmware Update for 2016 SUHD TV Lineup". High-Def Digest. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Carolyn Giardina (11 April 2016). "NAB: Technicolor, Vubiquity to Unwrap HDR Up-Conversion and TV Distribution Service". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Summary of DisplayHDR Specs". VESA Certified DisplayHDR. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
- "HDMI 2.0a Spec Released, HDR Capability Added". Twice. 8 April 2015. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "VESA Updates Display Stream Compression Standard to Support New Applications and Richer Display Content". PRNewswire. 27 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Introducing HDMI 2.0b". HDMI.org. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- Ramus Larsen (12 December 2016). "HDMI 2.0b standard gets support for HLG HDR". flatpanelshd. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Andrew Cotton (31 December 2016). "2016 in Review - High Dynamic Range". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "HDMI Forum announces version 2.1 of the HDMI specification". HDMI.org. 4 January 2017. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "Philips HDR technology" (PDF). Philips. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "DisplayHDR – The Higher Standard for HDR Monitors". displayhdr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
- Coberly, Cohen (5 September 2019). "VESA's DisplayHDR specification now covers ultra-bright 1,400-nit monitors - Meet DisplayHDR 1400". techspot.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- Byford, Sam (10 January 2020). "This year's monitors will be faster, brighter, and curvier than ever". The Verge. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- Harding, Scharon (15 January 2021). "How to Choose the Best HDR Monitor: Make Your Upgrade Worth It - Understand HDR displays and how to find the best one for you". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- "UHD Alliance". alliance.experienceuhd.com. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- Pocket-lint (26 January 2021). "Mobile HDR: Dolby Vision, HDR10 and Mobile HDR Premium explained". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- "ITU announces BT.2100 HDR TV standard". Rasmus Larsen. 5 July 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Adam Wilt (20 February 2014). "HPA Tech Retreat 2014 – Day 4". DV Info Net. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "ST 2084:2014". IEEE Xplore. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2084.2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Eilertsen, Gabriel (2018). The high dynamic range imaging pipeline. Linköping University Electronic Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9789176853023. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- Chris Tribbey (10 July 2015). "HDR Special Report: SMPTE Standards Director: No HDR Format War, Yet". MESA. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Bryant Frazer (9 June 2015). "Colorist Stephen Nakamura on Grading Tomorrowland in HDR". studiodaily. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "AV1 Image File Format (AVIF)". aomediacodec.github.io. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- "Canon EOS-1D X Mark III Review". The-Digital-Picture.com. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "High Dynamic Range" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "Press Release - A New Hybrid Full-Frame Mirrorless Camera, the LUMIX S5 Featuring Exceptional Image Quality in High Sensitivity Photo/Video And Stunning Mobility" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Sony α1 with superb resolution and speed". Sony. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "High Dynamic Range with Hybrid Log-Gamma" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- "BT.709 : Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "BT.2020 : Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- Kid Jansen (19 February 2014). "The Pointer's Gamut". tftcentral. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- Rajan Joshi; Shan Liu; Gary Sullivan; Gerhard Tech; Ye-Kui Wang; Jizheng Xu; Yan Ye (31 January 2016). "HEVC Screen Content Coding Draft Text 5". JCT-VC. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "HDR Video Part 3: HDR Video Terms Explained". Mystery Box. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- T. Borer; A. Cotton. "A "Display Independent" High Dynamic Range Television System" (PDF). BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Dolby. "ICtCp Dolby White Paper - What is ICTCP ? - Introduction" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "H.273 : Coding-independent code points for video signal type identification". www.itu.int. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "H.Sup19 : Usage of video signal type code points". www.itu.int. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "H.264 : Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services". www.itu.int. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "H.265 : High efficiency video coding". www.itu.int. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "A DTV Profile for Uncompressed High Speed Digital Interfaces (CTA-861-G), Annex P". Consumer Technology Association®. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- "SMPTE ST 2094 and Dynamic Metadata" (PDF). Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- SMPTE Professional Development Academy. "SMPTE Standards Webcast Series - SMPTE ST 2094 and Dynamic Metadata". Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- ETSI (October 2020). "ETSI TS 103 572 V1.2.1" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "Ultra HD Forum: Phase A Guidelines" (PDF). Ultra HD Forum. 15 July 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC29/WG1" (PDF). 9–15 April 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "ICC HDR Working Group". www.color.org. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- Blog, Netflix Technology (24 September 2018). "Enhancing the Netflix UI Experience with HDR". Medium. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "Using the ITU BT.2100 PQ EOTF with the PNG Format". www.w3.org. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- w3c/ColorWeb-CG. "Adding support for HDR imagery to the PNG format". GitHub. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "How HDR display could change your photography forever". DPReview. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Panasonic announces HLG plug-in for Photoshop CC, adds Raw video modes to S-series cameras". DPReview. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "LUMIX HLG Photo | Download | Digital AV Software | Digital AV | Support | Panasonic Global". av.jpn.support.panasonic.com. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- Europe, Canon. "Specifications & Features - EOS-1D X Mark III". Canon Europe. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- Canon. "EOS-1D X Mark III specifications" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- Europe, Canon. "Canon EOS R5 Specifications and Features -". Canon Europe. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "HDR PQ HEIF: Breaking Through the Limits of JPEG". SNAPSHOT - Canon Singapore Pte. Ltd. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "HEIF – What you need to know". Photo Review. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- Canon. "Working with files saved in HEVC format". Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "Sony α7S III with pro movie/still capability". Sony. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Characteristics of HEIF format | Sony". support.d-imaging.sony.co.jp. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- Sony (July 2020). "ILCE-7SM3 brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Qualcomm Snapdragon 888 5G Mobile Platform | Latest 5G Snapdragon Processor". Qualcomm. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- Judd Heap, VP of Product Management, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. "Triple down on the future of photography with Snapdragon 888" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "High Dynamic Range and Wide Gamut Color on the Web". w3c.github.io. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "Media Capabilities". w3c.github.io. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "CSS Color HDR Module Level 1". drafts.csswg.org. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "ST 2084:2014 - SMPTE Standard - High Dynamic Range Electro-Optical Transfer Function of Mastering Reference Displays". St 2084:2014: 1–14. August 2014. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2084.2014. ISBN 978-1-61482-829-7.
- "H.265 : High efficiency video coding". www.itu.int. October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- "The emergence of HEVC and 10-bit colour formats – With Imagination". 15 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
- "ST 2086:2014 - SMPTE Standard - Mastering Display Color Volume Metadata Supporting High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images". St 2086:2014: 1–6. 30 October 2014. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2086.2014. ISBN 978-1-61482-833-4.
- "Overview of ARIB Standards (STD-B67)｜Association of Radio Industries and Businesses". www.arib.or.jp. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- "HDMI :: Manufacturer :: HDMI 2.0 :: FAQ for HDMI 2.0". 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- John Archer (24 June 2015). "Amazon Grabs Key Tech Advantage Over Netflix With World's First HDR Streaming Service". Forbes. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Kris Wouk (24 June 2015). "Amazon brings Dolby Vision TVs into the HDR fold with short list of titles". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Dolby and VUDU launch the future home theater experience with immersive sound and advanced imaging". Business Wire. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Caleb Denison (28 January 2016). "Ultra HD Blu-ray arrives March 2016; here's everything we know". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Rasmus Larsen (9 April 2016). "Netflix is now streaming in HDR / Dolby Vision". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "ST 2094-1:2016 - SMPTE Standard - Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform — Core Components". St 2094-1:2016: 1–15. 13 June 2016. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2094-1.2016. ISBN 978-1-68303-023-2.
- Colin Mann (29 July 2016). "4K HDR from SKY Perfect JSAT". Advanced Television. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- "HDR Video Playback". Android. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- Ramus Larsen (7 September 2016). "Android TV 7.0 supports Dolby Vision, HDR10 and HLG". flatpanelshd. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- David Katzmaier (26 September 2016). "Roku unveils five new streaming boxes with prices as low as $30". CNET. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Steven Robertson (7 November 2016). "True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube". Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos". Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "DVB SB Approves UHD HDR Specification". Digital Video Broadcasting. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- James Grover (17 November 2016). "UHD-1 Phase 2 approved". TVBEurope. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Apple TV 4K - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Why the iPhone 12's Dolby Vision HDR Recording Is a Big Deal". howtogeek. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Patel, Nilay (20 October 2020). "Apple iPhone 12 Pro review: ahead of its time". The Verge. Retrieved 23 April 2021.