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European Broadcasting Union

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; French: Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 72 members in 56 countries,[2] and 34 associate members from a further 20 countries.[3] It is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the institution itself.[4]

European Broadcasting Union
Union européenne de radio-télévision
European Broadcasting Union logo.svg
EBU Member Elliptic.svg
Countries with one or more members are in dark blue. Associated members in light blue.
Predecessor International Broadcasting Union
Formation 12 February 1950; 68 years ago (1950-02-12)
Type Union of broadcasting organisations
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Membership
  • 72 active members
  • (from 56 countries)
Official language
English, French
President
Jean-Paul Philippot[1]
Website Official Website

Contents

General descriptionEdit

 
The classic opening ident that preceded all Eurovision network transmissions until 1993. The logotypes of both the sending and receiving company were shown in the middle. The pattern around the middle is based on the Flag of Europe. This sample shows the old logo of the BBC.

EBU Members are public service broadcasters whose output is made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. PSM broadcasters are often established by law but are non-partisan, independent and run for the benefit of society as a whole.

EBU Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, and almost every nation from geographical Europe in between. Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Japan, Mexico, India and Hong Kong. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, CPB, NPR, APM and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music radio WFMT.[citation needed]

Membership is for media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area (EBA), as defined by the International Telecommunication Union, or who are members of the Council of Europe.[5]

Members benefit from:

  • Access to world-class content ranging from exclusive sports rights to exchanges for news, music and children's programmes.
  • A voice in Brussels and on international platforms lobbying for PSM and ensuring the optimal legal and technical framework.
  • Opportunities for sharing, learning and collaborating through conferences, working groups, training and dedicated advice and guidance.
  • A centre for learning and sharing new technology and innovation with a team of experts providing strategic advice and guidance.

The EBU's highest profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest. The EBU also organises the Eurovision Dance Contest, the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, the Eurovision Young Dancers competition, and other competitions which are modelled along similar lines.

Radio collaborations include Euroclassic Notturno – an overnight classical music stream, produced by BBC Radio 3 and broadcast in the United Kingdom as Through the Night – and special theme days, such as the annual Christmas music relays from around Europe.[6] The EBU is a member of the International Music Council.

Most EBU broadcasters have group deals to carry major sporting events including the FIFA World Cup and the inaugural European Championships. Another annually recurring event which is broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Year's Concert.[7]

Eurovision Media Services is the business arm of the EBU and provides first class media services for many media organisations and sport federations around the world.

The theme music played before EBU broadcasts is Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Prelude to Te Deum. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest and other important events.[8]

HistoryEdit

 
EBU logo used from 1993 to 2012.

The EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union (IBU) that was founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated technical disputes between members that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues. It was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War and when the conflict ended in the eyes of the Allies it was a compromised organisation that they could not trust.

In the spring of 1946, representatives of the Soviet radio committee proposed forming a new organisation; however, at the same time preparations were being made for an inter-governmental “European Broadcasting Conference” (EBC) in Copenhagen in 1948 to draw up a new plan for frequency use in the European Broadcasting Area (EBA). It was considered necessary to have an organisation that could implement the “Copenhagen Wavelength Plan” but there was disagreement among broadcasters and particularly a fear expressed by the BBC that a new association might be dominated by the USSR and its proposal to give each of its constituent states one vote. France proposed that it would have four votes with the inclusion of its North African colonies. Great Britain felt it would have little influence with just one vote.

On 27 June 1946 the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation (IBO) was founded with 26 members and without British participation. The following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt was made to dissolve it but failed; though 18 of its 28 members left to join the IBO.[9] For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither. The BBC attempted but failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels and employed its staff. The BBC then proposed a new solution based on the IBO changing its constitution so there will be only one member per ITU country, thus ensuring a Western majority over the USSR and its satellite states. In August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, the Levant and North Africa.

After Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London. Meetings in Paris on 31 October and 1 November 1949 sealed the fate of the IBU and IBO, but it was decided not to allow West Germany to be a founder of the new organisation. On 13 February 1950 the European Broadcasting Union had its first meeting with 23 members from the ITU defined European Broadcasting Area at the Imperial Hotel in Torquay, England. The first president was Ian Jacob of the BBC who remained at the helm for 10 years while its operation was largely dominated by the BBC due to its financial, technical and staff input. The most important difference between the EBU and its predecessors was that EBU membership was for broadcasters and not governments. Early delegates said EBU meetings were cordial and professional and very different from the abrupt tone of its predecessors. West Germany was admitted in 1951 and a working relationship forged with the USSR’s Organisation for International Radio and TV (OIRT) which existed in parallel with the EBU until its merger in 1993. (Source: Diffusion, Journal of the EBU, ‘50 years of the EBU’, Winter 1999/2000[9]).

In 1967 the first concert in the International Concert Season of the European Broadcasting Union was broadcast from the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London.[10]

Technical activitiesEdit

The objective of the EBU's technical activities is simply to assist EBU Members (see below) in this period of unprecedented technological changes. This includes provision of technical information to Members via conferences and workshops, as well as in written form (such as the EBU Technical Review, and the EBU tech-i magazine).

The EBU also encourages active collaboration between its Members on the basis that they can freely share their knowledge and experience, thus achieving considerably more than individual Members could achieve by themselves. Much of this collaboration is achieved through Project Groups which study specific technical issues of common interest: for example, EBU Members have long been preparing for the revision of the 1961 Stockholm Plan.

The EBU places great emphasis on the use of open standards. Widespread use of open standards (such as MPEG-2, DAB, DVB, etc.) ensures interoperability between products from different vendors, as well as facilitating the exchange of programme material between EBU Members and promoting "horizontal markets" for the benefit of all consumers.

EBU Members and the EBU Technical Department have long played an important role in the development of many systems used in radio and television broadcasting, such as:

The EBU has also actively encouraged the development and implementation of:

  • Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) through Eureka Project 147 and the WorldDAB Forum.
  • Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) through the DVB Project and DigiTAG.
  • Digital radio in the bands currently used for AM broadcasting through DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale).
  • Standardisation of PVR systems through the TV-Anytime Forum.
  • Development of other content distribution networks on the internet through P2PTV; EBU Project Group D/P2P, from November 2007 to April 2008, with a trial of selected member channels, thanks to Octoshape's distribution platform.[11] The EBU is also part of the European P2P-Next project.

Greek state broadcaster controversy of 2013Edit

On 11 June 2013, the Greek government shut down the state broadcaster ERT, at short notice, citing government spending concerns related to the Euro crisis.[12] In response, the European Broadcasting Union set up a makeshift studio on the same day, near the former ERT offices in Athens, in order to continue providing EBU Members with the news-gathering and broadcast relay services which had formerly been provided by ERT.[13]

The EBU put out a statement expressing its "profound dismay" at the shutdown, urged the Greek Prime Minister "to use all his powers to immediately reverse this decision" and offered the "advice, assistance and expertise necessary for ERT to be preserved".[14]

Starting on 4 May 2014, the New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television broadcaster began nationwide transmissions, taking over ERT's vacant active membership slot in the EBU.[citation needed] On 11 June 2015, two years after ERT's closure, Nerit SA renamed as ERT SA which reopened with a comprehensive program in all radio stations (with 19 regional, 2 world-Range and 5 Panhellenic range radio stations) and four TV channels ERT1, ERT2, ERT3 and ERT HD.

MembersEdit

 
Countries with active EBU membership coloured in order of accession from 1950.

The Member list as of January 2018, comprises the following 73 broadcasting companies from 56 countries.[2]

Current MembersEdit

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
  Albania Radio Televizioni Shqiptar RTSH 1999
  Algeria Public Establishment of Television (Établissement public de télévision),
National Sound Broadcasting Company (Entreprise nationale de radiodiffusion sonore),
Télédiffusion d'Algérie
ENTV
ENRS
TDA
1970
  Andorra Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra RTVA 2002
  Armenia Public Television of Armenia ARMTV 2005
Public Radio of Armenia ARMR
  Austria Österreichischer Rundfunk ORF 1953
  Azerbaijan İctimai Television İCTI/İTV 2007
  Belarus Belaruskaja Tele-Radio Campanija BTRC 1993
  Belgium Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie VRT 1950
Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté Française RTBF
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Javni Radio Televizijski servis Bosne i Hercegovine BHRT 1993
  Bulgaria Bâlgarsko Nacionalno Radio BNR 1993
Bâlgarska Nacionalna Televiizija BNT
  Croatia Hrvatska radiotelevizija HRT 1993
  Cyprus Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation CyBC 1969
  Czech Republic Český Rozhlas ČR 1994
Česká televize ČT
  Denmark Danmarks Radio DR 1950
TV2 Danmark DK/TV2 1989
  Egypt Egyptian Radio and Television Union ERTU 1985
  Estonia Eesti Rahvusringhääling ERR 1993
  Finland Yleisradio Yle 1950
MTV3 FI/MTV 1993
  France Groupement des Radiodiffuseurs Français de l'UER: GRF 1950
Europe 1 E1 1978
  Georgia Georgian Public Broadcasting GPB 2005
  Germany Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (ARD): ARD 1952
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF 1963
  Greece Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation ERT 1950–2013
2015
  Hungary Hungarian Media Group: HMG 2014
  Iceland Ríkisútvarpið RÚV 1956
  Ireland Raidió Teilifís Éireann RTÉ 1950
TG4 TG4 2007
  Israel Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation Kan 2017
  Italy RAI - Radiotelevisione Italiana RAI 1950
  Jordan Jordan Radio and Television Corporation JRTV 1970
  Latvia Latvijas Televīzija LTV 1993
Latvijas Radio LR 1993
  Lebanon Télé Liban TL 1950
  Libya Libya National Channel LNC 2011
  Lithuania Lietuvos Radijas ir Televizija LRT 1993
  Luxembourg RTL Group RTL 1950
Établissement de Radiodiffusion Socioculturelle du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ERSL 1996
  Macedonia Makedonska radio televizija MKRTV 1993
  Malta Public Broadcasting Services PBS 1970
  Moldova TeleRadio-Moldova TRM 1993
  Monaco Groupement de Radiodiffusion monégasque: GRMC 1950
  Montenegro Radiotelevizija Crne Gore RTCG 2006
  Morocco Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision SNRT 1950
  Netherlands Nederlandse Publieke Omroep: NPO 1950
  Norway Norsk Rikskringkasting NRK 1950
TV2 NO/TV2 1993
  Poland Telewizja Polska TVP 1993
Polskie Radio PR
  Portugal Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) RTP 1950
  Romania Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune ROR 1993
Televiziunea Română RO/TVR
  Russia Channel One Russia C1R 1996
Vserossiyskaya Gosudarstvennaya Televizionnaya i Radioveshchatelnaya Kompaniya VGTRK 1993
Radio Dom Ostankino: RDO 1996
  San Marino San Marino RTV SMRTV 1995
  Serbia Radiotelevizija Srbije RTS 2006
  Slovakia Radio and Television of Slovakia (Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska) RTVS 2011
  Slovenia Radiotelevizija Slovenija RTVSLO 1993
  Spain Radiotelevisión Española RTVE 1955
Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión SER 1982
Radio Popular SA COPE COPE 1998
  Sweden Sveriges Television och Radio Grupp: STR 1950
TV4 SE/TV4 2004
   Switzerland Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR): SRG SSR 1950
  Tunisia Radio tunisienne et Télévision tunisienne:
  • Radio tunisienne
  • Télévision tunisienne
RTTT 1950
  Turkey Türkiye Radyo-Televizyon Kurumu TRT 1950
  Ukraine National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine (Natsionalna Suspilna Teleradiokompaniya Ukrayiny) UA:PBC 1993
  United Kingdom British Broadcasting Corporation BBC 1950
United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting: UKIB 1960
   Vatican Vatican Radio VR 1950

Past MembersEdit

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. From To
  Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Television CST 1991 1992
  Greece New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television NERIT 2014 2015
  Hungary Duna TV Duna 2013
Magyar Rádió MR 1993
Magyar Televízió MTV
  Israel Israel Broadcasting Authority IBA 1957 2017
  Monaco   Italy Telemontecarlo (now La7) TMC 1981 2001
  Libya Libyan Jamahiriya Broadcasting Corporation (الجماهيرية اللّيبيّة) LJBC 1974 2011
  Serbia and Montenegro Alliance of Public Radio and Television UJRT 2001 2006
  Slovakia Slovenský rozhlas SRo 1993 2011
Slovenská televízia STV
  Spain Antena 3 Radio A3R 1986 1993
  Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radio Television JRT 1950 1992

Associate MembersEdit

 
Countries with Associate EBU Membership.

Any group or organisation from an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) member country, which provide a radio or television service outside of the European Broadcasting Area, are permitted to submit applications to the EBU for Associate Membership. Countries which have this status also pay an annual fee to maintain this status. It was also noted by the EBU that any country that is granted Associate Member status does not include any access into the Eurovision events.[15]

The list of Associate Members of EBU, comprised the following 34 broadcasting companies from 21 countries as of January 2018.[3]

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
  Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC 1950
FreeTV Australia Free 1962
Special Broadcasting Service SBS 1979
  Bangladesh National Broadcasting Authority of Bangladesh NBAB 1974
  Brazil Rádio Cultura (Fundação Padre Anchieta) FPA 2012
  Canada Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Societé Radio Canada CBC 1950
  Chile Canal 13 UCTV 1971
  China China Central Television CCTV 2010
Shanghai Media Group SMG 2016
  Cuba Cuban Institute of Radio and Television ICRT 1992
  Georgia Teleimedi TEME 2004
Rustavi 2 RB 2003
  Hong Kong Radio Television Hong Kong RTHK 1983
  India All India Radio AIR 1979
  Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting IRIB 1969
  Japan Nippon Hoso Kyokai NHK 1951
Tokyo Broadcasting System TBS 2000
Tokyo FM TFM 1986
  Kazakhstan Khabar Agency KA 2016
Channel 31[16] 2017
  South Korea Korean Broadcasting System KBS 1974
  Malaysia Radio Televisyen Malaysia RTM 1970
  Mauritius Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation MBC 1980
  New Zealand Radio New Zealand RNZ 1950
Television New Zealand TVNZ 1950
  Oman Public Authority for Radio and TV of Oman PART 1976
  South Africa South African Broadcasting Corporation SABC 1951
  Syria Organisme de la Radio-Télévision Arabe Syrienne ORTAS 1978
  United States American Broadcasting Company ABC 1959
American Public Media APM 2004
CBS Corporation CBS 1956
National Public Radio NPR 1971
National Broadcasting Company NBC 1953
WFMT Radio Network WFMT 1980

Approved participant membersEdit

Any groups or organisations from a country with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) membership, which do not qualify for either the EBU's Active or Associate memberships, but still provide a broadcasting activity for the EBU, are granted a unique Approved Participants membership, which lasts approximately five years. An application for this status may be submitted to the EBU at any given time, providing an annual fee is paid.[17]

The following seven EBU broadcast members had status as Approved Participants in May 2016.[18]

Broadcasting organisation Abbr.
Arte ARTE
Catalunya Música CAT
Euronews EURONEWS
JP MRD JP MRD
Cellnex Telecom CELLNEX
Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network RTRN
TV5Monde TV5

Organised eventsEdit

The EBU in co-operation with the respective host broadcaster, organises competitions and events in which its Members can participate, if they wish to do so. These include:

Eurovision Song ContestEdit

The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson)[19] is an annual international song competition between EBU Members, that was first held in Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated – each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by the host nation, Switzerland.[20] The most recent winner was Israel and the most recent host city was Lisbon.

Let the Peoples SingEdit

Let the Peoples Sing is a biennial choir competition, the participants of which are chosen from radio recordings entered by EBU radio members. The final, encompassing three categories and around ten choirs, is offered as a live broadcast to all EBU members. The overall winner is awarded the Silver Rose Bowl.

Jeux Sans FrontièresEdit

Jeux Sans Frontières (English: Games Without Frontiers, or Games Without Borders) was a Europe-wide television game show. In its original conception, it was broadcast from 1965 to 1999 under the auspices of the EBU. The original series run ended in 1982 but was revived in 1988 with a different complexion of nations and was hosted by smaller broadcasters.

Eurovision Young MusiciansEdit

Eurovision Young Musicians is a competition for European musicians that are between the ages of 12 and 21 years old. It is organised by the EBU and is a member of EMCY. The first competition was held in Manchester, United Kingdom on 11 May 1982.

The televised competition is held every two years, with some countries holding national heats. Since its foundation in 1982, the Eurovision Young Musicians competition has become one of the most important music competitions on an international level.

Eurovision Young DancersEdit

The Eurovision Young Dancers is a biennial dance showcase broadcast on television throughout Europe. The first competition was held in Reggio Emilia, Italy on 16 June 1985.

It uses a format similar to the Eurovision Song Contest, every country that is a member of the EBU has had the opportunity to send a dance act to compete for the title of "Eurovision Young Dancer". The competition is for solo dancers and all contestants must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years and not professionally engaged.

Euroclassic NotturnoEdit

Euroclassic Notturno is a six-hour sequence of classical music recordings assembled by BBC Radio from material supplied by members of the EBU and streamed back to those broadcasters by satellite for use in their overnight classical-music schedules. The recordings used are taken not from commercial CDs but from earlier (usually live) radio broadcasts.[21][22]

Junior Eurovision Song ContestEdit

Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior),[23] is an annual international song competition, that was first held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 15 November 2003. Sixteen countries participated – each submitting one song, for a total of 16 entries. The 2003 Contest was won by Croatia and the current winner is Russia. The first host city was Copenhagen (2003) and the most recent is Tbilisi (2017).

Eurovision Dance ContestEdit

The Eurovision Dance Contest (not to be confused with the Eurovision Young Dancers Competition) was an international dancing competition that was held for the first time in London, United Kingdom on 1 September 2007. The competition was repeated in 2008 when it was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom, but has not been held since.

Eurovision Magic Circus ShowEdit

The Eurovision Magic Circus Show was an entertainment show organised by the EBU, which took place in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in Geneva. Children aged between 7-14 representing 8 countries within the EBU membership area, performed a variety of circus acts at the Geneva Christmas Circus (French: Cirque de Noël Genève). The main show was also accompanied by the Magic Circus Show Orchestra.[24]

Eurovision Choir of the YearEdit

The inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year featuring non-professional choirs selected by EBU Members, took place on 22 July 2017 in Riga, hosted by the Latvian broadcaster Latvijas Televīzija (LTV). 9 countries took part in the first edition. Carmen Manet from Slovenia were the first winners.

European Sports ChampionshipsEdit

The European Sports Championships is a multi-sport event involving some of the leading sports in Europe. The European Governing Bodies for athletics, acquatics, cycling, rowing, golf, gymnastics and triathlon, will co-ordinate their individual championships as part of the first edition[25] in the summer of 2018, hosted by the cities of Berlin (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Athletics Championships) and Glasgow (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Aquatics Championships, and which will now also host the events of the other sports).[26][27]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "European Broadcasting Union (EBU)". Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "EBU Active Members". ebu.ch. EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "EBU Associate Members". ebu.ch. EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "Eurovision Debate". EBU. Retrieved 24 October 2016. 
  5. ^ "42 countries to take part in 2018 Eurovision Song Contest". EBU. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  6. ^ "Joy to the World: a guide to the European Broadcasting Union's Christmas broadcast". CBC Music. 
  7. ^ (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "EBU - Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra New Year's Concert". www.ebu.ch. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  8. ^ Clements, Paul. "Eurovision 2014: how much do you know about the Eurovision Song Contest?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  9. ^ a b (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "50 years of Eurovision (1954-2004)" (PDF). www.ebu.ch. 
  10. ^ "Euroradio: 50 years" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-03-31. 
  11. ^ "P2P Media Portal Trial". EBU. 10 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  12. ^ "Greek public broadcaster ERT to be shut down, reopened with fewer employees". ekathimerini.com. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-28. 
  13. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (12 June 2013). "ERT (Greek state broadcaster), Media, Television industry (Media), Radio industry (Media), Greece (News), Europe (News), World news, Digital media, Internet, Social media". The Guardian. London. 
  14. ^ EBU urges Greek government to reverse decision on ERT. (2013-06-11). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  15. ^ "Admission". EBU.ch. Retrieved 27 June 2009. 
  16. ^ "Kazakhstan will broadcast JESC 2017 with hopes of debuting in 2018". escxtra.com. 19 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  17. ^ "Approved Participants". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "EBU Directory" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  19. ^ "Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  20. ^ "Historical Milestones". European Broadcasting Union. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006. 
  21. ^ "Euroradio Notturno". EBU. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  22. ^ "Through the Night". BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  23. ^ "Official information page" (in French). European Broadcasting Union. 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  24. ^ Burkhardt, Nadja (16 November 2012). "Eurovision Magic Circus Show". ebu.ch. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  25. ^ europeansportschampionships.com ESC Press Release
  26. ^ "European Athletics - Leading sports bring together their European championships in 2018". Retrieved 24 October 2016. 
  27. ^ "Rowing joins the innovative European Sports Championships - worldrowing.com". Retrieved 24 October 2016. 

External linksEdit