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RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (pronounced [ˈrai ˌradjoteleviˈzjoːne itaˈljaːna]; commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
|Spa (State Owned)|
|Founded||1924(as URI), 1944 (as RAI), 1954 (as RAI Spa)|
|Founder||Government of Italy|
Mario Orfeo (CEO),|
Monica Maggioni (Chairman)
|Revenue||€2.4 billion (2014)|
|€257 million (2014)|
|€14 million (2017)|
|Owner||Ministry of Economy and Finance|
Number of employees
The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%.[better source needed]
RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012.
In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 with the backing of the Marconi Company following a model adopted in other European countries. URI made its inaugural broadcast — a speech by Benito Mussolini at Teatro Costanzi — on 5 October. Regular programming began the following evening, with a quartet performing Haydn's Quartet No. 7 in A major from the Palazzo Corradi. At 21.00 CET, Ines Donarelli Viviani announced for the first time: "URI—Unione Radiofonica Italiana Rome station 1RO 425 meters wavelength. To all those who are listening our greetings, good evening." Guglielmo Marconi's S.A. Radiofono—Società Italiana per le Radiocomunicazioni Circolari (Radiofono) held 85% of URI shares and Western Electric's Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) held the remaining 15%.
Under the provisions of Royal Decree No. 1067 of 8 February 1923, wireless broadcasting became a state monopoly under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; URI was commissioned to provide services for a minimum of six years pursuant to Royal Decree No. 2191 of 14 October 1924 "Concessione dei servizi radioauditivi circolari alla Società Anonima Unione Radiofonica Italiana". However, when URI's contract expired in 1927, it was succeeded under Royal Decree Law No. 2207 of 17 November 1927 by the partially nationalised Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR), which became Radio Audizioni Italiane S.p.A. (RAI) with investment from Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) in 1944.
During the reconstruction following World War II, much of RAI's early programming was influenced by the "Reithian" style of the BBC. The emphasis was on educational content. Programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un viaggio al Po introduced people to what life was like in other parts of the country, at a time when most people couldn't afford to travel.
Over the following years the RAI made various changes to its services. It reorganized its radio stations in November 1946 into two national networks, Rete Rossa and Rete Azzurra ("Red Network" and "Blue Network"). It added the culture-based Terzo Programma in October 1950. On 1 January 1952 the Rete Rossa became the Programma Nazionale (focusing on informational content) and the Rete Azzurra became the Secondo Programma (with a greater emphasis on entertainment). The three radio channels eventually became today's Rai Radio 1, Rai Radio 2, and Rai Radio 3.
In 1954 the state-owned holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) became the sole shareholder and IRI – now renamed RAI—Radiotelevisione italiana to reflect its extended responsibilities – finally began a regular television service. On 3 January at 11.00 CET, the first RAI television announcer presented the day's schedule, which was broadcast from the service's Milan headquarters and relay stations in Turin and Rome. At 14.30, the first regular programme in Italian television history was broadcast: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The evening's entertainment was a theatre performance, L'osteria della posta, written by Carlo Goldoni. 23.15 saw the start of the day's concluding programme, La Domenica Sportiva – the first edition of a weekly series which continues to this day.
RAI was originally the subsidiary of RAI Holding S.p.A. RAI Holding was absorbed into RAI as of 1 December 2004, per Article 21 of Law 112/04.
The RAI is governed by a nine-member Administrative Council. Seven of members are elected by a committee of the Italian Parliament. The other two (one of which is the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the Director-General. The Director-General and the members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a renewable three-year term. In 2005, the government of Silvio Berlusconi proposed partial privatization of RAI by selling 20% ownership. This proposal was very controversial, in part because Berlusconi was the head of the leading private broadcaster Mediaset. Some critics claimed that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position. However, after the revelation that RAI would lose €80m ($96m, £54m) in 2006, the privatization plan was suspended in October 2005.
On 18 May 2010, Raisat received a major upgrade and re-branded with a new logo and a new name. It and all of the sister channels dropped the sat part from the name and became Rai YoYo, Rai 5 (formerly known as Rai Extra), Rai Premium, and Rai Movie (formerly known as Raisat Cinema).
On 11 June 2013, the RAI was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticize the closure of Greece's state broadcaster ERT.
RAI company has been criticized because as of 2015 it had 46 directors and 262 head offices and they are considered too many; RAI Spa is a private company but it's 100% owned by the Italian Government and all the TV owners in Italy have to pay an annual tax of 100 euros.
As March 2015, the RAI has a debt of 442 million euros and the Italian "Corte dei Conti" (an Italian public finance examination institution) was worried about the dimension of RAI debt for the impact that this may have on Italian people (Italians have to mandatory pay annual 100 € Rai tax in order to own a TV or an HDTV).
RAI mandatory annual fee on all televisions in ItalyEdit
|Logo||Channel||LCN on DVB-T||Broadcast||Launched||Description|
|Rai 1||1||National DTV
|3 January 1954||generalist|
|Rai 2||2||National DTV
|4 November 1961||generalist|
|Rai 3||3||National DTV
|15 December 1979||generalist|
|Rai 4||21||National DTV
|14 July 2008||TV series, movies and shows|
|Rai 5||23||National DTV
|26 November 2010||culture, music, documentaries|
|Rai Gulp||42||National DTV
|1 June 2007||kids/teens|
|Rai Movie||24||National DTV
|1 July 1999||movies|
|Rai News24||48||National DTV
|26 April 1999||all news|
|Rai Premium||25||National DTV
|31 July 2003||fiction|
|Rai Scuola||146||National DTV
|19 October 2009||educational|
|Rai Sport||58||National DTV
|1 February 1999||sports|
|Rai Storia||54||National DTV
|2 February 2009||history|
|Rai Yoyo||43||National DTV
|1 November 2006||kids|
|Rai 1 HD||501||National DTV
|25 October 2013||HD version of Rai 1|
|Rai 2 HD||502||National DTV
|25 October 2013||HD version of Rai 2|
|Rai 3 HD||503||National DTV
|25 October 2013||HD version of Rai 3|
|Rai 4 HD||521||National DTV
|22 January 2016||HD version of Rai 4|
|Rai 5 HD||113||Tivùsat||19 September 2016||HD version of Rai 5|
|Rai Movie HD||114||Tivùsat||26 May 2016||HD version of Rai Movie|
|Rai Premium HD||525||National DTV
|26 May 2016||HD version of Rai Premium|
|Rai Sport + HD||57||National DTV
|14 September 2015||HD version of Rai Sport|
|Rai 4K||210||Tivùsat||17 June 2016||Ultra Definition channel|
|1 January 1992||reaching out overseas Italians|
|Rai World Premium||International
|Rai Ladinia||Regional||Ladin language channel in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol|
|Rai Südtirol||Regional||German language channel in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol|
|Rai 3 BIS FJK||103||Regional||1995||Slovene language channel in Friuli-Venezia Giulia/Furlanija Julijska Krajina|
- Rai Azzurri: UEFA Euro 2004 (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
- Rai Doc: cultures, styles (1 April 2004 — 1 June 2007)
- Rai Extra: generalist (31 July 2003 — 26 November 2010)
- Rai Festival (broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
- Rai Futura: technologies, games, etc. (30 May 2005 — 1 February 2007, broadcast on the same frequences of Rai Doc at settled times)
- Rai HD (22 April 2008 — 18 September 2016)
- Rai Med (26 April 2001 — April 2014)
- Rai Olimpia: 2004 Summer Olympics (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
- Rai Sport 2 (18 May 2010 — 5 February 2017)
- Rai Sport 2 HD (1 August — 19 September 2016, HD version launched for 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games)
- Rai UniNettuno Sat Uno (1998 — April 2014)
- Rai UniNettuno Sat Due (2003 — 1 February 2009)
- Rai Utile (4 January 2004 — 1 January 2008)
- Rai Widescreen: 1998 FIFA World Cup (1998—1999)
- Rai On Cultura (IPTV)
- Rai On Fiction (IPTV)
- Rai On Fiction Live (IPTV)
- Rai On News (IPTV)
- Rai On Ragazzi (IPTV)
- Rai On Spettacolo (IPTV)
- Rai On Sport (IPTV)
- RaiSat 1 (1997—1999)
- RaiSat 2 (1997—1999)
- RaiSat 3/Educational (1997—2000)
- RaiSat Album (1 June 1999 — 30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Art (1999 — 30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Fiction (2000 — 30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (1999 — 31 July 2009)
- RaiSat Ragazzi (1 July 1999 — 31 October 2006)
- RaiSat Show (1 June 1999 — 31 July 2003)
- RaiSat Smash Girls (1 November 2006 — 1 August 2009)
FM, AM, Satellite, DAB/DAB+, DTT, Filodiffusion, Web:
- Rai Radio 1: news and information
- Rai Radio 2: adult contemporary music and conversation
- Rai Radio 3: classical music and culture
- Rai Radio Tutta Italiana: only Italian music
- Rai Radio Classica: classic and opera music
- Rai Radio Techete': featuring items from the radio archives
- Rai Radio Live: live music
- Rai Radio Kids: radiostation for children from 2 to 10 years old
- Rai Gr Parlamento: coverage of proceedings in the Italian Parliament
- Rai Isoradio: for motorway users
- Rai Radio 1 Sport: sport
- Rai Radio 2 Indie: indipendent music
- Rai Südtirol: German-language programmes for the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region
- Rai Radio Trst A: Slovene-language programmes for the Friuli-Venezia Giulia/Furlanija Julijska Krajina region
- RadioStereoDue (1982—1991)
- RadioVerdeRai (1991—1994)
- Rai Italia Radio (1 July 1930 — 31 December 2011)
- Rai Radio 8 Opera (6 August 2015 — 11 June 2017)
On demand serviceEdit
Headquarters and officesEdit
|Seat||Centers of television production||Auditoriums/theatres||Studios|
|Rome||CPTV Via Teulada, 66||9|
|Rome||CP Saxa Rubra||16|
|Rome||CPTV Dear-Nomentano, Via Ettore Romagnoli, 30||6|
|Rome||Teatro delle Vittorie||1 theatre|
|Rome||RAI Auditorium of Foro Italico||1 auditorium|
|Milan||CP Corso Sempione, 27||3 auditoriums||5|
|Milan||CPTV Via Mecenate, 76||4|
|Naples||CP Viale Marconi, 9||1 auditorium||7|
|Turin||CP Via Verdi, 16||1 auditorium||6|
- North-West: Genoa, Saint Christophe
- North-East: Bologna, Bolzano, Trento, Trieste, Venice
- Centre: Ancona, Florence, Perugia, Pescara
- South: Bari, Campobasso, Cosenza, Potenza
- Islands: Cagliari, Palermo
There are RAI offices in foreign countries, which produce news reports that are broadcast live in Italy. These offices are in: Brussels, Paris, Berlin, London, New York City, Beijing, Cairo, Jerusalem, Nairobi, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro.
-  (in English) Retrieved on 13-01-2016
- "Rai.it - Il gruppo Rai". www.rai.it. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
- Originally a distinction was made in Italian between wireless telegraphy (radiofonia) and wireless telephony (radioaudizione circolare). The latter term has now fallen into disuse. La radio in Italia cronologia (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-28
- "Ascolti tv 2013 - Predominio Rai con Rai1 - DavideMaggio.it". DavideMaggio.it. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" Archived 2007-12-27 at Archive.is (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-10
- " DDL Riforma Rai" Archived 2007-12-13 at Archive.is (in Italian) Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10
- The Origins of radio broadcasting in Italy Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International (retrieved 27 November 2011)
- Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 11 of 15 January 1925 pp. 164-167
- retrieved on 2009-06-21 (in Italian)
- "RAI's privatisation is de facto suspended", its new director general, Alfredo Meocci, told a parliamentary watchdog committee.
- "Berlusconi halts plan to sell off state broadcaster". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Il pubblico in fuga da una Rai faziosa". Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- ""Rai faziosa" Brunetta lancia l'osservatorio online". Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Corte dei Conti, alert sul debito della Rai". Repubblica.it. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.