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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people can face violence motivated by hateful attitudes towards their sexuality or gender identity.[1] Violence may be executed by the state, as in laws prescribing corporal punishment for homosexual acts (see homosexuality laws), or by individuals engaging in intimidation, mobbing, assault, or lynching (see gay bashing, trans bashing). Violence targeted at people because of their perceived sexuality can be psychological or physical and can extend to murder. These actions may be motivated by homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and may be influenced by cultural, religious,[2][3][4] or political mores and biases.[5]

Currently, homosexual acts are legal in almost all Western countries, and in many of these countries violence against LGBT people is classified as a hate crime,[6] with such violence often being connected with conservative or religious leaning ideologies which condemn homosexuality,[2][3] or being perpetrated by individuals who associate homosexuality with being weak, ill, feminine, or immoral. Outside the West, many countries, particularly those where the dominant religion is Islam, most African countries (excluding South Africa), most Asian countries (excluding the LGBT-friendly countries of Israel, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines) and some former-Communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, such as Russia, Poland, Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, are currently very dangerous for LGBT people because of discrimination against homosexuals which influences both discriminatory legislation and physical violence.[4]

In Europe, the European Union's Employment Equality Framework Directive and Charter of Fundamental Rights offer some protection against sexuality-based discrimination.

Historically, state-sanctioned persecution of homosexuals was mostly limited to male homosexuality, termed "sodomy". During the medieval and early modern period, the penalty for sodomy was usually death.[citation needed] During the modern period (from the 19th century to the mid-20th century) in the Western world, the penalty was usually a fine or imprisonment.

There was a drop in locations where homosexual acts remained illegal from 2009 when there were 80 countries worldwide (notably throughout the Middle East, Central Asia and in most of Africa, but also in some of the Caribbean and Oceania) with five carrying the death penalty[7] to 2016 when 72 countries criminalized consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex.[8]

Brazil is reported to have the world's highest LGBT murder rate, with more than 380 murders in 2017 alone, an increase of 30% compared to 2016.[9]

Contents

State-sanctioned violenceEdit

HistoricEdit

 
The knight von Hohenburg and his squire, being burned at the stake for sodomy, Zurich 1482 (Zurich Central Library)

The Middle EastEdit

An early law against sexual intercourse between men is recorded in Leviticus by the Hebrew people, prescribing the death penalty. A violent law regarding homosexual intercourse is prescribed in the Middle Assyrian Law Codes (1075 BCE), stating: "If a man lay with his neighbor, when they have prosecuted him (and) convicted him, they shall lie with him (and) turn him into a eunuch".

In the account given in Tacitus Germania, the death penalty was reserved for two kinds of capital offenses: military treason or desertion was punished by hanging, and moral infamy (cowardice and homosexuality: ignavos et imbelles at corpore infames); Gordon translates corpore infames as "unnatural prostitutes"; Tacitus refers to male homosexuality, see David F. Greenberg, The construction of homosexuality, p. 242 f. Scholarship compares the later Germanic concept of Old Norse argr, Langobardic arga, which combines the meanings "effeminate, cowardly, homosexual", see Jaan Puhvel, 'Who were the Hittite hurkilas pesnes?' in: A. Etter (eds.), O-o-pe-ro-si (FS Risch), Walter de Gruyter, 1986, p. 154.

EuropeEdit

 
Execution by fire and torture of five homosexual Franciscan friars, Bruges, 26 July 1578

In Republican Rome, the poorly attested Lex Scantinia penalized an adult male for committing a sex crime (stuprum) against an underage male citizen (ingenuus). It is unclear whether the penalty was death or a fine. The law may also have been used to prosecute adult male citizens who willingly took a pathic role in same-sex acts, but prosecutions are rarely recorded and the provisions of the law are vague; as John Boswell has noted, "if there was a law against homosexual relations, no one in Cicero's day knew anything about it."[10] When the Roman Empire came under Christian rule, all male homosexual activity was increasingly repressed, often on pain of death.[11] In 342 CE, the Christian emperors Constantius and Constans declared same-sex marriage to be illegal.[12] Shortly after, in the year 390 CE, emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be publicly burned alive.[11] Emperor Justinian I (527–565 CE) made homosexuals a scapegoat for problems such as "famines, earthquakes, and pestilences."[13]

Laws and codes prohibiting homosexual practice were in force in Europe from the fourth[11] to the twentieth centuries, and Muslim countries have had similar laws from the beginnings of Islam in the seventh century up to and including the present day. Abbasid Baghdad, under the Caliph Al-Hadi (785–786 CE), punished homosexuality with death.

During the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of France and the City of Florence also instated the death penalty. In Florence, a young boy named Giovanni di Giovanni (1350–1365?) was castrated and burned between the thighs with a red-hot iron by court order under this law.[14][15] These punishments continued into the Renaissance, and spread to the Swiss canton of Zürich. Knight Richard von Hohenberg (died 1482) was burned at the stake together with his lover, his young squire, during this time. In France, French writer Jacques Chausson (1618–1661) was also burned alive for attempting to seduce the son of a nobleman.

In 17th century Malta, there was harsh prejudice and laws towards those who were found guilty or speak openly of being involved in same-sex activity. English voyager and author William Lithgow, writing in March 1616, says a Spanish soldier and a Maltese teenage boy were publicly burnt to ashes for confessing to have practiced sodomy together.[16] As a consequence, and from fear of a similar fate, about a hundred males involved in same-sex prostitution sailed to Sicily the following day. This episode, published abroad by a foreign writer, is the most detailed account of LGBT life during the rule of the Order. It represents that homosexuality was still a taboo, but a widespread practice, an open secret, and LGBT-related information was suppressed.[17]

In England, the Buggery Act of 1534 made sodomy and bestiality punishable by death. This act was replaced in 1828, but sodomy remained punishable by death under the new act until 1861. The last executions were in 1835.

In Nazi Germany, homosexuals were among the groups targeted by the Holocaust (See Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust). (In 1936, the homosexual Federico García Lorca was executed by right-wing rebels who became Franco's dictatorship in Spain, Hitler's ally.) Neo-Nazis generally oppose homosexuality to the extent of supporting a renewed persecution the way it took place in Nazi Germany. Being homosexual is equated with being unmasculine and the German word ″Schwul″ ('gay') is used by German Neonazis as a curse word.[18]

ContemporaryEdit

 
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse legal
  
Marriage1
  
Marriage recognized but not performed1
  
Civil unions, marriage recognized
  
Limited legal recognition
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse illegal
  
Unenforced penalty2
  
Imprisonment
  
Life imprisonment
  
Death penalty
Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
1Some jurisdictions in this category may currently have other types of partnerships. Marriage may not be open to all residents.
2No arrests in the past three years or moratorium on law.

As of August 2016, 72 countries criminalize consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex.[8] They are punishable by death in eight countries:

Countries where homosexual acts are criminalized but not punished by death, by region, include:[21]

Africa

Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria (death penalty in some states), Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia (death penalty in some states), South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Asia

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Kuwait, Malaysia, Aceh, Maldives, Oman, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Gaza Strip under Palestinian Authority

America

Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Pacific Islands

Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Cook Islands[22]

Afghanistan, where such acts remain punishable with fines and a prison sentence, dropped the death penalty after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, who had mandated it from 1996. India criminalized homosexuality until June 2, 2009, when the High Court of Delhi declared section 377 of the Indian Penal Code invalid.[22]

Jamaica has some of the toughest sodomy laws in the world, with homosexual activity carrying a 10-year jail sentence.[23][23][24][25]

International human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime.[26][27] Since 1994, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has also ruled that such laws violated the right to privacy guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.[28][29][30]

LGBT rights by staticsEdit

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Total
  29 entities (45.31%)   47 entities (83.93%)   38 entities (65.52%)   62 entities (100.00%)   19 entities (73.08%)   194 entities (72.93%)
  35 entities (54.69%)   9 entities (16.07%)   20 entities (34.48%)   0 entities (0.00%)   7 entities (26.92%)   72 entities (27.07%)
64 entities (100.00%) 56 entities (100.00%) 58 entities (100.00%) 62 entities (100.00%) 26 entities (100.00%) 266 entities (100.00%)

LGBT rights by country or territoryEdit

By populationEdit

IllegalEdit

Position Country Continent Population
1   Pakistan Asia 212 742 631
2   Nigeria Africa 197 397 783
3   Bangladesh Asia 165 126 000
4   Ethiopia Africa 107 534 882
5   Egypt 97 496 600
6   Iran Asia 81 756 900
7   Tanzania Africa 55 572 201
8   Myanmar Asia 53 862 731
9   Kenya Africa 50 950 879
10   Algeria 42 545 964
11   Uganda 41 487 965
12   Sudan 40 797 005
13   Morocco 35 740 000
14   Afghanistan Asia 34 656 032
15   Saudi Arabia 33 413 660
16   Uzbekistan 32 979 000
17   Malaysia 32 655 700
18   Ghana Africa 29 614 337
19   Yemen Asia 28 915 284
20   Cameroon Africa 23 794 164
21   Syria Asia 18 284 407
22   Malawi Africa 18 091 575
23   Zambia 16 887 720
24   Zimbabwe 16 150 362
25   Senegal 15 726 037
26   Chad 15 353 184
27   Guinea 12 395 924
28   South Sudan 12 323 419
29   Tunisia 11 446 300
30   Burundi 10 681 186
31   United Arab Emirates Asia 9 541 615
32   Papua New Guinea Oceania 8 558 800
33   Togo Africa 7 965 055
34   Sierra Leone 7 719 729
35   Libya 6 653 210
36   Lebanon Asia 6 093 509
37   Turkmenistan 5 851 466
38   Singapore 5 612 300
39   Eritrea Africa 5 187 948
40   Oman Asia 5 011 022
41   Liberia Africa 4 503 000
42   Mauritania 4 301 018
43   Kuwait Asia 4 226 920
44   Jamaica Americas 2 890 299
45   Qatar Asia 2 641 669
46   Namibia Africa 2 606 971
48   Gambia 2 163 765
49   Eswatini (Swaziland) 1 343 098
50   Mauritius 1 264 887
51   Comoros 850 688
52   Bhutan Asia 797 765
53   Guyana Americas 782 225
54   Solomon Islands Oceania 667 044
55   Maldives Asia 427.756
56   Brunei 422 678
57   Barbados Americas 286 388
58   Samoa Oceania 199 052
59   Saint Lucia Americas 178 844
60   Kiribati Oceania 120 100
61   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas 109 643
62   Grenada 107 317
63   Antigua and Barbuda 100 963
64   Tonga Oceania 100 651
65   Dominica Americas 73 543
66   Saint Kitts and Nevis 54 821
67   Tuvalu Oceania 11 192
68   Cook Islands
69   Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Africa
70   Somalia Africa
71   Somaliland Africa

LegalEdit

By percentageEdit

AFRICA (64)
Northern Africa (12)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Canary Islands (Autonomous community of Spain)

    Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain)

    Madeira (Autonomous region of Portugal)

    Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain)

4 33.33     Algeria

    Egypt

    Libya

    Morocco (including Southern Provinces)

    Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Disputed territory; excluding Southern Provinces)

    South Sudan

    Sudan

    Tunisia

8 66.66
Western Africa (16)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Benin

   Burkina Faso

   Cape Verde

   Guinea-Bissau

   Ivory Coast

   Mali

   Niger

7 43.75     Gambia

    Ghana

    Guinea

    Liberia

    Mauritania

    Nigeria

    Senegal

    Sierra Leone

    Togo

9 56.25
Central Africa (9)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
   Central African Republic

    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Equatorial Guinea

    Gabon

    Republic of the Congo

    Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    São Tomé and Príncipe

7 77.78     Cameroon

    Chad

2 22.22
Southeast Africa (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Rwanda 1 20.00     Burundi

    Kenya

    Tanzania

    Uganda

4 80.00
Horn of Africa (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Djibouti 1 20.00     Eritrea

    Ethiopia

    Somalia

    Somaliland (Disputed territory)

4 80.00
Indian Ocean States (7)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Overseas territory of France)

    Madagascar

    Mayotte (Overseas region of France)

    Réunion (Overseas region of France)

    Seychelles

5 71.43     Comoros

    Mauritius

2 28.57
Southern Africa (10)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Angola

    Botswana

    Lesotho

    Mozambique

    South Africa

5 50.00     Eswatini (Swaziland)

    Malawi

    Namibia

    Zambia

    Zimbabwe

5 50.00
Total 30 45.31 Total 34 54.69
AMERICAS (56)
North America (6)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Bermuda (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Canada

    Greenland (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)

    Mexico

    Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Overseas collectivity of France)

    United States

6 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Central America (7)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Belize

    Costa Rica

    El Salvador

    Guatemala

    Honduras

    Nicaragua

    Panama

7 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Caribbean (28)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Anguilla (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Aruba (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

    Bahamas

    British Virgin Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius; special municipalities of the Netherlands)

    Cayman Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Cuba

    Curaçao (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

    Dominican Republic

    Guadeloupe (Overseas department of France)

    Haiti

    Martinique (Overseas department of France)

    Montserrat (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Puerto Rico (Commonwealth of the United States)

    Saint Barthélemy (Overseas collectivity of France)

    Saint Martin (Overseas collectivity of France)

    Sint Maarten (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

    Trinidad and Tobago

    Turks and Caicos Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    United States Virgin Islands (Territory of the United States)

20 71.43     Antigua and Barbuda

    Barbados

    Dominica

    Grenada

    Jamaica

    Saint Kitts and Nevis

    Saint Lucia

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

8 28.57
South America (15)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Argentina

    Bolivia

    Brazil

    Chile

    Colombia

    Ecuador

    Falkland Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    French Guiana (Overseas department of France)

    Paraguay

    Peru

    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Suriname

    Uruguay

    Venezuela

14 93.33     Guyana 1 6.67
Total 47 83.93 Total 9 16.07
ASIA (58)
Central Asia (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Kyrgyzstan

    Tajikistan

2 40.00     Afghanistan

    Turkmenistan

    Uzbekistan

3 60.00
Eurasia (12)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Abkhazia (Disputed territory)

    Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Armenia

    Artsakh (Disputed territory)

    Azerbaijan

    Cyprus

    Georgia

    Kazakhstan

    Northern Cyprus (Disputed territory)

    Russia

    South Ossetia (Disputed territory)

    Turkey

12 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
West Asia (14)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Bahrain

    Iraq

    Israel

    Jordan

    Palestine (Disputed territory)

5 35.71     Iran

    Kuwait

    Lebanon

    Oman

    Qatar

    Saudi Arabia

    Syria

    United Arab Emirates

    Yemen

9 64.29
South Asia (8)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    British Indian Ocean Territory (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    India

      Nepal

 *   Sri Lanka

4 50.00     Bangladesh

    Bhutan

    Maldives

    Pakistan

4 50.00
East Asia (8)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    China

    Hong Kong (Special administrative region of China)

    Japan

    Macau (Special administrative region of China)

    Mongolia

    North Korea

    South Korea

    Taiwan

8 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Southeast Asia (11)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Cambodia

    East Timor

    Indonesia

    Laos

    Philippines

    Thailand

    Vietnam

7 63.64     Brunei

   Malaysia

   Myanmar

   Singapore

4 36.36
Total 38 65.52 Total 20 34.48
EUROPE (62)
European Union
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    European Union (Legal in all 28 member states) 28 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Central Europe (10)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Austria

    Croatia

    Czech Republic

    Germany

    Hungary

    Liechtenstein

    Poland

    Slovakia

    Slovenia

     Switzerland

10 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Eastern Europe (13)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Abkhazia (Disputed territory)

    Armenia

    Artsakh (Disputed territory)

    Azerbaijan

    Belarus

    Georgia

    Kazakhstan

    Moldova

    Romania

    Russia

    South Ossetia (Disputed territory)

    Transnistria (Disputed territory)

    Ukraine

13 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Northern Europe (9)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Denmark

    Estonia

    Faroe Islands (Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)

    Finland (includes Åland Islands)

    Iceland

    Latvia

    Lithuania

    Norway

    Sweden

9 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Southern Europe (20)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Albania

    Andorra

    Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Bulgaria

    Cyprus

    Gibraltar (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Greece

    Italyma

    Kosovo (Disputed territory)

    North Macedonia

    Malta

    Montenegro

    Northern Cyprus (Disputed territory)

    Portugal

    San Marino

    Serbia

    Spain

    Turkey

     Vatican City

20 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Western Europe (10)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Belgium

    France

    Guernsey (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)

    Ireland

    Isle of Man (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)

    Jersey (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)

    Luxembourg

    Monaco

    Netherlands

    United Kingdom

10 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Total 62 100.00 Total 0 0.00
OCEANIA (26)
Australasia (2)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Australia (including territories of   Christmas Island,   Cocos (Keeling) Islands and   Norfolk Island)

    New Zealand

2 100.00 Neither 0 0.00
Melanesia (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Fiji

    New Caledonia (Special collectivity of France)

    Vanuatu

3 60.00    Papua New Guinea

   Solomon Islands

2 40.00
Micronesia (8)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    Guam (Unincorporated territory of the United States)

    Micronesia

    Marshall Islands

    Nauru

    Northern Mariana Islands (Unincorporated territory of the United States)

    Palau

    United States Minor Outlying Islands (Unincorporated territories of the United States)

7 87.50    Kiribati 1 12.50
Polynesia (11)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
    American Samoa (Unincorporated territory of the United States)

    Easter Island (Special territory of Chile)

    French Polynesia (Overseas collectivity of France)

    Niue (Part of the Realm of New Zealand)

    Pitcairn Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

    Tokelau (Part of the Realm of New Zealand)

    Wallis and Futuna (Overseas collectivity of France)

7 63.64    Cook Islands (Part of the Realm of New Zealand)

   Samoa

   Tonga

   Tuvalu

4 36.36
Total 19 73.08 Total 7 26.92

Level of criminalizationEdit

Worldwide, As of June 2019, homosexuality is illegal in 67 or 68 countries[31] (if Palestine is included, where homosexuality is illegal in Gaza but legal in West Bank), 2 disputed territories (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Somaliland) and 1 territory (Cook Islands) by a total of 71 or 72. However, all the countries and territories in The Americas and Oceania where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending, the same situation repeat itself in few countries in Asia and Africa:

AfricaEdit

In Africa, homosexuality is illegal in 32 of 54 countries (Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros. Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Eswatini (Swaziland), Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in 2 disputed territories (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Somaliland) by a total of 35. However, is legal in 22 countries, in all 8 territories and in a few countries of Africa where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

LGBT rights in: Region Same-sex sexual activity
Unenforced penalty (9 countries)
  Algeria Northern Africa   Illegal since 1966

Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment (Not enforced).

  Burundi Southeast Africa   Illegal since 2009

Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment (Not enforced).

  Comoros Indian Ocean States   Illegal since 1982

Penalty: 5 years imprisonment and fines (Not enforced).

  Eritrea Horn of Africa   Illegal since 1957 (as part of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea)

Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment (Not enforced).

  Ghana Western Africa   Male illegal since 1860s (as the Gold Coast)

Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Mauritius Indian Ocean States   Male illegal since 1838 (as part of British Mauritius)

Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female always legal + UN decl. sign.

  Namibia Southern Africa   Male illegal since 1920 (as part of South-West Africa) (Not enforced)

  Female always legal

  Sierra Leone Western Africa   Male illegal since 1861 (as the Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate)

Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female always legal + UN decl. sign.

  Togo Western Africa   Illegal since 1884 (as Togoland)

Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment (Not enforced).

Imprisonment (17 countries and 2 disputed territories)
  Cameroon Central Africa   Illegal since 1972

Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.

  Chad Central Africa   Illegal since 2017

Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.

  Egypt Northern Africa  /  Male de jure legal, but de facto illegal since 2000

Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without fines under broadly-written morality laws.   Female uncertain.

  Ethiopia Horn of Africa   Illegal

Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more.

  Guinea Western Africa   Illegal since 1988

Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.

  Kenya Southeast Africa   Illegal since 1897 (as the East Africa Protectorate)

Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.

  Liberia Western Africa   Illegal since 1976

Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.

  Libya Northern Africa   Illegal since 1953
  Malawi Southern Africa   Illegal since 1891 (as part of the Shire Highlands Protectorate and the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate)

Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment and whippings (Law suspended from usage since 2012).

  Morocco (including Southern Provinces) Northern Africa   Illegal since 1962

Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.

  Nigeria Western Africa   Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and the Southern Nigeria Protectorate)

Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment.   Death in the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara.

  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Disputed territory; excluding Southern Provinces) Northern Africa   Illegal since 1944 (as part of the Overseas Province of Spanish Sahara)

Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.

  Senegal Western Africa   Illegal since 1966

Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.

  Somalia Horn of Africa     Illegal since 1962

Penalty: Up to death (no known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity).

  Somaliland (Disputed territory) Horn of Africa     Illegal

Penalty: Up to death (no known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity).

  South Sudan Northern Africa   Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)

Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.

  Eswatini (Swaziland) Southern Africa   Male illegal since the 1880s

  Female always legal

  Tunisia Northern Africa   Illegal since 1913 (as the French protectorate of Tunisia) Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.

Legalization proposed

  Zimbabwe Southern Africa   Male illegal since 1891 (as part of the British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)

  Female legal

Up to life imprisonment (4 countries)
  Gambia Western Africa   Illegal since 1888 (as the Gambia Colony and Protectorate)

Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.

  Tanzania Southeast Africa   Illegal since 1864 (only Zanzibar)

Illegal since 1899 Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.

  Uganda Southeast Africa   Male illegal since 1894

Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.   Female uncertain

  Zambia Southern Africa   Illegal since 1911 (as part of the British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)

Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.

Death penalty (2 countries)
  Mauritania Western Africa     Illegal since 1983

Penalty: Death by stoning.

  Sudan Northern Africa     Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)

Penalty: Death penalty on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.

The AmericasEdit

In The Americas, homosexuality is illegal in 9 of 35 countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) by a total of 9. However is legal 26 countries, in all 21 territories, and in all the countries in The Americas where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

LGBT rights in: Region Same-sex sexual activity
Unenforced penalty (9 countries)
  Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean   Illegal

Penalty: 15-year prison sentence (Not enforced).

  Barbados Caribbean   Illegal

Penalty: Life imprisonment (Not enforced). Legalization proposed

  Dominica Caribbean   Illegal

Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution (Not enforced). + UN decl. sign.

  Grenada Caribbean   Male illegal

Penalty: 10-year prison sentence (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Guyana South America   Illegal

Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced).

  Jamaica Caribbean   Male illegal

Penalty: 10 years hard labor (Not enforced).   Female always legal.

  Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean   Male illegal

Penalty: 10 years (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Saint Lucia Caribbean   Male illegal

Penalty: Fine and/or 10-year prison sentence (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean   Illegal

Penalty: Fine and/or 10-year prison sentence (Not enforced).

AsiaEdit

In Asia, homosexuality is illegal in 20 of 50 countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen) by a total of 20. However is legal in 29 countries, in all 4 territories, and in a few countries of Asia where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

LGBT rights in: Region Same-sex sexual activity
Unenforced penalty (5 countries)
  Bhutan South Asia   Illegal

Penalty: Prison sentence up to 1 year (Not enforced). Legalization pending.

  Lebanon West Asia   Illegal under Article 534 of the Penal Code (Not enforced). Some judges have ruled not to prosecute individuals based on the law, however, this has not been settled by the Supreme Court and thus homosexuality is still illegal.

Legalization pending.

  Myanmar Southeast Asia   Illegal

Penalty: Up to life sentence (Not enforced).

  Pakistan South Asia   Illegal

Penalty: 2 years to life sentence (Not enforced).

  Singapore Southeast Asia   Male illegal

Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence (Not enforced since 1999).   Female legal since 2007

Imprisonment (11 countries)
  Afghanistan Central Asia     Illegal

Penalty: Long imprisonment or death penalty (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity after the end of Taliban rule).

  Brunei Southeast Asia     Illegal

Penalty: Fines and imprisonment up to 10 years or death by stoning (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity).

  Kuwait West Asia   Male illegal

Penalty: Fines or up to 6-year prison sentence.   Female always legal

  Malaysia Southeast Asia   Illegal

Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2–20 years), or whippings.

  Maldives South Asia   Illegal

Penalty: For men, the punishment is banishment for nine months to one year or a whipping of 10 to 30 strokes. For women, it is house arrest for nine months to one year.

  Oman West Asia   Illegal

Penalty: Fines and prison sentence up to 3 years (Only enforced when dealing with "public scandal").

  Qatar West Asia     Illegal

Penalty: Fines, up to 7 years imprisonment, or death penalty (Not enforced).

  Syria West Asia   Illegal

Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment (Law de facto suspended)

  Turkmenistan Central Asia   Male illegal

Penalty: up to 2 years imprisonment.   Female always legal

  United Arab Emirates West Asia     Illegal under federal law

Penalty: deportation, fines, prison sentences or death penalty (Not enforced). Illegal in the emirate of Dubai

Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment. Illegal in the emirate of Abu Dhabi Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.

  Uzbekistan Central Asia   Male illegal

Penalty: up to 3 years imprisonment.   Female always legal

Up to life imprisonment (1 country)
  Bangladesh South Asia   Illegal

Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment.

Death penalty (3 countries)
  Iran West Asia     Illegal

Penalty: 74 lashes for immature men and death penalty for mature men (although there are recorded cases of minors who were executed because of their sexual orientation). For women, 50 lashes for women of mature sound mind and if consenting. Death penalty offense after fourth conviction.

  Saudi Arabia West Asia     Illegal

Penalty: Prison sentences of several months to life, fines and/or whipping/flogging, castration, torture or death can be sentenced on first conviction. A second conviction merits execution.

  Yemen West Asia     Illegal

Penalty: Unmarried men punished with 100 lashes of the whip or a maximum of one year of imprisonment, married men with death by stoning. Women punished up to three years of imprisonment; where the offense has been committed under duress, the punishment is up to seven years detention.

OceaniaEdit

In Oceania, homosexuality is illegal in 6 of 14 countries (Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu) and in 1 of 12 territories (Cook Islands) by a total of 7. However, it is legal in 8 countries, in 11 territories and in all the countries and territories in Oceania where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

LGBT rights in: Region Same-sex sexual activity
Unenforced penalty (6 countries and 1 territory)
  Cook Islands (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Polynesia   Male illegal

Penalty: 5–14 years imprisonment (Not enforced). Legalization pending   Female legal + UN decl. sign.

  Kiribati Micronesia   Male illegal

Penalty: 5–14 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female legal

  Papua New Guinea Melanesia   Male illegal

Penalty: 3 to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Samoa Polynesia   Male illegal

Penalty: 5–7 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female always legal + UN decl. sign.

  Solomon Islands Melanesia   Illegal

Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced).

  Tonga Polynesia   Male illegal

Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female always legal

  Tuvalu Polynesia   Male illegal

Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced).   Female legal + UN decl. sign.

LegalEdit

Worldwide, as of June 2019, homosexuality is legal in 136 of 193 countries (in the UN), in 7 of 9 disputed territories (with the exceptions of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Somaliland) and in 50 of 51 territories (with the exception of the Cook Islands) by a total of 193. However, in various countries where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

AfricaEdit

In Africa, as of June 2019, homosexuality is legal in 22 of 54 countries (Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles and South Africa) and in all 8 territories (Canary Islands, Ceuta, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Madeira, Mayotte, Melilla, Réunion and Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha) by a total of 29. However, in a few countries in Africa where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

Northern Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Canary Islands (Autonomous community of Spain)   Legal since 1979

+ UN decl. sign.

  Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain)   Legal since 1979

+ UN decl. sign.

  Madeira (Autonomous region of Portugal)   Legal since 1983

+ UN decl. sign.

  Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain)   Legal since 1979

+ UN decl. sign.

Western Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Benin   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country);

Age of consent discrepancy

  Burkina Faso   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
  Cape Verde   Legal since 2004

+ UN decl. sign.

  Guinea-Bissau   Legal since 1993

+ UN decl. sign.

  Ivory Coast   Legal since 1993

+ UN decl. sign.

  Mali   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
  Niger   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country);

Age of consent discrepancy

Central Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Central African Republic   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)

+ UN decl. sign.

  Democratic Republic of the Congo   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
  Equatorial Guinea   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
  Gabon   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)

+ UN decl. sign.

  Republic of the Congo   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country);

Age of consent discrepancy

  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)   Legal since 2001

+ UN decl. sign.

  São Tomé and Príncipe   Legal since 2012

+ UN decl. sign.

Southeast Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Rwanda   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)

+ UN decl. sign.

Horn of Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Djibouti   Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
Indian Ocean states
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Overseas territory of France)   Legal

(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the territory)

  Madagascar   Legal

(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country); Age of consent discrepancy

  Mayotte (Overseas region of France)   Legal

(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the region)

  Réunion (Overseas region of France)   Legal since 1791
  Seychelles   Legal since 2016

+ UN decl. sign.

Southern Africa
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Angola   Legal since 2019
  Botswana   Legal since 2019
  Lesotho   Male legal since 2012

Female always legal

  Mozambique   Legal since 2015
  South Africa   Male legal since 1998

Female always legal + UN decl. sign.

The AmericasEdit

In The Americas, as of September 2018, homosexuality is legal in 26 of 35 countries (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela) and in all 21 territories (Anguilla, Aruba, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius), Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Greenland, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sint Maarten, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands and United States Virgin Islands) by a total of 47. However, in all countries in The Americas where homosexuality is illegal the penalty is not enforced de facto and in some cases the legalization has been proposed or is pending.

North America
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Bermuda (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)   Legal since 1994;

Age of consent discrepancy + UN decl. sign.

  Canada   Legal since 1969

+ UN decl. sign.

  Greenland (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)   Legal since 1933

+ UN decl. sign.

  Mexico   Legal since 1871

+ UN decl. sign.

  Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Overseas collectivity of France)   Legal since 1791

+ UN decl. sign.

  United States   Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003
Central America
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity
  Belize   Legal since 2016
  Costa Rica   Legal since 1971

+ UN decl. sign

  El Salvador   Legal since the 1822

+ UN decl. sign.

  Guatemala   Legal since 1871

+ UN decl. sign.

  Honduras   Legal since 1899

+ UN decl. sign.

  Nicaragua   Legal since 2008

+ UN decl. sign.

  Panama   Legal since 2008

+ UN decl. sign.

Caribbean
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity