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Hrvatska radiotelevizija (abbr. HRT), or Croatian Radiotelevision, is Croatia's public broadcasting company. It operates several radio and television channels, over a domestic transmitter network as well as satellite. HRT is divided into three joint companies – Croatian Radio (Hrvatski radio), Croatian Television (Hrvatska televizija) and Music Production (Glazbena proizvodnja), which includes three orchestras (Symphony, Jazz and Tamburitza) and a choir.
|Type||Terrestrial radio, television and online|
|Availability||National; International (via HRT International and hrt.hr)|
|Founded||15 May 1926|
|Revenue|| HRK1.397 billion|
(c. €188 million) (2014)
|Headquarters||Prisavlje ulica 3, 10000 Zagreb|
|Owner||Government of Croatia|
|15 May 1926 (Radio)|
15 May 1956 (Television)
|Radio Televizija Zagreb (1956–1990)|
|Affiliation(s)||European Broadcasting Union|
|Yugoslav Radio Television|
The founder of HRT is the Republic of Croatia which exercises its founder's rights through the Croatian Government. Croatian Radio (then Radio Zagreb) was founded on 15 May 1926. This date is considered the date on which HRT was founded. Television Zagreb (today Croatian Television) began broadcasting on 7 September 1956. By the law enacted by the Croatian Parliament on 29 June 1990, Radio Television Zagreb was renamed to Croatian Radiotelevision.
HRT operates as a provider of public broadcasting services, and Croatia provides independent funding in accordance with the Croatian Broadcasting Company Law and the State Aid Rules for Public Broadcasting Services. In carrying out its activities, HRT is independent of any political influence and commercial interest.
On 25 May 2012, HRT's archive of the television and radio program and its collection of musical production were given the status of Croatian cultural heritage.
Croatian Radiotelevision is the direct successor of Radio Station Zagreb (Radio stanica Zagreb) that started broadcasting on 15 May 1926, the first radio station to broadcast in the Balkans. The station was initially a private company, before Radio Zagreb was nationalized on 1 May 1940. During the Independent State of Croatia, the station was known as Hrvatski krugoval. After World War II, it began to operate as a state-owned radio station.
At the end of the first year of operation, Radio Zagreb company had a little over four thousand subscribers.
On the 30th anniversary of the establishment of Zagreb Radio Station, on 15 May 1956, the first television programme was broadcast from the transmitter built at Sljeme. Television Zagreb's first live broadcast aired on 7 September 1956. For the next two years this was the only television broadcasting service in the southeast European area. This was the first TV station in Yugoslavia and would later become a color station in 1972.
In May 1990, following Franjo Tuđman's election victory, he and his ruling Croatian Democratic Union party began a takeover of radio and television stations. In June 1990, the Croatian Parliament renamed the company from Radio Television Zagreb (Croatian: Radiotelevizija Zagreb) to Croatian Radiotelevision (Croatian: Hrvatska radiotelevizija). The HDZ-majority Croatian Parliament soon appointed party loyalists to top managerial and editorial positions on the broadcaster.
The film director Antun Vrdoljak, a Tuđman appointee who was tasked with overseeing the changes, pledged to make HRT into the "cathedral of the Croatian spirit". On 16 September 1991, 300 employees at HRT were fired for "security reasons". According to Miljenko Jergović, formerly of the Croatian independent Feral Tribune, there were three waves of purges at HRT at this time: removal of Serb journalists; removal of "independent-minded, respected and thus dangerous" journalists; and slowly, the removal of those who did not support ultranationalism any longer.
On 1 January 1993, HRT was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU).
The television channels were aired under the name Croatian Television (Croatian: Hrvatska televizija) between 1990 and 1993. Since then, the current name has been used. The radio broadcast unit is referred to as Croatian Radio (Croatian: Hrvatski radio).
Following Tuđman's death and the 2000 election in Croatia which brought Stjepan Mesić to power, attempts at reforming HRT into a more open media were made.
In 2014, more than 85% of HRT's revenue came from broadcast user fees with each household in Croatia required to pay 79 HRK (~€10) per month for a single television set, with the remainder being made up from limited advertising.
- HRT 1 (or Prvi program): HRT's first TV channel, previously known as TVZ 1. This is a general channel with daily news around the world, documentaries, religious programmes, series and movies.
- HRT 2 (or Drugi program): HRT's second channel, previously known as TVZ 2. It is primarily used for sports broadcasts and entertainment programmes. The channel is known for its extensive footage of vintage films. It also broadcasts educational programmes.
- HRT 3 (or Treći program): HRT's third channel, primarily used for culture, films and documentaries. It launched in September 2012.
- HRT 4 (or Četvrti program): HRT's fourth channel, broadcasting news programmes, started airing in December 2012.
- HRT International, formerly HRT 5 (or Peti program): HRT's fifth and international channel, broadcasting a wide range of programmes from its domestic channels for the Croatian diasporas in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand.
In the 1980s, there was a third channel called Z3 and later HTV Z3. It was taken off-air on 16 September 1991 when its main transmitter, the Sljeme TV tower, was damaged in an air raid. On 7 November 1994, the channel came back on the air, this time called HRT 3. The channel was later shut down with its frequency de-nationalized and put up for lease in a public tender in 2004 and it has been used by RTL Televizija ever since.
Regional TV channelsEdit
- HRT Čakovec-Varaždin (HRT regionalni centar Čakovec-Varaždin)
- HRT Osijek (HRT regionalni centar Osijek)
- HRT Rijeka-Pula (HRT regionalni centar Rijeka-Pula)
- HRT Split-Dubrovnik (HRT regionalni centar Split-Dubrovnik)
- HRT Zadar-Šibenik-Knin (HRT regionalni centar Zadar-Šibenik-Knin)
- Dnevnik HRT ("Daily News"), popular midday, evening and midnight news program
- Dobro jutro, Hrvatska ("Good Morning, Croatia"), mosaic morning show from 7:00 to 9:00 am
- Dobar dan, Hrvatska ("Good Afternoon, Croatia"), mosaic afternoon show
- Nedjeljom u dva ("Sundays at Two O'Clock"), weekly talk show
- Transfer ("Transfer"), show about the alternative culture and arts (visual arts, music and web culture)
- TV kalendar ("TV Calendar"), long-running daily historical documentary television series, narrating about historical events, birth/death of people or their discoveries on the same date
- Tko želi biti milijunaš? ("Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?"), quiz show
- Zvijezde pjevaju ("Just the Two of Us"), big Saturday singing show
- Lijepom Našom ("Our Beautiful"), a show focused on Croatian cultural heritage
- Otvoreno ("Openly"), daily political talk-show
- Dan za danom ("Day After Day"), mosaic afternoon show
- Kviskoteka (quiz show), hosted by Oliver Mlakar, aired in the 1980s and 1990s, later briefly aired on Nova TV
- Male tajne velikih majstora kuhinje ("Small Secrets of Big Chefs") (cooking show), aired in the 1980s
- Motrišta ("Points of View") (political informative magazine), aired in the 1990s
- The Pyramid, weekly show hosted by Željka Ogresta, winner of Rose d'Or, aired 2004–2008; 2014
- Slika na sliku ("Frame On Frame") (political magazine), aired in the 1990s
- Upitnik ("Question Mark") (quiz show), hosted by Joško Lokas, aired in the 2000s, later briefly aired on Nova TV, taken off-air in 2004
- Turbo Limač Show (kids' Saturday show), hosted by Siniša Cmrk
- Željka Ogresta i gosti ("Željka Ogresta and Guests") (talk show), aired in the start of the 1990s and in the start of the 2000s
- Ples sa zvijezdama ("Dancing with the Stars"), Saturday dancing show
- Big Saturday Live, Saturday night show
- Dancing on Ice
- Friends, children's Sunday program
- School work, educational school morning magazine
- Sunday Afternoon
- Talks with Coffee, talk show
- Pinkalicious & Peterrific, children’s Monday-Thursday program
- Clifford the Big Red Dog, children Sunday program
The Croatian Radio (Hrvatski radio) runs three national and eight local (county-level) stations.
The three national stations are available on FM, DAB+, throughout the country and are streamed live via the Internet.
- HR 1 – The primary national-level station, mainly serious programming. News every full hour with oldies and local pop music.
- HR 2 – Entertainment programming including popular music, with news followed by traffic reports at the half-hour mark
- HR 3 – Classical music and radio drama
- HR Dubrovnik – based in Dubrovnik, covers the Dubrovnik-Neretva County
- HR Knin – based in Knin, covers the Šibenik-Knin County
- HR Osijek – based in Osijek, covers the Osijek-Baranja County
- HR Pula – based in Pula, covers the Istria County
- HR Rijeka – based in Rijeka, covers the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County
- HR Sljeme – based in Zagreb, covers the city and the counties of the Northern Croatia
- HR Split – based in Split, covers the Split-Dalmatia County
- HR Zadar – based in Zadar, covers the Zadar County
The mediumwave transmitter at Zadar was at one time one of the most powerful in Europe and at nighttime could be heard throughout most of the continent with JRT (Yugoslav) and later HR (Croatian) programming from Zagreb and Pula. However it was badly damaged during the Serbian shelling of the city in the early 1990s, and has operated on somewhat reduced power since on 1134 kHz. Transmitter was rebuilt in 2004. It consists of 4 masts, every is 132 meters high. It was taken off the air on 1 January 2014.
- Voice of Croatia (Glas Hrvatske): Airs programming for Croatians living abroad, Croatia's minority groups and the international community. While mostly in Croatian, the station also features short news and segments in English, German, Italian, Hungarian, and Spanish at different times of the day.
The Voice of Croatia broadcasts 24 hours a day via the following satellites; in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East on the Eutelsat 13C at 13°E and Eutelsat 16A at 16 degrees east for Central and East Europe.
- ^ a b "Izvješće o poslovanju HRT-a za 2014. godinu" (PDF). Croatian Radiotelevision. 29 July 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- ^ a b "The Evolution of Croatian Radio and Television". 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
- ^ Malović, Stjepan; Selnow, Gary W. (2001). The People, Press, and Politics of Croatia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 55. ISBN 9780275965433.
- ^ Lisičar, Hrvoje; Turudić, Marko (2019). Media Law in Croatia. Kluwer Law International B.V. ISBN 9789403507828.
- ^ Kurspahić 2003, p. 66.
- ^ a b c d Kurspahić 2003, p. 67.
- ^ Kurspahić 2003, pp. 185–188.
- ^ Circom-regional.org Archived 9 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Funding Arrangements
- ^ "Novi program HRT 3 s emitiranjem počinje u subotu 15. rujna 2012". mvinfo.hr. 14 September 2012.
- ^ "Na Badnjak kreće HRT 4". www.057info.hr. 19 December 2012.
- ^ "How to Access New TV Channel for Croatians Abroad". croatiaweek.com. 14 January 2018.
- ^ List of radio programme content providers Archived 2018-11-08 at the Wayback Machine, Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency, retrieved 2011-10-25
- ^ "Navršava se 25 godina od napada na važni odašiljač Grbe". 15 September 2016.
- ^ 2020. Odašiljači i veze d.o.o. (ed.). "Eutelsat 16A" (in Croatian). Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- ^ LyngSat Network (ed.). "Glas Hrvatske". lyngsat.com. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
- Kurspahić, Kemal (2003). Prime Time Crime: Balkan Media in War and Peace. U.S. Institute of Peace Press. ISBN 978-1-929-22338-1.
- Official website (in Croatian)
- Zakon o Hrvatskoj radioteleviziji (in Croatian) (Croatian Radiotelevision Act)
Coordinates: 45°47′35″N 15°58′29″E / 45.79306°N 15.97472°E