Telewizja Polska S.A. (pronounced [tɛlɛˈvizja ˈpɔlska]; TVP), also known in English as Polish Television, is a state media corporation in Poland, founded in 1952. It is the oldest and largest Polish television network, although viewership has been declining in the 2010s.
|Motto||Bądźmy razem. TVP (Let's be together. TVP)|
|Headquarters||17 Woronicza Street, Warsaw, Poland|
|Owner||Government of Poland|
(Deputy Managing Director)
|25 October 1952|
|None; previously shortened as TP until 1992|
Since 1993, the legal status of the broadcaster has been defined by the Broadcasting Act, according to which Telewizja Polska is obliged to implement "a public mission ... by offering ... various programmes and other services in the field of information, journalism, culture, entertainment, education and sport, characterized by pluralism, impartiality, balance and independence as well as innovation, high quality and integrity of the message." Since 2016, TVP has been described by critics as providing one-sided favorable coverage of the ruling Law and Justice party.
Timeline of Polish TV serviceEdit
- 1935: The PIT (Państwowy Instytut Telekomunikacyjny - National Telecommunications Institute) starts working together with Polish Radio on establishing the first television service.
- 1937: Completion of the first black-and-white broadcasting station.
- 1938: Experimental channel launched, regular programming scheduled for 1941.
- 1939: All equipment destroyed by the German Army.
- 1947: PIT resumes work on television broadcasting.
- 1951: First Polish telecast after the Second World War.
- 1952: Beginning of regular programming.
- 1957: Broadcast of the first sports event; a boxing match Skra Warsaw – Gwardia Łódź
- 1958: Newscast Dziennik Telewizyjny ("Journal") was founded.
- 1970: TVP2 was founded.
- 1971: Start of colour broadcasting (in SECAM).
- 1989: Introduction of a teletext service.
- 1989: Dziennik Telewizyjny was replaced by Wiadomości ("News").
- 1992: Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna comes into existence upon the separation of television and radio public broadcasting by an act of parliament.
- 1992: TVP Polonia starts test transmissions.
- 1993: Polskie Radio i Telewizja (Polish Radio and Television) joins the European Broadcasting Union as an active member (regrouping of OIRT and UER).
- 1994: Beginning of the change over from SECAM to PAL for all channels except TVP1.
- 1995: Change over from SECAM to PAL was completed as TVP1 moved to this colour standard.
- 2003: Change of TVP logotype.
- 2009: New main headquarters building opened in Warsaw.
- 2013: Analogue terrestrial television was switched-off.
- 2020: TVP eSzkoła, TVP Kultura 2 and TVP Dokument were founded.
- 2021: TVP Kobieta was founded.
- 2022: TVP ABC 2 was founded, replacing TVP eSzkoła.
In 2012, TVP signed an agreement with the BBC, under which they will work together on film and television productions.[needs update]
The French-German TV liberal arts network ARTE cancelled a 15-year cooperation with TVP, when it learned in February 2009 that TVP's general director, Piotr Farfał, was a member of the League of Polish Families, which opposed Arte’s "philosophy based on intercultural exchange" and "the party that TVP's chairman is presently connected with does not share European values". It was again cancelled in January 2016 after an amendment of the media law in Poland, which caused fears of a lack of pluralism and independence of TVP.
In September 2020, TVP's "Wiadomości" was the most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.66 million viewers a day.
In February 2021, TVP's "Wiadomości" was second most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.41 million viewers a day.
|19||TVP Polonia||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|20||TVP Nauka||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|24||TVP Dokument||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|27||TVP Rozrywka||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|28||Alfa TVP||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|29||TVP ABC||DVB-T2 MUX-1|
|30||TVP Kultura||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|31||TVP Historia||DVB-T MUX-3|
|32||TVP Sport||DVB-T MUX-3|
|34||TVP Info||DVB-T MUX-3|
|35||TVP Kobieta||DVB-T2 MUX-6|
|88||TVP GO (service)||HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3|
|92||TVP ABC 2||HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3|
|93||TVP Historia 2||HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3|
|94||TVP Kultura 2||HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-3|
|95||Pershyi (partnership)||HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-8|
- TVP HD and TVP Seriale are pay television. Unofficially announced plans to transfer these channels to free-to-air broadcasting.
- TVP Wilno, TVP Polonia, TVP Info and TVP Historia 2 are also available on DVB-T in Lithuania.
- TVP World available on DTT in Estonia (DVB-T), Lithuania (DVB-T), Austria (DVB-T2, Pay TV) and United Kingdom (DVB-T, HbbTV).
- TVP1: mostly news, current affairs, movies, dramas, children's and sports. Broadcasts 23.5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 1 June 2012.
- TVP2: mostly news, movies, comedy, soap operas, series, stand-up comedy, culture, sports and game shows. Broadcasts 23.5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 1 June 2012.
- TVP3: region-focused channel, which airs local programmes (regional blocks broadcasts 6 hours per day), and acts as the umbrella label for local stations including:
- TVP3 Białystok in Białystok for Podlaskie region
- TVP3 Bydgoszcz in Bydgoszcz-Toruń for the Kuyavian-Pomeranian region
- TVP3 Gdańsk in Trójmiasto for the Pomerania region,
- TVP3 Gorzów Wielkopolski in Gorzów Wielkopolski for Lubusz region
- TVP3 Katowice in Katowice (Upper Silesian Metropolis) for Silesian region
- TVP3 Kielce in Kielce for Holy Cross region
- TVP3 Kraków for the Lesser Poland region
- TVP3 Lublin for the Lublin region
- TVP3 Łódź for the Łódź region
- TVP3 Olsztyn for Warmia-Masuria region
- TVP3 Opole for the Opole region
- TVP3 Poznań for the Greater Poland region
- TVP3 Rzeszów for the Subcarpathian region
- TVP3 Szczecin for the West Pomerania
- TVP3 Warszawa for Warsaw and the Masovia region. Full HD introduced 15 February 2022.
- TVP3 Wrocław for the Lower Silesia region
- TVP Info: news channel. Broadcasts 24 hours per day. Full HD introduced 30 September 2016.
- TVP Sport: sport channel. Broadcasts 23,5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 12 January 2014.
- TVP ABC: Children's channel. Broadcasts 18 hours per day. Full HD introduced 28 March 2022.
- Alfa TVP: teenager's channel broadcasts 18 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 20 December 2022.
- TVP HD: the best productions of TVP in HD. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 6 August 2008.
- TVP Kultura: high-brow culture channel. Broadcasts 22-23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 23 October 2019.
- TVP Historia: focusing on history. Broadcasts 20,5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 27 February 2023.
- TVP Dokument: documentary movies channel. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 19 November 2020.
- TVP Nauka: focusing on science and nature. Broadcasts 21 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 3 October 2022.
- TVP Rozrywka: focusing on entertainment. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 23 February 2022.
- TVP Seriale: focusing on series. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 27 February 2023.
- TVP Kobieta: focusing on programmes aimed at women. Broadcasts 22 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 8 March 2021.
- TVP ABC 2: children's channel broadcasts 18 hours per day.
- TVP Historia 2: focusing on history. Broadcasts 20 hours per day.
- TVP Kultura 2: high-brow culture channel.
- TVP Parlament
- Jasna Góra TV
- TVP Polonia – retransmits selected TVP programming for the Polish diaspora (the so-called Polonia) in the US, Canada, Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, Europe, and the Caucasus. Full HD introduced 1 September 2020.
- Belsat – channel in the Belarusian language presenting news and subject-specific programming for the people in Belarus. Broadcasts 19-21 hours per day, included international TV-programm "Vot Tak" and rebroadcasting of the Ukrainian TV-marathon "United News". Available on DTT in Lithuania (DVB-T) and Poland (HEVC, DVB-T2). Full HD introduced in spring 2022.
- TVP Wilno – channel presenting news and programming for the Polish-speaking minority in the Vilnius region of Lithuania, available in DVB-T in this country. Broadcasts 22-23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 10 September 2021.
- TVP World – English-language channel for international audience. Start broadcast in Full HD from 18 November 2021.
- TVP VOD: the main streaming service with a paid subscription and premium content for subscribers. After the restart in October 2022, premieres produced specifically for this service began to appear. The list of linear TV-channels disappeared after the restart. Available on own portal (vod.tvp.pl) and any apps and devices.
- TVP GO: broadcast of linear TV-channels (Included Belsat and Pershyi kanal Suspilʹnoho. Except TVP HD, TVP Seriale and TVP Wilno) and content library. Available on HbbTV and mobile apps.
- TVP Stream: broadcast of selected TV-channels (TVP3, TVP Polonia, TVP Wilno, TVP World, TVP Info, Alfa TVP, Pershyi kanal Suspilʹnoho, TVP Kultura 2, TVP Historia 2, TVP ABC 2, Jasna Góra TV and TVP Parlament). Available on own portal (stream.tvp.pl).
- TVP Parlament: Broadcasts of parliamentary sessions and state events. Available on own portal (tvpparlament.pl) and TVP Stream.
- TVP Sport Stream: Broadcasts of sporting events not included in the linear TV-channel schedule. Available on own portal (sport.tvp.pl/transmisje) and mobile or smart-TV apps.
- TVP 4K (regular broadcasting): Full-time Ultra HD channel. Currently only broadcasts during special sporting events.
Former channels, services and projectsEdit
- TVP Regionalna (1994-2000): Regional network (first version).
- TVP3 (2000-2007): Regional network (first version).
- TVP Info (2007-2013): News channel and Regional network.
- TVP Regionalna (2013-2016): Regional network (relauch, second version). Replaced to TVP3 (second version).
- Poland IN (2018-2021): English-language online platform. Replaced to TVP World.
- TVP eSzkoła (2020-2022): educational channel during the pandemic.
- TVP eSzkoła Domowe Przedszkole (2020-2022): educational channel during the pandemic. Replaced to TVP ABC 2.
- Tylko Muzyka (1997-1998): First thematic channel from TVP.
- TVP Żagle (2013)
- iTVP (2005-2008): interactive channel.
- TVP Telewizja Naziemna (2020-2021)
- TVP Bieszczady (2014)
- TVP 25 lat wolności (2014)
- TVP Festiwal Dwa Teatry Sopot 2014 (2014)
- TVP Regionalna śladami Jana Pawła 2 (2014)
- TVP Zdrowo i ze Smakiem (2014)
- TVP 4K (2018 , 2021 , 2022)
Before 2015, the PiS (then opposition) often criticized TVP of siding with government (PO-PSL) or even compared it to communist propaganda In 2015, the government passed a law allowing it to directly appoint the head of TVP. Since then, TVP has displayed bias towards the Law and Justice (PiS) party (then government), and was compared by critics with propaganda of the former Communist regime. TVP has also faced criticism for its portrayal of LGBT people, the political opposition, Jews, and other groups as a shadowy conspiracy seeking to undermine Poland. In 2018, The Economist stated: "the [TVP] anchors... praise PiS slavishly while branding its critics treacherous crypto-communists.
In July 2016 Politico.eu criticized it for strong pro-government bias.
The press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders wrote in its 2019 assessment of Polish press freedom that "many blamed state-owned TV broadcaster TVP’s 'hate propaganda' for Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz's murder in January 2019.". Ahead of the 2019 European parliament elections, TVP ran 105 segments of the election of which 68 of 69 focused on the ruling party were positive and all 33 about the opposition were negative, according to a study by the Society of Journalists. Polish political scientist and anti-racism activist Rafał Pankowski stated, "I am old enough to remember Communist-controlled television in the 1980s, and I can safely say that what we have now is cruder, more primitive, and more aggressive than anything that was broadcast at that time."This contrasts with the testimonies that killer of Pawel Adamowicz was reading Gazeta Wyborcza, Dziennik Bałtycki, Polityka and Wprost and watched TVN, and Polsat but not TVP
TVP was heavily criticized in the run-up to the 2020 Polish presidential election, being described as the "mouthpiece" of the government and as "peddl[ing] government hate speech" by the organization Reporters Without Borders. The state television broadcast a segment of Wiadomości called Trzaskowski spełni żydowskie żądania? ("Will Trzaskowski meet Jewish demands?") regarding the Civic Platform candidate Rafał Trzaskowski. A complaint was made by the American Jewish Committee, Union of Jewish Religious Communities, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, to the Polish Media Ethics Council regarding antisemitism in the program. The Council concluded not only were anti-semitic statements made in the show, it did not uphold journalistic standards: Wiadomości "turned into an instrument of propaganda of one of the candidates in this election".
In 2020, the station was ordered to retract a documentary, Inwazja, released just before the 2019 elections. Comparing the LGBT movement unfavorably to the Swedish Deluge and Communism, the documentary claimed that there is an "LGBT invasion" of Poland and that LGBT organizations have the goal of legalizing pedophilia. It was found to defame the Campaign Against Homophobia organization. Ombudsman Adam Bodnar stated, "The material not only reproduces stereotypes and heightens social hatred towards LGBT people, but also manipulates facts."
According to Timothy Garton Ash, "the broadcaster has descended into the paranoid world of the far right, where spotless, heroic, perpetually misunderstood Poles are being conspired against by dark, international German-Jewish-LGBT-plutocratic forces meeting secretly in Swiss chateaux." TVP president Jacek Kurski rejected the contention that the organization violated broadcasting law, and conservative media commentator and former TVP employee Jacek Karnowski says the station "deserves recognition" for its "consistent promotion of patriotism and pro-state thinking".
- ^ Santora, Marc; Berendt, Joanna (11 October 2019). "Poland's State Media Is Government's Biggest Booster Before Election". The New York Times.
- ^ "Poland's media battle gets political". Politico.eu. 11 February 2019.
- ^ "Polish government to 'repolonize' media in next term, deputy PM says". Reuters. 20 June 2019.
- ^ "Nie ufamy mediom publicznym i częściej płacimy za treści". Press.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
- ^ "W 2010 r. zyskała tylko TVN, duży spadek TVP 1" [In 2010, only TVN gained, TVP 1 decreased significantly] (in Polish). Wirtualnemedia.pl. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
- ^ "Ustawa z dnia 29 grudnia 1992 r. o radiofonii i telewizji". isap.sejm.gov.pl.
- ^ a b Połońska, Eva (2019). "Watchdog, Lapdog, or Attack Dog? Public Service Media and the Law and Justice Government in Poland". Public Service Broadcasting and Media Systems in Troubled European Democracies. Springer International Publishing. pp. 227–255. ISBN 978-3-030-02710-0.
- ^ "Redakcja tvp.pl" (in Polish). TVP S.A. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
- ^ "Sport w TVP - obrazki z wystawy". www.teleman.pl.
- ^ "Wystartowała TVP eSzkoła [akt.]". SATKurier.pl.
- ^ "Dziś wystartował internetowy kanał TVP Kultura 2: w ofercie m.in. filmy, seriale i koncerty". rozrywka.blog - Cyfrowy styl życia. June 26, 2020.
- ^ ""Ważna chwila dla fanów dobrego dokumentu". Startuje nowy kanał TVP [WIDEO]". www.tvp.info. November 18, 2020.
- ^ "Wyjątkowy prezent dla Polek z okazji 8 marca. Startuje TVP Kobieta". www.tvp.info. February 26, 2021.
- ^ "TVP stawia na współpracę z BBC. Nowe produkcje". Media2.pl. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- ^ "EUROPÄISCHE PARTNER". arte.tv. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012.
- ^ "Libertas to cut links with controversial Polish political party". The Irish Times. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- ^ Nick Holdsworth. "Dual peril for Poland's top pubcaster". Variety. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- ^ "Francuska TV ARTE zrywa współpracę z TVP". Rzeczpospolita.
- ^ ""Wiadomości" liderem oglądalności we wrześniu". sdp.pl (in Polish). 5 October 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
- ^ ""Fakty" liderem oglądalności w lutym". wirtualnemedia.pl. 3 March 2021.
- ^ On LCN 3 regional version of this channel is dependent on viewer's region.
- ^ At the moment, only the Warsaw version of it haves the HD feed, meanwhile others still have only the SD feed.
- ^ TVP Dokument wystartuje 19 listopada, satkurier, 6 October 2020
- ^ "TVP World ma ruszyć w 2021 roku. Kurski: dla Polaków za granicą niemówiących już po polsku". www.wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.
- ^ "Sasin: "TVP jest tubą propagandową, dziennikarze sprzeniewierzają się misji"" [Sasin: "TVP is a propaganda mouthpiece, journalists are betraying the mission"] (in Polish). 27 November 2013.
- ^ "PiS idzie na wojnę z TVP" [PiS goes to war with TVP] (in Polish).
- ^ "PO, PSL, RP: Niech TVP puści "Anatomię upadku". Ale film National Geographic też" [PO, PSL, RP: Let TVP play "Anatomy of Fall". But so is the National Geographic movie] (in Polish).
Jeżeli TVP chce pokazać NG, to musi pokazać też drugi. Powinny się pojawić w przestrzeni publicznej równorzędnie, wtedy będziemy mieli do czynienia z telewizją publiczną - mówił. - Jeżeli telewizja przekazuje jedną wersję, mamy do czynienia z telewizją rządową. A to, niestety, staje się normą - dodał.[If TVP wants to show NG, it must also show the other one. They should appear equally in the public space, then we will deal with public television - he said. If the television broadcasts one version, it is government television. And this, unfortunately, is becoming the norm - he added.]
- ^ "PiS idzie na wojnę z TVP" [PiS goes to war with TVP] (in Polish).
Telewizja publiczna przeszła wczoraj samą siebie. Będziemy pisać protesty, bo przypomniały się najgorsze czasy. 'Dziennik Telewizyjny' był wczoraj zamiast 'Wiadomości'. Widocznie poszła dyrektywa ze strony PO i stąd jednoznaczny przekaz. - Adam Hofman[Public television surpassed itself yesterday. We will write protests, because we remembered the worst times. It was 'Dziennik Telewizyjny' yesterday instead of the Wiadomości. Apparently, the directive have followed from the PO and hence a clear message. - Adam Hofman]
- ^ "Poland profile - Media". BBC News. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ a b c d Davies, Christian (11 October 2019). "'Cruder than the Communists': Polish TV goes all out for rightwing vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ Sources:
- "A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy". Freedom House.
Poland's legislative elections laid bare the extent to which the ruling Law and Justice party had politically captured the state media, whose taxpayer-funded broadcasts leading up to the voting amounted to partisan propaganda.
- Kalan, Dariusz (25 November 2019). "Poland's State of the Media". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "Poland". RSF. Reporters without borders. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
Partisan discourse and hate speech are still the rule within state-owned media, which have been transformed into government propaganda mouthpieces. Their new directors tolerate neither opposition nor neutrality from employees and fire those who refuse to comply.
- Kortas, Olivia (11 March 2020). "Poland's TVP public television rift reveals PiS party split". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- OSCE 2020 presidential election final report (Archived 30 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine): "The public broadcaster (TVP) failed in its legal duty to provide impartial coverage, which could offset the editorial bias of the private media. Instead, TVP acted as a campaign vehicle for the incumbent."
- Żuk 2020. "The election campaign before the next election won by PiS in October 2019 showed particularly clearly how public media became the property of the ruling party and practiced propaganda typical of authoritarian states instead of public debate."
- Węglińska, Agnieszka (2020). "The Image of Germany in Social Media: Political and Social Aspects of Public Service Media in Poland". Central European Journal of Communication. 13 (25): 41–54. doi:10.19195/1899-5101.13.1(25).4. ISSN 1899-5101.
Government control over TVP contributes to public service media being a tool for propaganda and politics...
- Kalan, Dariusz (18 January 2021). "Poland's PiS-poor media". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
Over the last few years, Poland's public television broadcaster TVP and radio broadcasters have been put squarely under PiS control – and even insiders admit they have been transformed into hardline government mouthpieces. This unprecedented move has been condemned by various international organisations, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Reporters Without Borders, and the Council of Europe, which called TVP "a propaganda channel for the ruling party".
- "A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy". Freedom House.
- ^ a b Ash, Timothy Garton (10 July 2020). "Opinion: For a bitter taste of Polish populism, just watch the evening 'news'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- ^ Żuk, Piotr (2020). "One Leader, One Party, One Truth: Public Television Under the Rule of the Populist Right in Poland in the Pre-Election Period in 2019". Javnost - the Public. 27 (3): 287–307. doi:10.1080/13183222.2020.1794413. S2CID 221980008.
- ^ "Poland's ruling Law and Justice party is doing lasting damage". The Economist. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- ^ CIENSKI, JAN (2016-07-11). "Polish media veers back to pre-1989". POLITICO. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- ^ "Poland". Reporters Without Borders.
- ^ "Proces Stefana W. Którą telewizję oglądał i jaką prasę czytał w więzieniu Stefan W.? Zeznania współosadzonego wyjawiają kolejne wątki" (in Polish). 22 July 2022.
Czytał „Gazetę Wyborczą", „Dziennik Bałtycki", „Politykę", „Wprost"
- ^ "Współwięzień Stefana W.: Kiedy oglądał "Fakty" TVN, wyzywał ludzi Platformy Obywatelskiej" [Co-prisoner of Stefan W .: When he watched "Fakty" TVN, he insulted the people of the Civic Platform] (in Polish).
- ^ "Oglądał "Fakty", czytał... "Wyborczą". Kolejny współosadzony ujawnia zwyczaje mordercy prezydenta Gdańska" [Oglądał "Fakty", czytał... "Wyborczą". Kolejny współosadzony ujawnia zwyczaje mordercy prezydenta Gdańska] (in Polish).
"Oglądaliśmy czasem wiadomości. Ale jeśli już, to przeważnie na Polsacie i TVN. Na pewno nie oglądaliśmy ich wtedy w TVP" - mówił "Profesor", który ze Stefanem W. spotkał się w "kryminale" w Malborku.["We watched the news from time to time. But if anything, it was mostly on Polsat and TVN. We certainly did not watch them on TVP then" - said "Professor", who met Stefan W. in the Malbork jail.]
- ^ Santora, Marc; Berendt, Joanna (2019-10-11). "Poland's State Media Is Government's Biggest Booster Before Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
- ^ "Polish public broadcaster peddles government hate speech in presidential election run-up". Reporters Without Borders. 24 June 2020. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020.
- ^ "Rada Etyki Mediów o "Wiadomościach": "To instrument propagandy"". www.kobieta.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ "Polish state TV incited hatred against Jews, media ethics panel says". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ Reuters Staff (10 July 2020). "Jewish group slams Polish public TV for 'hateful' role in presidential race". Reuters. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
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- ^ "Leading presidential hopeful would 'satisfy Jewish claims' for Holocaust restitution, Polish state TV warns". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ "Wyborcza.pl". Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ "Organizacje żydowskie złożyły skargę na "Wiadomości"". JEWISH.PL (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ Bretan, Juliette (8 June 2020). "Court orders Polish state broadcaster TVP to take down online anti-LGBT film". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "KPH wygrywa w sądzie z TVP. Podatnicy dowiedzą się, ile kosztowała homofobiczna "Inwazja"". oko.press. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "TVP o Inwazji LGBT: "Potop", "gorsza niż najbardziej zagorzali komuniści", "czeka nas legalizacja pedofilii"". oko.press. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "Prezes TVP: Staramy się robić telewizję rzetelną i spluralizowaną" [President of TVP: We try to make television reliable and plural] (in Polish). Interia. Retrieved 2020-12-20.
- ^ "Sejmowa komisja o TVP. Kurski bronił rzetelności, ale posłanka Sobecka przebiła prezesa" [Sejm committee about TVP. Kurski defended integrity, but MP Sobecka defended more than the president] (in Polish). Gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2020-12-20.
- ^ "Cztery lata prezesury Jacka Kurskiego w TVP. "Sprawny i kreatywny, razi jego gust i cynizm"". Wirtualnemedia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- ^ "Cztery lata prezesury Jacka Kurskiego w TVP. "Telewizja publiczna na wielu polach odbudowała swoją przewagę"". Wpolityce.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-12-20.
- Dzień Otwarty w Telewizji Polskiej pod hasłem „najbliżej gwiazd” at Wikinews
- Official website (in Polish)
- Digitaltvnews.net, Poland's TVP Launches Free-To-Air Satellite Platform.