Lublin (UK: /ˈlʊblɪn/,[3] US: /ˈlblɪn/,[4] Polish: [ˈlublin] (About this soundlisten)) is the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship (Lublin Province) with a population of 339,784 (December 2019).[2] Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is about 170 km (106 mi) to the southeast of Warsaw by road.

Lublin
Left to right: Panorama of the Old Town Mannerist tenements Lublin Castle General view of Lublin Market Square Parish Square: Plac Po Farze
Motto(s): 
Fidelitatem et Constantinam (in Latin)
Wiernością i Stałością (in Polish)[1]
Lublin is located in Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin
Lublin
Lublin is located in Poland
Lublin
Lublin
Coordinates: 51°14′53″N 22°34′13″E / 51.24806°N 22.57028°E / 51.24806; 22.57028Coordinates: 51°14′53″N 22°34′13″E / 51.24806°N 22.57028°E / 51.24806; 22.57028
Country Poland
Voivodeship Lublin
PowiatCity County
(Capital of Lublin County but not part of it)
Establishedbefore 12th century
Town rights1317
Government
 • MayorKrzysztof Żuk
Area
 • City147 km2 (57 sq mi)
Population
 (31 December 2019)
 • City339,784 Increase (9th)[2]
 • Density2,310/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
664,000
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
20-001 to 20-999
Area code(s)+48 81
Car platesLU
Websitehttp://www.lublin.eu http://www.lublin.eu/en

One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of the century, Lublin was recognised for hosting a number of outstanding poets, writers, and historians of the epoch.[5]

Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the royal election. In 1578, Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and for centuries, the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Warsaw, Poznań, and Lwów.

Although Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved. The district is one of Poland's official national historic monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated May 16, 2007, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.[6]

The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment, and the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland.[7] The Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category. Lublin is noted for its green spaces and a high standard of living.[8]

HistoryEdit

Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the sixth to seventh centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the sixth century were discovered in the centre of today's Lublin on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill.

The period of the early Middle Ages was marked by an intensification of habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centred around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, which was likely one of the main centres of Lendians tribe. When the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the centre shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century.[9] The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but was quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.[9]

The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols, Ruthenians, and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction.[9] It was also ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302.[9] Lublin was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of the prince Bolesław V the Chaste.[9] Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.[10] From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dating to 1335–1370 exists to this day.[9]

Jagiellonian PolandEdit

Castle courtyard with a fortified keep

In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from the king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries. In 1474, the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century, the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential cities[9] of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland.

Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578, the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin.[9]

Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time.[9] Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.[9]

 
Great Fire of Lublin (1719)

The yeshiva became a centre of learning of Talmud and Kabbalah, leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford."[9] In 1567, the rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish universities.

In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo-Ukrainian invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars.

19th century to the presentEdit

After the third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795, Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule.

At the beginning of the 19th century, new squares, streets, and public buildings were built. In 1877, a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel and Lublin Station were constructed, spurring industrial development. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews).[11]

Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland - the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918.

In 1921, Roman Catholics constituted 58.9% of the city's population, Jews - 39.5%. In 1931, 63.7% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholic and 34.7% Jewish.[12]

After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of Poland, the city found itself in the General Government territory controlled by Nazi Germany. The population became a target of severe Nazi persecutions focusing on Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of the ethnic Volksdeutsche, increasing the number of German minority from 10–15% in 1939 to 20–25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation' for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation known as the "Nisko or Lublin Plan".[13]

 
Cracow Gate in the Old Town is among the city's most recognisable landmarks.

The Jewish population was forced into the newly established Lublin Ghetto near Podzamcze. The city served as headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied Poland. The majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were deported to the Bełżec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust in Poland.

After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and re-established a small Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant. Most left Poland for Israel and the West.[14]

On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which was to serve as the basis for a puppet government. The capital of new Poland was moved to Warsaw in January 1945 after the Soviet westward offensive.

In the postwar years, Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automotive factory, Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych, was built in the city.

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Lublin has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold, damp winters and warm summers.

Climate data for Lublin (1936−2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
16.2
(61.2)
22.0
(71.6)
27.2
(81.0)
35.7
(96.3)
33.9
(93.0)
35.0
(95.0)
37.0
(98.6)
33.2
(91.8)
25.0
(77.0)
18.9
(66.0)
15.0
(59.0)
37.0
(98.6)
Average high °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
0.4
(32.7)
5.7
(42.3)
12.7
(54.9)
18.4
(65.1)
21.4
(70.5)
23.3
(73.9)
23.0
(73.4)
18.1
(64.6)
12.3
(54.1)
5.4
(41.7)
0.8
(33.4)
11.8
(53.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.6
(34.9)
7.8
(46.0)
13.1
(55.6)
16.2
(61.2)
17.9
(64.2)
17.4
(63.3)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.4
(29.5)
7.6
(45.7)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−5.7
(21.7)
−2
(28)
3.0
(37.4)
7.7
(45.9)
10.7
(51.3)
12.5
(54.5)
12.0
(53.6)
8.2
(46.8)
4.0
(39.2)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F) −32.2
(−26.0)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−30.9
(−23.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.0
(32.0)
2.0
(35.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−4
(25)
−7.6
(18.3)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−32.2
(−26.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.7
(0.89)
25.9
(1.02)
27.3
(1.07)
42.4
(1.67)
51.1
(2.01)
66.6
(2.62)
71.5
(2.81)
64.0
(2.52)
55.5
(2.19)
40.6
(1.60)
36.7
(1.44)
33.6
(1.32)
537.9
(21.18)
Average precipitation days 23.3 19.5 18.4 13.1 13.0 11.8 12.3 9.3 11.2 13.3 18.1 20.8 184.1
Average relative humidity (%) 88.7 85.9 79.8 68.9 71.9 73.7 75.1 74.4 79.8 84.0 89.4 90.2 80.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 53 73 115 174 226 237 238 248 165 124 48 37 1,738
Source: Climatebase.ru[15]

PopulationEdit

The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. In 1999, the population of Lublin was estimated to 359,154, the highest in the city's history.

Economy and infrastructureEdit

The Lublin region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. Despite the fact that Lublin is one of the closest neighbour cities for Warsaw, the investment inflow in services from the Polish capital has secured a steady growth due to relatively fast connection, while external investments are progressing, enabling nearby satellite municipality Świdnik for large-scale industrial investments, seamlessly testing the capacity of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with Warsaw is significant to the regional economy, bringing quality cultural events inshore, yet the proximity of Warsaw is an underestimated asset.

 
Polish MPs in the PZL Świdnik helicopter factory

Lublin is a regional centre of IT companies. Asseco Business Solutions S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z o.o., Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters here. Other companies (for example Comarch S.A., Britenet Sp. z o.o., Simple S.A., Asseco Poland S.A.) outsourced to Lublin, to take advantage of the educated specialists. There is a visible growth in professionals eager to work in Lublin, due to reasons, like quality of life, culture management, the environment, improving connection to Warsaw, levels of education, or financial, because of usually higher operating margins of global organisations present in the area.

The large car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych (FSC) seemed to have a brighter future when it was acquired by the South Korean Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998 related to the Asian financial crisis, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy.[citation needed] Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market.[citation needed] With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University.

The price of land and investment costs are lower than in western Poland. However, the Lublin area has to be one of the main beneficiaries of the EU development funds.[16] Jerzy Kwiecinski, the deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union — new possibilities for foreign investors) said:

In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU — every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post-development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country.[17]

In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is part of “Park Mielec” — the European Economic Development area.[18] At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol, Modern-Expo and Perła Browary Lubelskie.[19] At the same time, the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.

Modern shopping centers built in Lublin like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle Terraces), Lublin Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area. Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and beneath Świętoduska and Lubartowska Streets.[20]

MediaEdit

There is a public TV station in the city: TVP Lublin which owns a 104-meter-tall concrete television tower.[21] The station put its first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed programming to TVP3 channel and later TVP Info.

The radio stations airing from Lublin include 'Radio eR - 87.9 FM', Radio 'Eska Lublin' - 103.6 FM, Radio Lublin (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 102.2 FM, [ Radio Centrum (university radio station)] - 98.2 FM, Radio 'Free' (city station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM, and Radio 'Złote Przeboje' (Golden Hits) Lublin - 95.6 FM.

Local newspapers include Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily, Gazeta Wyborcza [ Lublin Edition] daily (regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza), [ Metro] (daily, free) and Nasze Miasto Lublin weekly (free).

TransportEdit

AirportEdit

 
Lublin Airport

The Lublin Airport (Port Lotniczy Lublin) (IATA: LUZ) is located about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of Lublin. With approximately 8 destinations and over 450 000 passengers served in 2018, it is the biggest airport in Eastern Poland. There is a direct train and bus link from the airport to downtown.

RailwaysEdit

From Lublin Główny railway station, ten trains depart each day to Warsaw, and three to Kraków, as in other major cities in Poland. Lublin has also direct train connections with Rzeszów, Szczecin, Gdynia and other Polish cities and towns in the region as Nałęczów, Chełm or Zamość. The express train to Warsaw takes about two and half hours.[22]

There are other smaller stations in Lublin for local trains:

 
Lublin Train Station

RoadsEdit

 
Lublin Has one of three trolleybus systems in Poland

Lublin is located at the intersection of expressways S12, S17 and S19. Expressway S17 between Lublin and Warsaw is currently finishing construction and should be ready by the second half of 2020. S19 between Lublin and Rzeszów is currently under construction and should be finished by 2023. The rest of the planned expressway network around the city that will be built in the coming years consists of S12 to the east in the direction Chełm, S19 north towards Białystok and S17 southeast towards Zamość. The expressway bypass of Lublin allows transit traffic to avoid the city centre.

Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network.

Lublin is one of only four towns in Poland to have trolleybuses (the others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).[23]

Culture and tourismEdit

 
The Centre for the Meeting of Cultures and Teatralny Square, view from the Lublin Conference Center

Lublin is the largest city in eastern Poland and serves as an important regional cultural capital. Since then, many important international events have taken place here, involving international artists, researchers and politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin Castle are a mixture of Roman Catholic motifs with eastern Byzantine styles, reinforcing how the city connects the west with the east.

The artsEdit

MuseumEdit

The premier museum in the city is the Lublin Museum, one of the oldest and largest museums of Eastern Poland, as well as the Majdanek State Museum with 121,404 visitors in 2011.[24]

CinemaEdit

Lublin is a culturally-active city with a filmmaking past. Some of the most notable films shot in Lublin include Oscar-winning The Reader was partially filmed at the Nazi Majdanek concentration camp.[25]

In 2008, Lublin collaborated with Ukrainian Lviv, to film and distribute promotional materials which painted both cities as attractive to the filmmaking industry. Films were handed out between filmmakers present at Cannes Festival.[26] This was sponsored by the European Union. There are numerous movie theatres in Lublin including Cinema City (multiplex), Multikino, Cinema Bajka, Cinema Chatka Żaka, Cinema Perla, Cinema Grazyna and Cinema Medyk.

TheatresEdit

 
Old Theatre in Lublin, opening night

There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal, governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are municipal theatres and playhouses such as:

Fringe theatres:

GalleriesEdit

There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations' venues. The Labyrinth Gallery (formerly "BWA", is the Artistic Exhibitions Office - Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych).

Old TownEdit

 
Crown Tribunal in the Old Town

Lublin's Old Town shares a number of Lesser Poland traditions, historic architecture and a unique ambience with Kraków. It is, however, a distinct experience in itself, benefitting from artistic renovation and less commercialization. Historic buildings, including ruined townhouses, create a unique atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin's Old Town has cobbled, narrow streets and traditional, unspoilt design. Many venues around Old Town enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art galleries, and clubs. Apart from entertainment, the area houses small businesses and prestigious offices. Old Town's Church of St. Josaphat was built in 1786.

Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene[27] Lublin has many theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin Philharmonic.[28][29][30][31]

Pubs and restaurantsEdit

Lublin boasts a rich culinary scene. Just in the Old Town and the immediate environs, over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs and other catering outlets are located. In the latter half of the 2010s, the international community surrounding Lublin's medical university impacted the growth of restaurants offering various cuisines.

City of festivalsEdit

 
Litewski Square
 
Lublin Town Hall

Lublin aims to be known as the Polish Capital of Festivals.[9] Most years, Lublin increases the number of festivals held in the city. The most significant of them include:

  • Carnaval Sztukmistrzów - held in last days of July is the largest new circus festival in Poland, name of the Carnival is inspired by the character of The Magician of Lublin from a novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer - https://sztukmistrze.eu/
  • Urban Highline Festival - held in last days of July - http://urbanhighline.pl/
  • Night of Culture (Noc Kultury) - usually held on the first Saturday night of June. Consisting of hundreds of events spanning the city, it is a cultural manifestation of Lublin's potential. Admission to all events is free.[32]
  • OpenCity Festival - outdoor performances festival. International artists and performers create art installations in public places in Lublin[33]
  • Night of Museums - Lublin's culture institutions become open to visitors at night
  • The Jagiellonian Fair (Jarmark Jagielloński) - held in late August is a chance to meet numerous artists, artisans, craftspeople from Central and Eastern Europe
  • St Nicolas Day International Festival of Folk Music (Mikołajki Folkowe)[34] - the oldest folk music festival in Poland held in the first decade of December http://www.mikolajki.folk.pl/
  • East Of Culture – Different Sounds Art’n’Music Festival (Wschód Kultury – Inne Brzmienia Art’n’Music Festival) held in late June is a meeting of world-class artists that represent various nationalities and practise diverse music styles - https://en.innebrzmienia.eu/about/
  • Lubelskie Dni Kultury Studenckiej - Lublin's Days of Student Culture - an annual students' holiday. Usually celebrated for about three weeks between May and June. Due to the city's large student population, the festival in Lublin is the longest in Poland[citation needed]
  • Lublin. Miasto Poezji - Poetry Festival organised by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" and Polish Literature Institute of Catholic University in Lublin.
  • Noc z Czechowiczem - A Night with Czechowicz - walking tour, inspired by the "Poem about the City of Lublin" written by Józef Czechowicz. Held at first full moon in July, organized by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN"
  • Najstarsze Pieśni Europy - The oldest songs of Europe - Festival of Muzyka Kresów Foundation.
  • Future Shorts - World Short Film Label
  • International Lublin Dance Festival - Międzynarodowe Spotkania Teatrów Tańca - one of the leading dance art festivals in Europe http://mstt.pl/en/home/
  • International Theatre Festival "Confrontations" - Międzynarodowy Festiwal Teatralny "Konfrontacje" https://konfrontacje.pl/en/
  • Ukraine in the Center of Lublin - Ukraina w Centrum Lublina[35] - Festival held in November since 2008 is a showcase of contemporary Ukrainian culture as well as space for the Polish-Ukrainian intercultural dialogue https://www.facebook.com/pg/UkrainawCentrumLublina/posts/
  • '“Falkon” - Fantasy and Science Fiction Festival - Ogólnopolski Festiwal Fantastyki Falkon - held in November is one of the biggest fantasy conventions in Poland[36]
  • Polish Students' Theatre Festival - Studencki Ogólnopolski Festiwal Teatralny Kontestacje
  • International Folk Dance Festival - Międzynarodowe Spotkania Folklorystyczne im. Ignacego Wachowiaka
  • Scena Młodych - Youth Scene, music festival
  • Zwierciadła - Mirrors - High School Theatres Revision
  • Zaduszki Jazzowe - Jazz Souls' Day - which take place in Dominican Order Monastery

European Capital of CultureEdit

In 2007, Lublin joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for the title of European Capital of Culture. Lublin was shortlisted, but ultimately Wrocław was chosen.

Lublin is the city that symbolises European idea of integration, universal heritage of democracy and tolerance and the idea of dialogue between the cultures of the West and East. Lublin is a unique place where cultures and religions meet. Here the East meets West, and the European Union meets Belarus and Ukraine. It is the perfect place of cooperation for European artists living within and outside the European Union. Lublin is a city open to artists, a place where unique initiatives and activities take place. Lublin means the experience of hundreds of years of rich history and cultural heritage which constitutes an endless source of inspiration for new generations.

European Culture is not only modern museums and enormous festivals, but first of all people and their activities, aims, aspirations, possibilities, potential and the desire for development. The development of culture and being granted the title of European Capital of Culture is a chance for the development of one of the poorest regions of the European Union."[37] — Adam Wasilewski, former President of Lublin

The city's Marketing Office have created a website for the Lublin 2016 entry: Lublin2016.eu, available in Polish, English, Ukrainian, Spanish and Portuguese. Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.

SportsEdit

International eventsEdit

EducationEdit

 
Faculty of Biotechnology, KUL
 
Faculty of Information Technology, UMCS

There are five public schools of higher education:

Lublin is home to private higher education establishments.

  • University of Economics and Innovation in Lublin
  • Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu
  • Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie
  • Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji
  • Vincent Pol University in Lublin

It is home to one of the oldest still-functioning schools in Poland, The Staszic School, which was established in 1586. The school has many notable alumni, such as Bolesław Prus, one of the most influential Polish writers and novelists, and Lesław Paga, the co-founder of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

Politics and local governmentEdit

Lublin is the capital of the province called Lublin Voivodeship, a province (voivodeship) created in 1999. The city is a separate urban gmina and city county (powiat).

Municipal governmentEdit

Lublin is governed by the municipal legislature known as the city council (Rada Miasta) and the city's mayor (Prezydent Miasta). The city council is made up of 31 councillors directly elected by the city's inhabitants. The remit of the council and president extends to all areas of municipal policy and development planning, up to and including the development of local infrastructure, transport, and planning permission. The city's current mayor is Krzysztof Żuk, who has served in this position since 2010.[38]

SymbolsEdit

Lublin has an official flag, a 5:8 rectangle divided into three horizontal stripes: white (top), green (narrow, middle), and red (bottom). In the central part, there is the coat of arms of Lublin. It is also allowed to hang the flag in the form of a vertical ribbon: then white should be on the left side or near the spar.

DistrictsEdit

Lublin is divided into 27 administrative divisions (dzielnica)[39]: Abramowice, Bronowice, Czechów Południowy, Czechów Północny, Czuby Południowe, Czuby Północne, Dziesiąta, Felin, Głusk, Hajdów-Zadębie, Kalinowszczyzna, Konstantynów, Kośminek, Ponikwoda, Rury, Sławin, Sławinek, Stare Miasto, Szerokie, Śródmieście, Tatary, Węglin Południowy, Węglin Północny, Wieniawa, Wrotków, Za Cukrownią, Zemborzyce.

International relationsEdit

Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the EU Intercultural cities programme.[40] In 2017, Lublin was awarded the Europe Prize by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.[41]

Twin towns — sister citiesEdit

Lublin is twinned with:[42]

GalleryEdit

Notable residentsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Interpelacja w sprawie mozliwosci i stanu realizacji postulatow" (pdf) (in Polish). Przewodniczago Rady Miasta Lublin. August 19, 2013. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 21 June 2020. Data for territorial unit 0663000.
  3. ^ "LublIn". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Lublin". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Local history - Information about the town - Lublin - Virtual Shtetl". Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  6. ^ RP, Kancelaria Sejmu. "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych".
  7. ^ Lublin, UM. "Why Lublin? / Lublin – investment destination / Investors / Business / Lublin City Office". Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  8. ^ Lublin, UM. "Standard of living in Lublin / Lublin – investment destination / Investors / Business / Lublin City Office". Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Andrzej Rozwałka, Rafał Niedźwiadek, Marek Stasiak (2006). 'Origines Polonorum': Lublin wczesnośredniowieczny. The medieval urban complex of Lublin. A study of its spatial development. TRIO / FNP. pp. 199–203. Summary translated by Philip Earl Steele (PDF).CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ "Tourist Guide: Lublin" (PDF). Lublin City Council. 2009. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2015.
  11. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-299-19464-2, Google Print, p. 16
  12. ^ Sadkowski, Konrad (1995). Church, nation and state in Poland: Catholicism and national identity formation in the Lublin region, 1918–1939. University of Michigan. pp. 85–86.
  13. ^ Diemut Majer; United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2003). "Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. JHU Press. p. 759. ISBN 978-0-8018-6493-3. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  14. ^ Helena Ziemba née Herszenborn; Irena Gewerc-Gottlieb (2001). "Ścieżki Pamięci, Żydowskie Miasto w Lublinie – Losy, Miejsca, Historia (Path of Memory. Jewish Town in Lublin - Fate, Places, History)". 1. Mój Lublin Szczęśliwy i Nieszczęśliwy; 2. W Getcie i Kryjówce w Lublinie (PDF file, direct download 4.9 MB) (in Polish). Rishon LeZion, Israel; Lublin, Poland: Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" & Towarzystwo Przyjaźni Polsko-Izraelskiej w Lublinie. pp. 24, 27, 29, 30.
  15. ^ "Climatological Normals for Lublin, Poland". Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  16. ^ "Samorząd Miasta Lublin". Um.lublin.pl. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  17. ^ internet ART; www.internetart.pl (2007-05-31). "PAIiIZ | News | Inwestycje w Polsce". Paiz.gov.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Marcin Bielesz (2007-09-27). "Lublin fetuje specjalną strefę ekonomiczną". Miasta.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  19. ^ http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html, http://ww2.tvp.pl/3903,20051107265122.strona Archived 2007-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ opracowali: tn, dil, msa, ms, jb, pr, wa (2007-01-01). "Taki był 2006 rok". Miasta.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ "Przegląd obiektów z emisjami". Emi.emitel.pl. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  22. ^ "Lublin - Rozkład jazdy pociągów PKP, autobusów PKS oraz komunikacji miejskiej dla miasta Lublin". Rozklad.mortin.pl. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
  23. ^ "Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego w Lublinie".
  24. ^ "Statystyki". Frekwencja zwiedzających. Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku. 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
  25. ^ "The Reader". 30 January 2009 – via IMDb.
  26. ^ "Lublin, Lwów | miasto filmowe - Aktualności". Film.lublin.eu. 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  27. ^ "Lublin-Lubelski Serwis Informacyjny-lublin". Lsi.lublin.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  28. ^ http://www.teatr-osterwy.lublin.pl Archived 2007-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2016-07-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ Fortuna(grafika), Kamil Resztak(php) & Grzegorz. "Filharmonia im. H. Wieniawskiego w Lublinie, filharmonia lubelska, filharmonia w Lublinie, orkiestra symfoniczna, koncerty, muzyka kameralna, zespoły :: Strona główna".
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-23. Retrieved 2006-02-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ http://www.nockultury.pl
  33. ^ "Festiwal Otwarte Miasto".
  34. ^ "The Saint Nicholas Orchestra - main". www.mikolaje.lublin.pl. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  35. ^ "Wydarzenia / Kultura / lublin.eu - oficjalny portal miasta Lublin". www.lublin.eu. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  36. ^ "Wydarzenia / Kultura / lublin.eu - oficjalny portal miasta Lublin". lublin.eu. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  37. ^ "Why Lublin?". Kultura.lublin.eu. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  38. ^ "Mayor of Lublin City / Lublin City Office". lublin.eu. Retrieved 2020-02-18.
  39. ^ "Dzielnice Lublina / O mieście / Lublin / lublin.eu - oficjalny portal miasta Lublin". lublin.eu. Retrieved 2020-02-18.
  40. ^ Council of Europe (2011). "Intercultural city: Lublin, Poland". coe.int. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  41. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". lublin.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Lublin's Partner and Friend Cities" [Lublin's Partner and Friend Cities] (in Polish). lublin.eu. Archived from the original on 2019-05-24. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  43. ^ Побратимские связи г. Бреста (in Russian). City.brest.by. Archived from the original on 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  44. ^ Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.
  45. ^ "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
  46. ^ "The Municipality of Lublin City". Um.lublin.eu. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  47. ^ "Lublin's Partner and Friend Cities". The Municipality of Lublin City. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2009.

External linksEdit