Lublin Voivodeship

Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province[2] (in Polish, województwo lubelskie [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ luˈbɛlskʲɛ]), is a voivodeship, or region, located in southeastern Poland. It was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Lublin, Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska and (partially) Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships, pursuant to Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The region is named after its largest city and regional capital, Lublin, and its territory is made of four historical lands: the western part of the voivodeship, with Lublin itself, belongs to Lesser Poland, the eastern part of Lublin Area belongs to Red Ruthenia, and the northeast belongs to Polesie and Podlasie.

Lublin Voivodeship

Województwo lubelskie
Motto(s): 
Smakuj życie! (Taste life!)
Location within Poland
Location within Poland
Division into counties
Division into counties
Coordinates (Lublin): 51°14′53″N 22°34′13″E / 51.24806°N 22.57028°E / 51.24806; 22.57028
Country Poland
CapitalLublin
Counties
Government
 • VoivodeLech Sprawka (PiS)
 • MarshalJarosław Stawiarski (PiS)
Area
 • Total25,155 km2 (9,712 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total2,112,216
 • Density84/km2 (220/sq mi)
 • Urban
981,166
 • Rural
1,131,050
ISO 3166 codePL-06
Vehicle registrationL
HDI (2017)0.843[1]
very high · 9th
Websitehttp://www.lubelskie.pl/
  • further divided into 213 gminas

Lublin Voivodeship borders Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the south, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the south-west, Masovian Voivodeship to the west and north, Podlaskie Voivodeship along a short boundary to the north, Belarus (Brest Region) and Ukraine (Lviv Oblast and Volyn Oblasts) to the east. The region's population as of 2019 was 2,112,216. It covers an area of 25,155 square kilometres (9,712 sq mi).

HistoryEdit

The Polish historical region that encompasses Lublin, and approximates Lublin Voivodeship as it was before the Partitions of Poland, is known as Lubelszczyzna. Provinces centred on Lublin have existed throughout much of Poland's history; for details see the section below on Previous Lublin Voivodeships.

The region was, before World War II, one of the world's leading centres of Judaism. Before the middle of the 16th century, there were few Jews in the area, concentrated in Lublin, Kazimierz Dolny, and perhaps Chełm; but the founding of new private towns led to a large movement of Jews into the region to develop trade and services. Since these new towns competed with the existing towns for business, there followed a low-intensity, long-lasting feeling of resentment, with failed attempts to limit the Jewish immigration. The Jews tended to settle mostly in the cities and towns, with only individual families setting up businesses in the rural regions; this urban/rural division became another factor feeding resentment of the newly arrived economic competitors. By the middle of the 18th century, Jews were a significant part of the population in Kraśnik, Lubartów and Łęczna.

By the 20th century, Jews represented greater than 70% of the population in eleven towns and close to 100% of the population of Laszczów and Izbica. From this region came both religious figures such as Mordechai Josef Leiner of Izbica, Chaim Israel Morgenstern of Puławy, and Motele Rokeach of Biłgoraj, as well as famous secular authors Israel Joshua Singer. Israel's brother, the Nobel prize winner Isaac Bashevis Singer, was not born in Biłgoraj but lived part of his life in the city. The "Old Town" of the city of Lublin contained a famous yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and kahal, as well as the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate).

Before the war, there were 300,000 Jews living in the region, which became the site of the Majdanek concentration camp and Bełżec extermination camp as well as several labour camps (Trawniki, Poniatowa, Budzyn, Puławy, Zamość, Biała Podlaska, and the Lublin work camps Lipowa 7 camp , Flugplatz, and Sportplatz) which produced military supplies for the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe). This was once one of the biggest forced labour centres in occupied Europe, with approximately 45,000 Jewish prisoners. As well, the Sobibór extermination camp was located in the Lublin Voivodeship. After the war, the few surviving Jews largely left the area; today there is some restoration of areas of Jewish historical interest, and a surge of tourism by Jews seeking to view their families' historical roots.

Cities and townsEdit

 
Historic centre of Lublin
 
Radziwiłł Castle Complex in Biała Podlaska
 
Czartoryski Palace in Puławy
 
The Potocki Family Palace in Międzyrzec Podlaski

The voivodeship contains 48 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2019:[3]

  1. Lublin (339,770)
  2. Zamość (63,511)
  3. Chełm (62,331)
  4. Biała Podlaska (57,264)
  5. Puławy (47,634)
  6. Świdnik (39,217)
  7. Kraśnik (34,355)
  8. Łuków (29,885)
  9. Biłgoraj (26,309)
  10. Lubartów (21,948)
  11. Tomaszów Lubelski (19,050)
  12. Łęczna (18,884)
  13. Krasnystaw (18,675)
  14. Hrubieszów (17,634)
  15. Międzyrzec Podlaski (16,736)
  16. Dęblin (16,026)
  17. Radzyń Podlaski (15,709)
  18. Włodawa (13,167)
  19. Janów Lubelski (11,901)
  20. Parczew (10,602)
  21. Ryki (9,625)
  22. Poniatowa (9,144)
  23. Opole Lubelskie (8,421)
  24. Bełżyce (6,504)
  25. Terespol (5,537)
  26. Szczebrzeszyn (4,991)
  27. Bychawa (4,893)
  28. Rejowiec Fabryczny (4,406)
  29. Nałęczów (3,749)
  30. Tarnogród (3,333)
  31. Kock (3,293)
  32. Zwierzyniec (3,175)
  33. Krasnobród (3,091)
  34. Kazimierz Dolny (2,563)
  35. Piaski (2,553)
  36. Stoczek Łukowski (2,520)
  37. Annopol (2,515)
  38. Józefów (2,486)
  39. Lubycza Królewska (2,447)
  40. Łaszczów (2,139)
  41. Tyszowce (2,112)
  42. Ostrów Lubelski (2,078)
  43. Rejowiec (2,066)
  44. Urzędów (1,699)
  45. Modliborzyce (1,462)
  46. Frampol (1,428)
  47. Siedliszcze (1,413)
  48. Józefów nad Wisłą (915)

Administrative divisionEdit

Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties (powiats): 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas.

The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).

English and
Polish names
Area
(km2)
Population
(2019)
Seat Other towns Total
gminas
City counties
Lublin 147 339,770 1
Zamość 30 63,511 1
Chełm 35 62,331 1
Biała Podlaska 49 57,264 1
Land counties
Lublin County
powiat lubelski
1,679 154,760 Lublin * Bełżyce, Bychawa 16
Puławy County
powiat puławski
933 113,441 Puławy Nałęczów, Kazimierz Dolny 11
Biała Podlaska County
powiat bialski
2,754 111,078 Biała Podlaska * Międzyrzec Podlaski, Terespol 19
Zamość County
powiat zamojski
1,872 106,526 Zamość * Szczebrzeszyn, Zwierzyniec, Krasnobród 15
Łuków County
powiat łukowski
1,394 107,144 Łuków Stoczek Łukowski 11
Biłgoraj County
powiat biłgorajski
1,678 101,152 Biłgoraj Tarnogród, Józefów, Frampol 14
Kraśnik County
powiat kraśnicki
1,005 95,618 Kraśnik Annopol, Urzędów 10
Lubartów County
powiat lubartowski
1,290 88,591 Lubartów Kock, Ostrów Lubelski 13
Tomaszów Lubelski County
powiat tomaszowski (lubelski)
1,487 83,148 Tomaszów Lubelski Tyszowce, Łaszczów, Lubycza Królewska 13
Chełm County
powiat chełmski
1,780 78,074 Chełm * Rejowiec Fabryczny, Rejowiec 15
Świdnik County
powiat świdnicki (lubelski)
469 71,897 Świdnik Piaski 5
Krasnystaw County
powiat krasnostawski
1,067 63,554 Krasnystaw 10
Hrubieszów County
powiat hrubieszowski
1,269 63,320 Hrubieszów 8
Opole Lubelskie County
powiat opolski (lubelski)
804 59,511 Opole Lubelskie Poniatowa, Józefów nad Wisłą 7
Radzyń Podlaski County
powiat radzyński
965 59,057 Radzyń Podlaski 8
Ryki County
powiat rycki
616 55,919 Ryki Dęblin 6
Łęczna County
powiat łęczyński
634 57,372 Łęczna 6
Janów Lubelski County
powiat janowski
875 45,845 Janów Lubelski Modliborzyce 7
Włodawa County
powiat włodawski
1,256 38,524 Włodawa Siedliszcze 8
Parczew County
powiat parczewski
953 34,809 Parczew 7
* seat not part of the county

Protected areasEdit

 
Łukie Lake in the Polesie National Park
 
Echo artificial lake in the Roztocze National Park

Protected areas in Lublin Voivodeship include two National Parks and 17 Landscape Parks. These are listed below.

EconomyEdit

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 18.5 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 3.7% of Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 14,400 euros or 48% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 54% of the EU average. Lublin Voivodship is the province with the lowest GDP per capita in Poland.[4]

Most common surnames in the regionEdit

  1. Wójcik: 12,937
  2. Mazurek: 9,644
  3. Mazur: 8,019

Previous Lublin VoivodeshipsEdit

Lublin Voivodeship 1474–1795Edit

Lublin Voivodeship (Latin: Palatinatus Lublinensis; Polish: Województwo Lubelskie) was an administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland created in 1474 out of parts of Sandomierz Voivodeship and lasting until the Partitions of Poland in 1795. It was part of the prowincja of Lesser Poland.

Lublin Voivodeship 1816–1837Edit

Lublin Voivodeship was one of the voivodeships of Congress Poland. It was formed in 1816 from Lublin Department, and in 1837 was transformed into Lublin Governorate.

Lublin Voivodeship 1919–1939Edit

Lublin Voivodeship (Województwo Lubelskie) was one of the administrative regions of the interwar Second Polish Republic. In early 1939 its area was 26,555 square kilometres (10,253 sq mi) and its population was 2,116,200.[5] According to the 1931 census, 85.1% of its population was Polish, 10.5% Jewish, and 3% Ukrainian.

Lublin Voivodeship 1945–1975Edit

Lublin Voivodeship (województwo lubelskie) was an administrative region of Poland between 1945 and 1975. In 1975 it was transformed into Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska, Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships and a smaller Lublin Voivodeship.

Lublin Voivodeship 1975–1998Edit

 
Lublin Voivodeship 1975–1998

Lublin Voivodeship (województwo lubelskie) existed as one of Poland's 49 voivodeships from 1975 until 1998, when it was incorporated into the current (larger) Lublin Voivodeship.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ Arkadiusz Belczyk,Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002-2006.
  3. ^ GUS. "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  4. ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
  5. ^ Mały Rocznik Statystyczny (Concise Statistical Year-Book), Warsaw, 1939

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 51°13′22″N 22°54′10″E / 51.22278°N 22.90278°E / 51.22278; 22.90278