Gdynia (/ɡəˈdɪniə/ gə-DIN-ee-ə; Polish: [ˈɡdɨɲa] (About this soundlisten); German: Gdingen (currently), Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: Gdiniô)[a] is a city in northern Poland and a seaport on the Baltic Sea coast. With a population of 244,969, it is the 12th-largest city in Poland and the second-largest in the Pomeranian Voivodeship after Gdańsk.[1] Gdynia is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto) with around 800,000 inhabitants.

Gdynia
00 sea towers (April 2018).jpg
Container terminals in Gdynia.jpg
Flag of Gdynia
POL Gdynia COA.svg
Motto(s): 
Uśmiechnij się, jesteś w Gdyni
(Smile, you're in Gdynia)
Gdynia is located in Pomeranian Voivodeship
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Poland
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Europe
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Baltic Sea
Gdynia
Gdynia
Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533
Country Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranian
Countycity county
City rights10 February 1926
Boroughs22 districts
Government
 • MayorWojciech Szczurek
Area
 • City135 km2 (52 sq mi)
Highest elevation
205 m (673 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2020)
 • City244,969 Decrease (12th)[1]
 • Density1,820/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,080,700
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
81-004 to 81-919
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGA
Websitehttp://www.gdynia.pl

Historically and culturally part of Kashubia and Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia for centuries remained a small fishing village. By the 20th-century it attracted visitors as a seaside resort town. In 1926 Gdynia was granted city rights, after which it enjoyed demographic and urban development, with a modernist cityscape. It became a major seaport city of Poland. The violent 1970 protests in and around Gdynia contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in nearby Gdańsk.

The port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the cruising itinerary of luxury passenger ships and ferries travelling to Scandinavia. In 2013, Gdynia was ranked by readers of The News as Poland's best city to live in, and topped the national rankings in the category of "general quality of life".[2]

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

 
Medieval St. Michael Archangel Church - the oldest building in Gdynia

The area of the later city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania). In prehistoric times, it was the center of Oksywie culture; it was later populated by Slavs with some Baltic Prussian influences. In the late 10th century, the region was united with the emerging state of Poland[3] by its first historic ruler Mieszko I. During the reign of Bolesław II, the region seceded from Poland and became independent, to be reunited with Poland in 1116/1121 by Bolesław III.[4] In 1209, the present-day district of Oksywie was first mentioned (Oxhöft). Following the fragmentation of Poland, the region became part of the Duchy of Pomerania (Eastern), which became separate from Poland in 1227, to be reunited in 1282. The first known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian (Kashubian) fishing village dates back to 1253. The first church on this part of the Baltic Sea coast was built there. In 1309–1310, the Teutonic Order invaded and annexed the region from Poland. In 1380, the owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian Order. In 1382, Gdynia became property of the Cistercian abbey in Oliwa. In 1454, King Casimir IV Jagiellon signed the of act of incorporation of the region to the Kingdom of Poland, and the Thirteen Years' War, the longest of all Polish-Teutonic wars, started. It ended in 1466, when the Teutonic Knights recognized the region as part of Poland. Administratively, Gdynia was located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship in the province of Royal Prussia[5] in the Greater Poland Province of the Kingdom of Poland and later of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1772, Gdynia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland. Gdynia, under the Germanized name Gdingen, was included within the newly formed province of West Prussia and was expropriated from the Cistercian Order. In 1789, there were only 21 houses in Gdynia. Around that time Gdynia was so small that it was not marked on many maps of the period: it was about halfway from Oksywie and Mały Kack, now districts of Gdynia. In 1871, the village became part of the German Empire. It had some 1,200 inhabitants. At the time it was not a poor fishing village as it is sometimes described; it had become a popular tourist spot with several guest houses, restaurants, cafés, several brick houses and a small harbour with a pier for small trading ships. The first Kashubian mayor was Jan Radtke.[6]

 
House of Stefan Żeromski in Orłowo

Following World War I, in 1918, Poland regained independence, and following the Treaty of Versailles, in 1920, Gdynia was re-integrated with the reborn Polish state. Simultaneously, the nearby city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and surrounding area was declared a free city and put under the League of Nations, though Poland was given economic liberties and requisitioned for matters of foreign representation.

Construction of the seaportEdit

The decision to build a major seaport at Gdynia village was made by the Polish government in winter 1920,[7] in the midst of the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1920).[8] The authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Danzig felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war. German dockworkers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies sent from the West to aid the Polish army,[8] and Poland realized the need for a port city it was in complete control of, economically and politically.[citation needed]

Construction of Gdynia seaport started in 1921[8] but, because of financial difficulties, it was conducted slowly and with interruptions. It was accelerated after the Sejm (Polish parliament) passed the Gdynia Seaport Construction Act on 23 September 1922. By 1923 a 550-metre pier, 175 metres (574 feet) of a wooden tide breaker, and a small harbour had been constructed. Ceremonial inauguration of Gdynia as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter took place on 23 April 1923. The first major seagoing ship arrived on 13 August 1923.[citation needed]

 
Museum of the Navy in Gdynia

To speed up the construction works, the Polish government in November 1924 signed a contract with the French-Polish Consortium for Gdynia Seaport Construction. By the end of 1925, they had built a small seven-metre-deep harbour, the south pier, part of the north pier, a railway, and had ordered the trans-shipment equipment. The works were going more slowly than expected, however. They accelerated only after May 1926, because of an increase in Polish exports by sea, economic prosperity, the outbreak of the German–Polish trade war which reverted most Polish international trade to sea routes, and thanks to the personal engagement of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, Polish Minister of Industry and Trade (also responsible for the construction of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy). By the end of 1930 docks, piers, breakwaters, and many auxiliary and industrial installations were constructed (such as depots, trans-shipment equipment, and a rice processing factory) or started (such as a large cold store).[citation needed]

 
Gdynia in 1938

Trans-shipments rose from 10,000 tons (1924) to 2,923,000 tons (1929). At this time Gdynia was the only transit and special seaport designed for coal exports.[citation needed]

In the years 1931–1939 Gdynia harbour was further extended to become a universal seaport. In 1938 Gdynia was the largest and most modern seaport on the Baltic Sea, as well as the tenth biggest in Europe. The trans-shipments rose to 8.7 million tons, which was 46% of Polish foreign trade. In 1938 the Gdynia shipyard started to build its first full-sea ship, the Olza.[citation needed]

Construction of the cityEdit

The city was constructed later than the seaport. In 1925 a special committee was inaugurated to build the city; city expansion plans were designed and city rights were granted in 1926, and tax privileges were granted for investors in 1927. The city started to grow significantly after 1928.

A new railway station and the Post Office were completed. The State railways extended their lines, built bridges and also constructed a group of houses for their employees. Within a few years houses were built along some 10 miles (16 km) of road leading northward from the Free City of Danzig to Gdynia and beyond. Public institutions and private employers helped their staff to build houses.
In 1933 a plan of development providing for a population of 250,000 was worked out by a special commission appointed by a government committee, in collaboration with the municipal authorities. By 1939 the population had grown to over 120,000.[9]

Gdynia during World War II (1939–1945)Edit

 
Poles arrested by the Germans in Gdynia in September 1939

During the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939, Gdynia was the site of fierce Polish defense. On 13 September, 1939, the Germans carried out first arrests of local Poles in the southern part of the city, while the Polish defense was still ongoing in the northern part.[10] On 14 September 1939, the Germans captured the entire city, and then occupied it until 1945. On 15–16 September, the Germans carried out further mass arrests of 7,000 Poles, while Polish soldiers still fought in nearby Kępa Oksywska.[10] The German police surrounded the city and carried out mass searches of weapons.[10] Arrested Poles were held and interrogated in churches, cinemas and halls, and then around 3,000 people were released until 18 September.[10] The occupiers established several prisons and camps for Polish people, who were afterwards either deported to concentration camps or executed.[11] Some Poles from Gdynia were executed by the Germans near Starogard Gdański in September 1939.[12] In October and November 1939, the Germans carried out public executions of 52 Poles, including activists, bank directors and priests, in various parts of the city.[13] In November 1939, the occupiers also murdered hundreds of Poles from Gdynia during the massacres in Piaśnica committed nearby as part of the Intelligenzaktion. Among the victims were policemen, officials, civil defenders of Gdynia, judges, court employees, the director and employees of the National Bank of Poland, merchants, priests, school principals, teachers,[14] and students of local high schools.[15] On the night of 10–11 November, the German security police carried out mass arrests of over 1,500 Poles in the Obłuże district, and then murdered 23 young men aged 16-20, in retaliation for breaking windows at the headquarters of the German security police.[16] On 11 November, a German gendarme shot and killed two Polish boys who were collecting Polish books from the street, which were thrown out of the windows by new German settlers in the Oksywie district.[17] The Germans renamed the city to Gotenhafen after the Goths, an ancient Germanic tribe, who had lived in the area. 10 Poles from Gdynia were also murdered by the Russians in the large Katyn massacre in April–May 1940.[18]

 
ORP Błyskawica, Polish destroyer which served in World War II, now a museum ship

Some 50,000 Polish citizens, who moved to Gdynia after 1920, were expelled to the General Government (German-occupied central Poland) to make space for new German settlers in accordance with the Lebensraum policy. Local Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were also arrested and executed. The German gauleiter Albert Forster considered Kashubians of "low value" and did not support any attempts to create a Kashubian nationality. Despite such circumstances, local Poles, incl. Kashubians, organized Polish resistance groups, Kashubian Griffin (later Pomeranian Griffin), and the exiled "Związek Pomorski" in the United Kingdom. In 1943, local Poles managed to save some kidnapped Polish children from the Zamość region, by buying them from the Germans at the local train station.[19]

The harbour was transformed into a German naval base. The shipyard was expanded in 1940 and became a branch of the Kiel shipyard (Deutsche Werke Kiel A.G.). The city became an important base, due to its being relatively distant from the war theater, and many German large ships—battleships and heavy cruisers—were anchored there. During 1942, Dr Joseph Goebbels authorized relocation of Cap Arcona to Gotenhafen Harbour as a stand-in for RMS Titanic during filming of the German-produced movie Titanic, directed by Herbert Selpin.

The city was the location of two subcamps of the Stutthof concentration camp.[20] The first subcamp was located in the Orłowo district in 1941–1942, the second, named Gotenhafen, was located at the shipyard in 1944–1945.[20]

The seaport and the shipyard both witnessed several air raids by the Allies from 1943 onwards, but suffered little damage. Gdynia was used during winter 1944–45 to evacuate German troops and refugees trapped by the Red Army. Some of the ships were hit by torpedoes from Soviet submarines in the Baltic Sea on the route west. The ship Wilhelm Gustloff sank, taking about 9,400 people with her – the worst loss of life in a single sinking in maritime history. The seaport area was largely destroyed by withdrawing German troops and millions of encircled refugees in 1945 being bombarded by the Soviet military (90% of the buildings and equipment were destroyed) and the harbour entrance was blocked by the German battleship Gneisenau that had been brought to Gotenhafen for major repairs.

After World War IIEdit

 
Solidarity election rally in Gdynia in 1989

On 28 March 1945, the city was captured by the Soviets and restored to Poland, although with a Soviet-installed communist regime, which stayed in power until the Fall of Communism in the 1980s. Its historic name was restored, and it was assigned to the Gdańsk Voivodeship. The post-war period saw an influx of settlers from Warsaw which was destroyed by Germany, and other parts of the country as well as Poles from the cities of Wilno (now Vilnius) and Lwów (now Lviv) from the Soviet-annexed former eastern Poland. Also Greeks, refugees of the Greek Civil War, settled in the city.[21] The port of Gdynia was one of the three Polish ports through which refugees of the Greek Civil War reached Poland.[22]

In the Polish 1970 protests, worker demonstrations took place at Gdynia Shipyard. Workers were fired upon by the police. The fallen (e.g. Brunon Drywa) became symbolized by a fictitious worker Janek Wiśniewski, commemorated in a song by Mieczysław Cholewa, Pieśń o Janku z Gdyni. One of Gdynia's important streets is named after Janek Wiśniewski. The same person was portrayed by Andrzej Wajda in his movie Man of Iron as Mateusz Birkut.

On 4 December 1999, a storm destroyed a huge crane in a shipyard, which was able to lift 900 tons.

GeographyEdit

Population and areaEdit

Year Inhabitants Area
1870 1,200
1920 1,300
1926 12,000 6 km2
1939 127,000 66 km2
1945 70,000 66 km2
1960 150,200 73 km2
1970 191,500 75 km2
1975 221,100 134 km2
1980 236,400 134 km2
1990 251,500 136 km2
1994 252,000 136 km2
1995 251,400 136 km2
2000 255,420 135.49 square kilometres (52.31 sq mi) (after GUS – Central Statistical Office in Warsaw)
2009 248,889 136,72 km2

ClimateEdit

The climate of Gdynia is an oceanic climate owing to its position of the Baltic Sea, which moderates the temperatures, compared to the interior of Poland. The climate is cool throughout the year and there is a somewhat uniform precipitation throughout the year. Typical of Northern Europe, there is little sunshine during the year.

Climate data for Gdynia (1976-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
11.2
(52.2)
16.0
(60.8)
24.8
(76.6)
30.2
(86.4)
32.1
(89.8)
34.7
(94.5)
29.3
(84.7)
28.5
(83.3)
22.1
(71.8)
15.2
(59.4)
14.1
(57.4)
34.7
(94.5)
Average high °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
2.8
(37.0)
6.2
(43.2)
11.6
(52.9)
16.8
(62.2)
20.4
(68.7)
22.7
(72.9)
22.5
(72.5)
18.4
(65.1)
12.2
(54.0)
7.6
(45.7)
4.3
(39.7)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
0.35
(32.63)
2.25
(36.05)
7.65
(45.77)
12.0
(53.6)
15.9
(60.6)
18.75
(65.75)
18.5
(65.3)
15.1
(59.2)
9.25
(48.65)
5.65
(42.17)
2.45
(36.41)
8.94
(48.09)
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
(26.2)
−2.1
(28.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.7
(38.7)
7.2
(45.0)
11.4
(52.5)
14.8
(58.6)
14.5
(58.1)
11.8
(53.2)
6.3
(43.3)
3.7
(38.7)
0.6
(33.1)
5.6
(42.0)
Record low °C (°F) −21.2
(−6.2)
−12.6
(9.3)
−13.9
(7.0)
−4.6
(23.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.7
(45.9)
−4.6
(23.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
−14.5
(5.9)
−21.2
(−6.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.6
(1.83)
40.6
(1.60)
47.7
(1.88)
36.6
(1.44)
60.1
(2.37)
59.6
(2.35)
72.5
(2.85)
74.9
(2.95)
71.2
(2.80)
67.8
(2.67)
61.2
(2.41)
57.8
(2.28)
696.6
(27.43)
Average rainy days 15 11 13 13 16 15 16 17 14 18 19 16 183
Average snowy days 11 13 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 7 50
Average relative humidity (%) 82 86 79 69 63 69 71 72 82 83 84 87 77
Source: my weather2[23]

DistrictsEdit

Gdynia is divided into smaller divisions: dzielnicas and osiedles. Gdynia's dzielnicas include: Babie Doły, Chwarzno-Wiczlino, Chylonia, Cisowa, Dąbrowa, Działki Leśne, Grabówek, Kamienna Góra, Karwiny, Leszczynki, Mały Kack, Obłuże, Oksywie, Orłowo, Pogórze, Pustki Cisowskie-Demptowo, Redłowo, Śródmieście, Wielki Kack, Witomino-Leśniczówka, Witomino-Radiostacja, Wzgórze Św. Maksymiliana .

Osiedles: Bernadowo, Brzozowa Góra, Chwarzno, Dąbrówka, Demptowo, Dębowa Góra, Fikakowo, Gołębiewo, Kacze Buki, Kolibki, Kolonia Chwaszczyno, Kolonia Rybacka, Krykulec, Marszewo, Międzytorze, Niemotowo, Osada Kolejowa, Osada Rybacka, Osiedle Bernadowo, Port, Pustki Cisowskie, Tasza, Wiczlino, Wielka Rola, Witomino, Wysoka, Zielenisz.

Sights and tourist attractionsEdit

 
View from Kościuszko Square; Dar Pomorza on the left, Sea Towers on the right
 
Gdynia's main boardwalk
 
Experiment Science Center

Gdynia is a relatively modern city.[24][failed verification] Its architecture includes the 13th century St. Michael the Archangel's Church in Oksywie, the oldest building in Gdynia, and the 17th century neo-Gothic manor house located on Folwarczna Street in Orłowo. The city also holds many examples of early 20th-century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism, and modernism.[25] A good example of modernism is PLO building situated at 10 Lutego Street.

The surrounding hills and the coastline attract many nature lovers. A leisure pier and a cliff-like coastline in Kępa Redłowska, as well as the surrounding Nature Reserve, are also popular locations. In the harbour, there are two anchored museum ships, the destroyer ORP Błyskawica and the tall ship frigate Dar Pomorza.[26] A 1.5-kilometre (0.93 mi)-long promenade leads from the marina in the city center, to the beach in Redłowo.[27]

Most of Gdynia can be seen from Kamienna Góra[28] (54 metres (177 feet) asl) or the viewing point near Chwaszczyno. There are also two viewing towers, one at Góra Donas, the other at Kolibki.

In 2015 the Emigration Museum opened in the city.

CultureEdit

Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival. The International Random Film Festival was hosted in Gdynia in November 2014. Since 2003 Gdynia has been hosting the Open'er Festival, one of the biggest contemporary music festivals in Europe. The festival welcomes many foreign hip-hop, rock and electronic music artists every year. In record-high 2018 it was attended by over 140,000 people, who enjoyed the lineup headlined by Bruno Mars, Gorillaz, Arctic Monkeys and Depeche Mode.[29] Another important summer event in Gdynia is the Viva Beach Party, which is a large two-day techno party made on Gdynia's Public Beach and a summer-welcoming concerts CudaWianki. Gdynia also hosts events for the annual Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival.
In the summer of 2014 Gdynia hosted Red Bull Air Race World Championship.

Cultural referencesEdit

In 2008, Gdynia made it onto the Monopoly Here and Now World Edition board after being voted by fans through the Internet. Gdynia occupies the space traditionally held by Mediterranean Avenue, being the lowest voted city to make it onto the Monopoly Here and Now board, but also the smallest city to make it in the game. All of the other cities are large and widely known ones, the second smallest being Riga. The unexpected success of Gdynia can be attributed to a mobilization of the town's population to vote for it on the Internet.

An abandoned factory district in Gdynia was the scene for the survival series Man vs Wild, season 6, episode 12. The host, Bear Grylls, manages to escape the district after blowing up a door and crawling through miles of sewer.

Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the supervillain in the James Bond novels, was born in Gdynia on 28 May 1908, according to Thunderball.

Gdynia is sometimes called "Polish Roswell" due to the alleged UFO crash on 21 January 1959.[30][31][32][33][34][35]

Notable peopleEdit

SportEdit

Fictional charactersEdit

SportsEdit

 
National Rugby Stadium

Sport teams

International eventsEdit

Economy and infrastructureEdit

Notable companies that have their headquarters or regional offices in Gdynia:

  • PROKOM SA – the largest Polish I.T. company
  • C. Hartwig Gdynia SA – one of the largest Polish freight forwarders
  • Sony Pictures – finance center
  • Thomson Reuters – business data provider
  • Vistal – bridge constructions, offshore and shipbuilding markets; partially located on old Stocznia Gdynia terrains
  • Nauta – ship repair yard; partially located on old Stocznia Gdynia terrains
  • Crist – shipbuilding, offshore constructions, steel structures, sea engineering, civil engineering; located on old Stocznia Gdynia terrains

Former:

  • Stocznia Gdynia – former largest Polish shipyard, now under bankruptcy procedures
  • Nordea – banks, sold and consolidated with PKO bank

TransportEdit

Port of GdyniaEdit

In 2007, 364,202 passengers, 17,025,000 tons of cargo and 614,373 TEU containers passed through the port. Regular car ferry service operates between Gdynia and Karlskrona, Sweden.

AirportEdit

The conurbation's main airport, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, lays approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-west of central Gdynia, and has connections to approximately 55 destinations. It is the third largest airport in Poland.[37] A second General Aviation terminal was scheduled to be opened by May 2012, which will increase the airport's capacity to 5mln passengers per year.

Another local airport, (Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport) is situated partly in the village of Kosakowo, just to the north of the city, and partly in Gdynia. This has been a military airport since the World War II, but it has been decided in 2006 that the airport will be used to serve civilians.[38] Work was well in progress and was due to be ready for 2012 when the project collapsed following a February 2014 EU decision regarding Gdynia city funding as constituting unfair competition to Gdańsk airport. In March 2014, the airport management company filed for bankruptcy, this being formally announced in May that year. The fate of some PLN 100 million of public funds from Gdynia remain unaccounted for with documents not being released, despite repeated requests for such from residents to the city president, Wojciech Szczurek.

Road transportEdit

Trasa Kwiatkowskiego links Port of Gdynia and the city with Obwodnica Trójmiejska, and therefore A1 motorway. National road 6 connects Tricity with Słupsk, Koszalin and Szczecin agglomeration.

RailwaysEdit

 
Gdynia Główna, the city's main railway station

The principal station in Gdynia is Gdynia Główna railway station, and Gdynia has five other railway stations. Local services are provided by the 'Fast Urban Railway,' Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) operating frequent trains covering the Tricity area including Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. Long-distance trains from Warsaw via Gdańsk terminate at Gdynia, and there are direct trains to Szczecin, Poznań, Katowice, Lublin and other major cities. In 2011-2015 the Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia route is undergoing a major upgrading costing $3 billion, partly funded by the European Investment Bank, including track replacement, realignment of curves and relocation of sections of track to allow speeds up to 200 km/h (124 mph), modernization of stations, and installation of the most modern ETCS signalling system, which is to be completed in June 2015. In December 2014 new Alstom Pendolino high-speed trains were put into service between Gdynia, Warsaw and Kraków reducing rail travel times to Gdynia by 2 hours.[39][40]

EducationEdit

 
Gdynia Maritime University in the building from 1937 as example of prewar Polish modern architecture.

There are currently 8 universities and institutions of higher education based in Gdynia. Many students from Gdynia also attend universities located in the Tricity.

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Gdynia is twinned with:[42]

See alsoEdit


NotesEdit

  1. ^

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 16 October 2021. Data for territorial unit 2262000.
  2. ^ "Gdynia rated Poland's best city". TheNews.pl. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  3. ^ André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Routledge, 2000, p.: 1163, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1 link
  4. ^ James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p.375, ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7
  5. ^ Daniel Stone,A History of East Central Europe, University of Washington Press, 2001, p. 30, ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5 Google Books
  6. ^ "Map of Danzig and around in 1899, showing Gdingen".
  7. ^ "Port of Gdynia". worldportsource.com.
  8. ^ a b c Robert Michael Citino. The path to blitzkrieg: doctrine and training in the German Army, 1920–1939. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1999. p. 173.
  9. ^ (ed) Michael Murray, Poland's Progress 1919–1939, John Murray, 1944, London pp 64–6
  10. ^ a b c d Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 105.
  11. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 106
  12. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 108
  13. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 156
  14. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 106, 146–148
  15. ^ Drywa, Danuta (2020). "Germanizacja dzieci i młodzieży polskiej na Pomorzu Gdańskim z uwzględnieniem roli obozu koncentracyjnego Stutthof". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 181.
  16. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 156–157
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Further readingEdit

  • (ed.) R. Wapiński, Dzieje Gdyni, Gdańsk 1980
  • (ed.). S. Gierszewski, Gdynia, Gdańsk 1968
  • Gdynia, in: Pomorze Gdańskie, nr 5, Gdańsk 1968
  • J. Borowik, Gdynia, port Rzeczypospolitej, Toruń 1934
  • B. Kasprowicz, Problemy ekonomiczne budowy i eksploatacji portu w Gdyni w latach 1920–1939, Zapiski Historyczne, nr 1-3/1956
  • M. Widernik, Główne problemy gospodarczo-społeczne miasta Gdyni w latach 1926–1939., Gdańsk 1970
  • (ed.) A. Bukowski, Gdynia. Sylwetki ludzi, oświata i nauka, literatura i kultura, Gdańsk 1979
  • Gminy województwa gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1995
  • H. Górnowicz, Z. Brocki, Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Wrocław 1978
  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. I-IV, Poznań 1969–2003
  • (ed.) W. Odyniec, Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku, Gdańsk 1978
  • L. Bądkowski, Pomorska myśl polityczna, Gdańsk 1990
  • L. Bądkowski, W. Samp, Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1974
  • B. Śliwiński, Poczet książąt gdańskich, Gdańsk 1997
  • Józef Spors, Podziały administracyjne Pomorza Gdańskiego i Sławieńsko-Słupskiego od XII do początków XIV w, Słupsk 1983
  • M. Latoszek, Pomorze. Zagadnienia etniczno-regionalne, Gdańsk 1996
  • B. Bojarska, Eksterminacja inteligencji polskiej na Pomorzu Gdańskim (wrzesień-grudzień 1939), Poznań 1972
  • K. Ciechanowski, Ruch oporu na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1939–1945., Warszawa 1972

External linksEdit