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The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki (Wodzisław County) /Věřňovice (Karviná District), where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1. The motorway is a part of the European route E75. The total planned length is 565.1 km (351.1 mi).

Autostrada A1 shield}}

Autostrada A1
Autostrada Bursztynowa
Route information
Part of E75
Length432.8 km (268.9 mi)
565.1 km (351 mi) planned
Major junctions
FromS6-PL.svg S6 near Gdańsk
 S5-PL.svg S5 near Grudziądz (planned)

S10-PL.svg S10 near Toruń
A2-PL.svg A2 near Stryków
S8-PL.svg S8 near Tuszyn
S12-PL.svg S12 near Piotrków Trybunalski (planned)
S1-PL.svg S1 and S11-PL.svg S11 junction near Katowice International Airport in Pyrzowice

A4-PL.svg A4 near Gliwice
ToCZ traffic sign IS16a - D1.svg D1 border with Czech Republic
Major citiesGdańsk, Grudziądz, Toruń, Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Częstochowa, Gliwice
Highway system
National roads in Poland
A1 near Grudziądz, northern (Gdańsk - Grudziądz) section.
2005 photo of partially completed bridge over the Vistula river in Toruń-Czerniewice on the Torun bypass, with only one carriageway finished and pillars for the planned second one. The bridge was opened with dual carriageways in fall of 2011 and became part of A1.
Gliwice-Sosnica A1, A4 and national road 44 junction near Gliwice, the largest motorway junction in Central-Eastern Europe, opened 2009-2010
800 meter bridge in Knurow near Gliwice
400 meter bridge in Mszana near Wodzisław Śląski


History of constructionEdit

The construction of the A1 motorway has been a highly politicized issue in Poland, as it is perceived to be an economically vital road that would connect the country's major ports on the Baltic coast with both central and southern Poland. Since 1989 various governments and political parties have supported an accelerated construction schedule for this motorway, without results. After many delays, caused mainly by lack of funding, construction resumed in 2005. When Jarosław Kaczyński was prime minister, statements from government officials indicated a firm commitment for accelerating the construction schedule, with completion of the whole motorway achieved in 2010. That plan was too optimistic, but according to then current plans much of the motorway would be opened by 2012 (as it was, 68% was complete by Dec 2012). As of October 2015, about 395.5 km (245.8 mi) of the motorway has been completed.

Gdańsk to StrykówEdit

This section was built in stages between 2005 and 2014. First, a 25 km (16 mi) section was opened on 22 December 2007, near Gdańsk, extending the S6 bypass expressway, and a remaining 65 km (40 mi) opened on 17 October 2008. The 62 km extension of the motorway to Toruń opened on 14 October 2011.

Stryków to PyrzowiceEdit

The oldest section of this segment, a 17.5 km (11 mi) stretch as the Piotrków Trybunalski bypass, was built between 1978 and 1989. This was one of the very few stretches of motorway built in Poland under the Communist regime. In addition, the section from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski was built in the 1970s as a dual carriageway road on a motorway alignment. However, it lacks motorway interchanges, and instead has standard intersections with no grade separation, regulated by traffic lights.

On 22 January 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of the 180 km (110 mi) section from Stryków (junction with motorway A2) to Pyrzowice.[1] Under the terms of the contract, the segment from Stryków to Częstochowa (123 km (76 mi)) was to be finished by May 2012, while the remaining segment from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice (57 km (35 mi)) was to be finished by January 2014 (60 months after the signing of the contract). The motorway was to be built within a Private-Public Partnership framework by company Autostrada Południe. The contract included the rebuilding of an already existing stretch of A1 motorway (opened in 1989) as well as the upgrade of the existing dual-carriageway road between Piotrków Trybunalski and Częstochowa. On 23 January 2010 the contract was cancelled as the company was not able to secure financing.[2] It carried out the design project of the motorway however, which according to the Polish government was to make it possible for construction to begin in 2010 by new contractors, and be finished by 2012. However, the design project turned out to be full of flaws and will have to be redone from scratch.[3]

The section from Pyrzowice to Częstochowa began construction in 2016, with completion planned for 2019/2020. The government plans to upgrade the remaining dual-carriageway stretch from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski by forming a partnership with a private company which would use future toll collections for financing, but the precise plans for doing this are uncertain as of 2016.

Pyrzowice to border with Czech RepublicEdit

At the southern end of the motorway, construction of a 15.5 km (9.6 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica to Bełk, part of the southernmost section from the junction with the A4 motorway at Sośnica district of Gliwice to the Czech border, began on 26 March 2007 and was completed in December 2009. The remainder of the 48 km (30 mi) long section from A4 to the border was opened in different stages from 2009 till 2014. Construction of the 43 km (27 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica north to Pyrzowice began in 2009 and was fully completed by June 2012.

On 15 December 2009 the Polish government announced the cancelling of the contract for building the Świerklany - Gorzyczki (Czech border) section, citing the unacceptably slow pace of construction by Alpine Bau GmbH.[4] The government solicited new bids for this section in April 2010[4] and the bid was won by the same company that lost the original contract, and construction resumed in October 2010.[5] The original plan was for the road to be ready in the Summer of 2010,[4] and according to the new contract it was to be ready in April 2012, in time for Euro 2012 championships. Alpine Bau GmbH abandoned their second effort to finish this section in May 2013.[6] It was finally opened in May 2014.

Sections of the motorwayEdit

Motorway section Length Constructed Note
Gdańsk - Grudziądz 90 km 2005–2008 opened October 17, 2008; toll motorway
Grudziądz - Toruń 62 km 2008–2011 opened October 14, 2011; toll motorway
Toruń - Pikutkowo ( Włocławek West ) 45 km 2010–2013 construction interrupted in September, 2012 as companies involved have been ejected from the contract,.[7][8] (the ejected companies have sued the Polish authorities). New contractors have been selected in April, 2013 and the road opened to traffic on December 20, 2013.[9][10]
Pikutkowo ( Włocławek West ) - Kowal 19 km 2010–2014 construction interrupted in September, 2012 as companies involved have been ejected from the contract,.[7][8] (the ejected companies have sued the Polish authorities). New contractors were selected in April, 2013 and the road fully opened to traffic at the end of April 2014.[9]
Kowal - Stryków/Łódź 75 km 2010–2012 opened November 13, 2012
Stryków/Łódź - Tuszyn 37.3 km 2012–2016 Design-build contract signed in December 2010, completion originally planned in 32 months,[11] then delayed to June, 2014[12] then later plans had it completed in Summer of 2015 [13] However, the contractor abandoned the contract in January, 2014, so this stretch will be delayed further, as new contractor will have to be selected.[14] In September 2014 it was announced this section had been divided into 3 sections and contractors for 2 of these sections had been appointed.[15] Opened July 2016
Tuszyn - Piotrków Trybunalski 17 km 1978–1989 built, to be upgraded
Piotrków Trybunalski - Częstochowa 82 km ? planned upgrade of existing dual-carriageway road, which was built in the 1970s with some motorway features. Current government plans have this road opening between 2020 and 2022.[16]
Rząsawa (Częstochowa)– Blachownia 20,3 km 2015-2019 under construction, contract signed with Salini on October 12, 2015 [17]
Blachownia-Zawodzie 4,7 km 2015-2018 under construction, contract signed with Berger Bau on August 31, 2015 [18]
Zawodzie - Woźniki 16,7 km 2016-2019 under construction, contract signed with STRABAG on March 4, 2016 [19]
Woźniki - Pyrzowice 15,2 km 2015-2018 under construction, contract signed with STRABAG on August 26, 2015 [20] Map, planned date of opening: December 2018
Pyrzowice - "Zabrze Północ” (Wieszowa) 31 km 2009–2012 opened 1 June 2012[21]
"Zabrze Północ” (Wieszowa) - Maciejów 8,1 km 2009–2011 opened December 2011[22]
Maciejów - Sośnica/Gliwice 6 km 2009–2011 opened September 2011[23]
Sośnica/Gliwice - Bełk 15,5 km 2007–2009 opened December 2009
Bełk - Świerklany 14,1 km 2008-2011 Bełk - Rowień opened in December 2010, Rowień - Świerklany opened in April 2011 (delayed because of floods)
Świerklany - Mszana 7,3 km 2007–2014 construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute,[4] then resumed[5] in October 2010. Was to open in July 2012,[24] but a problem with one of the bridges then moved the planned opening until August, 2013.[25] In May, 2013 the contractor abandoned the project, citing disagreement with Polish government agencies.[26] A new contractor to finish the bridge was selected in June 2013, and the road fully opened to traffic on May 23, 2014.
Mszana - Gorzyczki (Czech border) 11,1 km 2007–2012 construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute,[4] then resumed[5] in October 2010. Opened (to light vehicles only) in November 2012, and to all vehicles on May 23, 2014 after completion of adjacent section.[27]

Route descriptionEdit

Number of exit(facility) Exit(facility) name Mileage from terminus Notes(facilities available if opposite the MOP(rest area))
(1) Rusocin     0 km
Toll booth 1 Gdańsk 1 km (0.62 mi)
(1) MOP Kleszczewko 5.2 km (3.23 mi) parking only
(2) Stanisławie  16 km (9.94 mi)
(3) Swarożyn  24.4 km (15.16 mi)
(4) Pelplin  35.9 km (22.31 mi)
(2) MOP Olsze 41 km (25.48 mi) petrol station, restaurant present as well as parking
(5) Kopytkowo  57.9 km (35.98 mi)
64.7 km (40.20 mi) Border: kujawsko-pomorskie and pomorskie voiv
(3) MOP Gajewo 68.3 km (42.44 mi)(southbound)

70 km (43.50 mi)(northbound)

parking only
(6) Warlubie Indirect (in 1 km range):    73.2 km (45.48 mi)
(7) Nowe Marzy  Contract signed for(works haven't started):  89 km (55.30 mi)
Bridge over Vistula middle at 94.3 km (58.60 mi)
(8) Grudziądz (indirect access to  ) 96.1 km (59.71 mi)
(4) MOP Malankowo 105.6 km (65.62 mi) petrol station and restaurant
(9) Lisewo  111.8 km (69.47 mi)
(5) MOP Nowy Dwór 128.4 km (79.78 mi) parking only
(10) Turzno (indirect access to   ) 134.3 km (83.45 mi)
(11) Toruń Wschód  (indirect access to  ) 140.4 km (87.24 mi)
(6) MOP Nowa Wieś 143.3 km (89.04 mi) Parking only
Toll booth Toruń 143.7 km (89.29 mi)
Bridge over Vistula(Most Im. Armii Krajowej) 149.1 km (92.65 mi)
(12) Czerniewice  151 km (93.83 mi) End of toll road
(7) MOP Otłoczyn Zachód 159 km (98.80 mi) Petrol station and restaurant
(13) Ciechocinek (indirect access)  163.6 km (101.66 mi)
(8) MOP Kałęczynek Zachód 177 km (109.98 mi) parking only
(14) Brzezie  (indirect access) 186.5 km (115.89 mi)
(15) Włocławek  195.1 km (121.23 mi)
(9) MOP Ludwinowo Wschód 201.8 km (125.39 mi) parking only
(16) Kowal  215 km (133.59 mi)
(10) MOP Lubień Północ 218.7 km (135.89 mi) petrol station
229.5 km (142.60 mi) Triple border point: kujawsko-pomorskie, łódzkie and mazowieckie (going on the border of the two latter voivoderships to 235.9 km (146.58 mi), when fully starts going in łódzkie)
(11) MOP Strzelce 236.9 km (147.20 mi) Eastbound only, parking only
(17) Kutno Północ  243.4 km (151.24 mi)
(18) Kutno Południe  252.6 km (156.96 mi)
(19) Piątek  271 km (168.39 mi)
(12) MOP Głowno 278.1 km (172.80 mi)
(20) Łódź Północ   292.2 km (181.56 mi)
(21) Brzeziny
(22) Łódź Wschód
(23) Łódź Górna
(24) Łódź Południe 
(25) Tuszyn 0 km
(26) Piotrków Trybunalski Zachód   13.3 km (8.26 mi) Entrance into southern direction (Gorzyczki) only, to be upgraded
(27) Piotrków Trybunalski Południe   16.1 km (10.00 mi) Terminus
(28) Kamieńsk Has only DŚU
(29) Radomsko
Entrance to Silesian voivodership
(30) Kościelec Has only DŚU
(31) Rząsawa Under construction
(32) Lgota 
(33) Blachownia 
(34) Zawodzie  Tendered
(35) Woźniki  Under construction
(36) Pyrzowice  0 km Terminus
(37) Piekary Śląskie  14.1 km (8.76 mi)
(38) Bytom  16.6 km (10.31 mi)
(39) Zabrze Północ   26.6 km (16.53 mi)
(40) Zabrze Zachód  31.9 km (19.82 mi)
(41) Gliwice Wschód  36.1 km (22.43 mi)
(42) Gliwice Sośnica(I)  40.2 km (24.98 mi)
(43) Gliwice Sośnica(II)  41.4 km (25.72 mi)
(44) Gliwice Sośnica(III)   42.5 km (26.41 mi)
(45) Knurów  47 km (29.20 mi)
(13) MOP Knurów 50.3 km (31.25 mi) Parking only
(46) Dębieńsko 54.2 km (33.68 mi)
(47) Rybnik  58 km (36.04 mi)
(48) MOP Rowień Zachód 65 km (40.39 mi) Petrol station and restaurant
(49) Żory  65.4 km (40.64 mi)
(50) Świerklany  72.4 km (44.99 mi)
(51) Mszana  79.7 km (49.52 mi)
(14) MOP Mszana 82.7 km (51.39 mi) Restaurant, hotel, petrol station and shower
(52) Gorzyce (indirect access to  ) 88.9 km (55.24 mi) Last interchange before border to Czech Republic
Border Gorzyce-Bohumín   91 km (56.54 mi) Entrance to  (Czech motorway);to Ostrava, Olomouc, Brno, Bratislava and Prague

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ News on GDDKiA official web portal
  2. ^ article Jan. 23, 2009 Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Ostre hamowanie A1 w Pyrzowicach
  4. ^ a b c d e article, 15 December 2009 Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c Announcement on official
  6. ^ article on abandonment, 20 May 2013
  7. ^ a b Minister: autostrada A1 do Łodzi dopiero za rok
  8. ^ a b Walsh, John (September 14, 2012). "Sisk to sue Poland over road project". Irish Examiner.
  9. ^ a b Salini dokończy budowę A1. Umowy podpisane
  10. ^ Gazeta Wyborcza
  11. ^ Umowa na budowę odcinka autostrady A1 w kierunku Katowic
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Autostrada A1. Bez szans na oddanie w terminie
  14. ^ Budowa autostrady A1. Kiedy dokończą obwodnicę Łodzi?
  15. ^
  16. ^ Powstanie ostatni, brakujący odcinek autostrady A1
  17. ^ Umowa na budowę kolejnego odcinka A1 podpisana
  18. ^ Umowa na budowę odcinka A1 Blachownia - Zawodzie podpisana
  19. ^ Podpisanie umowy na budowę odcinka A1 pomiędzy węzłami Zawodzie i Woźniki
  20. ^ Contract signed with STRABAG
  21. ^ "Przybyło nam kolejne 28 km autostrad". 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  22. ^ GDDKiA official announcement
  23. ^ Autostrada A1 otwarta z Maciejowa do Sośnicy!
  24. ^ Autostrada A1. Nie zdążą przed Euro 2012 Archived April 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Naprawa mostu na autostradzie A1 wystraszyła inwestorów. Gmina załamana
  26. ^ Alpine Bau nie dokończy mostu w Mszanie na autostradzie A1
  27. ^ A1 do samej granicy? Wiemy kiedy będzie gotowa

External linksEdit