Inowrocław (Polish pronunciation: [inɔˈvrɔtswaf]; German: Hohensalza; before 1904: Inowrazlaw; archaic: Jungleslau) is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 73,114 in December 2018. It is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, previously in the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Church of the Annunciation
|Gmina||Inowrocław (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Ryszard Brejza|
|• Total||30.42 km2 (11.75 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||100 m (300 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||85 m (279 ft)|
|• Total||73,114 (51st)|
|• Density||2,400/km2 (6,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
88-100 to 88-115
|Area code(s)||(+48) 52|
Inowrocław is an industrial town located about 40 kilometres (25 miles) southeast of Bydgoszcz known for its saltwater baths and salt mines. The town is the 5th largest agglomeration in its voivodeship, and is a major railway junction, where the west-east line (Poznań–Toruń) crosses the Polish Coal Trunk-Line from Chorzów to Gdynia.
The town was first mentioned in 1185 as Novo Wladislaw, possibly in honor of Władysław I Herman or after the settlers from Włocławek. Many inhabitants of Włocławek settled in Inowrocław fleeing flooding. In 1236, the settlement was renamed Juveni Wladislawia. It was incorporated two years later by Casimir Conradowicz. From 1466 to 1772, Inowrocław was the capital of Poland's Inowrocław Voivodeship, which covered northern Kuyavia. The town's development was aided by the discovery of extensive salt deposits in the vicinity during the 15th century.
Inowrocław was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia in February 1772 during the First Partition of Poland and added to the Netze District. Following the Franco-Prussian Treaty in July 1807, Inowrocław was transferred to the newly created Duchy of Warsaw, which was a client state of the French Empire. The city was a headquarters for Napoleon Bonaparte during his 1812 invasion of Russia. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Inowrocław (as first Inowraclaw and later Inowrazlaw) was transferred back to Prussia as part of the Grand Duchy of Posen. It flourished after the establishment of a railway junction in 1872 and a spa in 1875. The city and the region were renamed Hohensalza on December 5, 1904. It was electrified in 1908.
After the end of World War I, following the Treaty of Versailles (which came into effect on January 10, 1920), the name Inowrocław was restored and the city became part of the re-established sovereign Polish state. High unemployment resulting from trade embargoes led to violent confrontations between workers and the police in 1926 and hunger strikes killed 20 in 1930. Inowrocław was part of Poznań Voivodeship until 1925, when it became an independent urban district. This district was briefly annexed to Great Pomerania during the reform of Polish regional administration just before World War II. Captured by the German 4th Army on September 11, 1939, Inowrocław was again renamed Hohensalza and initially administered under the military district (Militärbezirk) of Posen before being incorporated into Nazi Germany first as part of the Reichsgau of Posen (1939) and then as part of Reichsgau Wartheland (1939–1945). Between 1940 and 1945, Hohensalza was used as a resettlement camp for Poles and an internment camp for Soviet, French, and British POWs.
Inowrocław returned to Poland and its original name following the arrival of the Soviet Red Army on January 21, 1945. The last German air raid occurred on April 4, 1945, when a single aircraft dropped four fragmentation bombs and fired on travelers waiting at the Inowrocław train platform. Between 1950 and 1998, the town was part of Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, but the 1999 reforms left it part of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship.
- 1970: 54,900
- 1980: 66,100
- 1990: 77,700
- 2000: 79,400
- 2004: 77,647
- 2014: 74,803
Alternative town namesEdit
Landmarks and monumentsEdit
- The Romanesque church of the St Virgin Mary, dating back to the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century, built from granite stones and brick. In 1834 it was destroyed by fire, and partially reconstructed in the 1950s. Since 13 July 2008 the St Virgin Mary's church is also the Minor Basilica (in Polish: Bazylika Mniejsza Imienia Najświętszej Maryi Panny)
- The Gothic church of St. Nicholas, first built in the middle of the 13th century, the present church was built after damage in the 15th century, and rebuilt in the 17th century
- The Neo-Romanesque church of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary, built between 1898 and 1900, consecrated in 1902, the largest church in the city, with an imposing 77-metre-high (253 ft) tower. The north side of the transept collapsed in a construction disaster in 1909 and was not rebuilt until 1929.
- The garrison church of St. Barbara and St. Maurice
- The house of Czabańscy family from ca. 1800
- The Inowrocław Synagogue
- Houses, hotel "Bast" and spa buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries
Districts and neighborhoodsEdit
- Stare Miasto
- Nowe Osiedle
- Osiedle Bydgoskie
- Osiedle Toruńskie
- Osiedle Piastowskie
- Miechowiczki (dzielnica Inowrocławia)
- Osiedle Bajka
- Rąbinek (dzielnica Inowrocławia)
- Solno (dzielnica Inowrocławia)
- Osiedle Zdrojowe
- Osiedle Kolejowe
- Cegielnia (dzielnica Inowrocławia)
- Osiedle Sady
- Osiedle Okrężek
- Osiedle Lotnicze
- SSA Notec Inowrocław – men's basketball team, 7th in Era Basket Liga in 2003/2004 season.
- Sportino Inowrocław – men's basketball team, which replaced SSA Notec, but in the 1st league.
- Goplania Inowrocław – men's football team, they are playing in 4th league.
- Cuiavia Inowrocław – men's football team, they are playing in 4th league.
- Adolph Salomonsohn (1831–1919), banker
- Berthold Fernow (1837–1908), historian
- Bernhard Fernow (1851–1923), chief of the USDA's Division of Forestry
- Jan Kasprowicz (1860–1926), poet, playwright, critic and translator
- Leopold Loeske (1865–1935), bryologist
- Gus Edwards (1879–1945), musician
- Alfred Herrmann (1879–1960), politician
- Gustav Heistermann von Ziehlberg (1898–1945), German general and resistance fighter
- Hans Jeschonnek (1899–1943), Luftwaffe general
- Arthur Sodtke (1901–1944), resistance fighter
- Justus Frantz (born 1944), musician
- Tomasz Wasilewski (born 1980), film director and screenwriter
- Krzysztof Szubarga (born 1984), basketball player