Olsztyn (UK: /ˈɒlʃtɪn/ OL-shtin,[2] Polish: [ˈɔlʂtɨn] (About this soundlisten); German: Allenstein [ˈʔalənʃtaɪn] (About this soundlisten); Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Lithuanian: Olštynas) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland. Olsztyn is the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, and is a city with county rights. The population of the city was estimated at 172,362 residents in 2018.[1]

KP, Olsztyn, zamek2.JPGAllenstein Marktplatz.JPG
Olsztyn Okopowa dom.jpgOlsztyn. Stary Ratusz.JPG
  • Left to right: Castle
  • Market Square
  • House at Okopowa Street
  • Old Town Hall
POL Olsztyn COA.svg
Coat of arms
Olsztyn – Miasto Młode Duchem…
(Olsztyn – a city young in spirit…)
Olsztyn is located in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Olsztyn is located in Poland
Coordinates: 53°46′40″N 20°28′45″E / 53.77778°N 20.47917°E / 53.77778; 20.47917Coordinates: 53°46′40″N 20°28′45″E / 53.77778°N 20.47917°E / 53.77778; 20.47917
Country Poland
Voivodeship Warmian-Masurian
Countycity county
Established14th century
Town rights1353
 • MayorPiotr Grzymowicz
 • City88.328 km2 (34.104 sq mi)
Highest elevation
154 m (505 ft)
Lowest elevation
88 m (289 ft)
 (31 December 2018)
 • City172,362 Decrease (21st)[1]
 • Density1,965,3/km2 (50,900/sq mi)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
10-001 to 11–041
Area code(s)+48 89
Car platesNO

Founded as Allenstein in the 14th century, Olsztyn was under the control and influence of the Teutonic Order until 1454, when it was incorporated into the Polish Crown.[3] For centuries the city was an important centre of trade, crafts, science and administration in the Warmia region linking Warsaw with Königsberg.[4] Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772 Warmia was annexed by Prussia and ceased to be the property of the clergy. In the 19th century the city changed its status completely, becoming the most prominent economic hub of the southern part of Eastern Prussia. The construction of a railway and early industrialization greatly contributed to Olsztyn's significance. Following World War II, the city returned to Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement.

Since 1999 Olsztyn has been the capital city of the Warmia-Masuria. In the same year, the University of Warmia and Masuria was founded from the fusion of three other local universities. Today, the Castle of Warmian Bishops houses a museum and is a venue for concerts, art exhibitions, film shows and other cultural events, which make Olsztyn a popular tourist destination.[5][6]

The most important sights of the city include the medieval Old Town and the Olsztyn Cathedral, which dates back more than 600 years. The picturesque market square is part of the European Route of Brick Gothic and the cathedral is regarded as one of the greatest monuments of Gothic architecture in Poland.[7]

Olsztyn, for a number of years, has been ranked very highly in quality of life, income, employment and safety. It currently is one of the best places in Poland to live and work.[8][9] It is also one of the happiest cities in the country.[9]


Historical affiliations
  Teutonic Order 1353–1454

  Kingdom of Poland 1454–1455
  Teutonic Order 1455–1463
  Kingdom of Poland 1463–1569
  Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1772
  Kingdom of Prussia 1772–1871
  German Empire 1871–1918
  Weimar Germany 1918–1933
  Nazi Germany 1933–1945
  People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989

  Republic of Poland 1989–present
Old Town Hall on the Market Square

In 1334, a watchtower was established on the Łyna River. In 1346, the forest was cleared at the location for a new settlement, mentioned in a historical document from 1348.[10] The following year, Teutonic Knights began the construction of an Ordensburg castle as a stronghold against the Baltic Prussians.[11] Allenstein was granted municipal rights by the cathedral chapter of the Bishopric of Warmia in October 1353.[11][12] The German "Allenstein" referred to the river's Baltic Prussian name Alna, which meant a hind.[13] Local Poles called it Holstin and Olsztyn.[11] The castle was completed in 1397.[13] The town was captured by the Kingdom of Poland during the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War in 1410, and again in 1414 during the Hunger War, but it was returned to the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights after hostilities ended.

Allenstein joined the Prussian Confederation in 1440 and rebelled against the Teutonic Knights in 1454 upon the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War to join Poland under King Casimir IV Jagiellon. The townspeople took the castle and recognized the Polish king as the rightful ruler.[13] Although the Teutonic Knights recaptured the town the following year, it was retaken by Polish troops in 1463.[14] The Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 confirmed Olsztyn as part of the Kingdom of Poland.[15] Administratively it was located in the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia within the provinces of Royal Prussia and Greater Poland.

St. James's Cathedral

From 1516 to 1521, Nicolaus Copernicus lived at the castle as administrator of both Olsztyn and Mehlsack (now Pieniężno). Copernicus was in charge of the Polish defences in the Siege of Allenstein during the Polish-Teutonic War of 1519–21.[16] He also started and managed the repopulation of the region, inviting a new wave of Polish settlers from Mazovia.[13] Crafts and trade developed, also due to the city's location on the Warsaw-Königsberg trade route.[13] During this period, the city was still visited several times by Copernicus, as well as leading figures of Polish Renaissance, writers, royal secretaries and diplomats: Jan Dantyszek, called the "father of Polish diplomacy", and Marcin Kromer, who was also a historian and music theorist. The St. James' Cathedral, one of the most distinctive landmarks of the cityscape, was completed.[15]

Prosperity was halted in the 1620s, when the town suffered a fire[15] and an epidemic.[14] In 1626, during the Swedish invasion, canons from Frauenburg (Frombork) took refuge, which the Swedes did not reach.[14] Allenstein was sacked by Swedish troops later, in 1655 and 1708, during the next Polish-Swedish wars, and the town's population was nearly wiped out in 1710 by epidemics of bubonic plague and cholera.

The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772 after the First Partition of Poland. Poles became subject to extensive Germanisation policies. A Prussian census recorded a population of 1,770 people, predominantly farmers, and Allenstein was administered within the newly created Province of East Prussia. It was visited by Napoleon Bonaparte[17] in 1807 after his victories over the Prussian Army at Jena and Auerstedt. By 1825, the town was inhabited by 1,341 Germans and 1,266 Poles.[18] The first German-language newspaper, the Allensteiner Zeitung, began publishing in 1841. The town hospital was founded in 1867.

Historic building that was once the headquarters of Gazeta Olsztyńska (Olsztyn Daily Newspaper)

In 1871, with the unification of Germany, Allenstein became part of the German Empire. Two years later, the city was connected by railway to Thorn (Toruń). Despite Germanisation attempts the city remained an important Polish centre.[10] Its first Polish language newspaper, the Gazeta Olsztyńska, was founded in 1886.[15] Allenstein's infrastructure developed[19] rapidly: gas was installed in 1890, telephones in 1892, public water supply in 1898, and electricity in 1907. In 1905, the city became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Allenstein, a government administrative region in East Prussia. From 1818 to 1910, the city was administered within the East Prussian Allenstein District, after which it became an independent city.

Kopernikusplatz (postcard, 1917)
Józef Bem Square, 2012

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Russian troops captured Allenstein, but it was recovered by the Imperial German Army in the Battle of Tannenberg.

After the defeat of Germany in World War I, the East Prussian plebiscite was held in 1920 to determine whether the populace of the region, including Allenstein, wished to remain in German East Prussia or become part of Poland. In order to advertise the plebiscite, special postage stamps were produced by overprinting German stamps and sold on 3 April of that year. One kind of overprint read PLÉBISCITE / OLSZTYN / ALLENSTEIN, while the other read TRAITÉ / DE / VERSAILLES / ART. 94 et 95 inside an oval whose border gave the full name of the plebiscite commission. Each overprint was applied to 14 denominations ranging from 5 Pfennigs to 3 Marks. The Polish community faced discrimination, Polish rallies were dispersed, the participants were threatened and beaten.[14] The presence of a Royal Irish bataillon ensured a relative peace in Allenstein.[20] As a result, the plebiscite, held on 11 July, produced 16,742 votes for Germany and 342 votes for Poland.[14]

Headquarters of various Polish organizations in the interbellum

In the interwar period, numerous Polish organizations operated in the city, including the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association, Union of Poles in Germany, a People's Bank (Bank Ludowy),[10] local Poles organized a school, library, puppet theatre.[14] The Polish Consulate also operated. After the January 1933 Nazi seizure of power in Germany, Poles and Jews in Allenstein were increasingly persecuted.[14] In 1935, the German Wehrmacht made the city the seat of the Allenstein Militärische Bereich. It was then home of the 11th and 217th infantry divisions and 11th Artillery Regiment. At the same time, the football club SV Hindenburg Allenstein played in Allenstein from 1921 to 1945. Beginning in 1936, members of the Polish minority, especially members of the Union of Poles in Germany, were persecuted,[14] and after the 1939 German invasion of Poland that began World War II, Poles were subjected to mass arrests and executions[10] or deportations to occupied Poland. The Gazeta Olsztyńska was abolished by the German authorities, the newspaper's headquarters was demolished and the editor-in-chief Seweryn Pieniężny was arrested and executed in the Hohenbruch concentration camp.[14] During the war five forced labour camps were established in the city.[10] On 12 October 1939, the Wehrmacht established an Area Headquarters for a military district that controlled the environs of Allenstein, including Lötzen (now Giżycko), and Ciechanów in occupied Poland.

On 22 January 1945, near the end of the war, Allenstein was plundered and burned by the conquering Soviet Red Army, and much of its German population fled.[21] On 23 May 1945, Olsztyn became again part of Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference. In October 1945, the remaining German population was expelled, to be replaced by new Polish settlers,[22] mostly those expelled from pre-war Polish regions of Vilnius, Grodno and Volhynia, annexed by the Soviet Union, as well as settlers from Warsaw destroyed by the Germans.[14] Reconstruction and removal of damages lasted until the 1950's.

A tyre factory was founded in Olsztyn in 1967. Its subsequent names included OZOS, Stomil and Michelin.[23]

On the 500th anniversary of the birth of Nicolaus Copernicus, in 1973, a planetarium was opened in Olsztyn.[15] In 1989 the former Gazeta Olsztyńska headquarters was rebuilt and re-opened as a museum. In 1991 Pope John Paul II visited the city.[15]

Olsztyn became the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in 1999. It was previously in the Olsztyn Voivodeship.

Olsztyn CastleEdit

Olsztyn Castle courtyard
Interior of the Olsztyn Castle

The castle was built between 1346–1353 and by then it had one wing on the north-east side of the rectangular courtyard. Access to the castle lead from the drawbridge over the river Łyna (Alle), surrounded by a belt of defensive walls and a moat. The south-west wing of the castle was built in the 15th century, the tower situated in the west corner of the courtyard, from the middle of the 14th century, was rebuilt in the early 16th century and had a round shape on a square base and was 40 meters high. At the same time the castle walls were raised to a height of 12 meters and a second belt of the lower walls was built. The castle walls were partly combined with city walls, which made the castle look like it had been a powerful bastion defending access to the city. The castle was owned by Warmia Chapter, which until 1454, together with the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, was under military protection of the Teutonic Knights and their Monastic State of Prussia.

The castle had played a huge role in the Polish-Teutonic wars by then. After the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, the Poles took it after a few days siege. In the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) it was jumping from rule to rule. The Knights threatened the castle and the town in 1521, but the defence was very effective. They contained one failed assault. There is a connection between the history of the castle, the city of Olsztyn, and Nicolaus Copernicus. He prepared the defense of Olsztyn against the invasion of the Teutonic Knights.

In the sixteenth century, there were two prince-bishops of Warmia that stayed there: Johannes Dantiscus – "the first sarmatian poet, endowed with the imperial laurel wreath for "Latin Songs" (1538, 1541) and Marcin Kromer, who wrote with equal ease in Latin and Polish scientific and literary works (1580). Kromer consecrated the chapel of St. Anna, which was built in the south-west wing of the castle. In the course of time both wings of the castle lost military importance, which for residential purposes has become very convenient. In 1779 Prince-Bishop Ignacy Krasicki stopped here as well.

After the Royal Prussian annexation of Warmia in 1772, the castle became the property of the state board of estates (War and Domain Chamber, Kriegs- und Domänenkammer). In 1845 the bridge over the moat was replaced by a dam better connecting the castle with the city. In 1901–1911 a general renovation of the castle was performed, however several sections of the building were violated at the same time where they changed the original look of the castle e.g. putting on window frames in a cloister. The tower was crowned in 1921 and again in 1926 in the halls of the castle, became a museum.

In 1945 the whole castle became home to the Masurian Museum, which today is called the Museum of Warmia and Masuria. In addition there are also popular events held within the frameworks of the Olsztyn Artistic Summer and so called "evenings of the castle" and "Sundays in the Museum".

Historical populationEdit

Perhaps the earliest data about ethnic structure of the county of Olsztyn (including the towns of Olsztyn and Barczewo) comes from censuses of 1825 and 1837:

Ethnic structure of the Olsztyn county (including the towns of Olsztyn and Barczewo) in 1825 and 1837 according to German data[24]
In year 1825: Poles % Germans % Lithuanians % Total In year 1837: Poles % Germans % Lithuanians % Total
City Olsztyn 1,266 48% 1,371 52% - - 2,637 City Olsztyn 1,511 51% 1,461 49% - - 2,962
City Barczewo 1,500 72% 590 28% - - 2,090 City Barczewo 1,794 70% 756 30% - - 2,550
Rural areas 22,764 88% 2,966 12% - - 25,730 Rural areas 22,762 86% 3,762 14% - - 26,524
Whole county 25,530 84% 4,927 16% - - 30,457 Whole county 26,067 81% 5,979 19% - - 32,046

Jewish communityEdit

Though Jews did trade in the city fairs during medieval times, they were not allowed to trade freely in the villages surrounding the city.[25] In 1718, Bishop Teodor Andrzej Potocki imposed a ban on Jewish trade.[26] Other bishops after him continued the ban, which apparently wasn't successful since the city population complained about Jews dealing with animal leather and other products in 1742. Permanent Jews were found in the city in 1780, and they were allowed to settle outside the city walls.[27] In 1814, the Simonson brothers opened the first Jewish store in town. In 1850, the city official authority announced that any citizen that hosted a wandering Jew in his house, would be fined and imprisoned.[28]

Remains of the Jewish cemetery

The Jewish community of the city as a congregation was established in 1820. Shortly after, a prayer room was established on Richterstrasse. In 1877, the congregation bought a plot of land on Liebstädterstrasse and built a synagogue there.[29] A Jewish cemetery was built on Seestrasse (present-day Grundwalzka). While at its peak, the town's Jewish population was 448 Jews in 1933.

On Kristallnacht, the town synagogue was destroyed and later used as a bomb shelter.[30] Now, a sports club sits on the site of the synagogue.[31]

By 1939, 135 Jews were left in the city, after most others fled from the country. Those who lived in town in 1940 were deported to Nazi concentration camps.[32] In June 1946, 16 Holocaust survivors settled in the city and in 1948, the congregation had 190 worshipers. Most of them emigrated to Israel throughout the next few decades. There is no current trace of the Jewish cemetery.[33]

The city was the birthplace of world-famous Jewish architect Erich Mendelsohn. In town, Mendelsohn planned the mourners' chapel (called the Mendelsohn house) next to the cemetery.[34] The building is currently restored.[35] In addition, it was the birthplace of German Socialist and SPD leader Hugo Haase. Frieda Strohmberg, an Impressionist, lived and worked in the city from 1910 to 1927. Documentation of the Jewish owned shops in town exists.[36]


Lake Kortowskie
Lake Żbik

Olsztyn is located in the north-east part of Poland in the region known as the "Thousand Lakes".


More than half of the forests occupying 21.2% of the city area form a single complex of the Municipal Forest (1050 ha) used mainly for recreation and tourism purposes. Within the Municipal Forest area are situated two peat-land flora sanctuaries, Mszar and Redykajny. Municipal greenery (560 ha, 6.5% of the town area) developed in the form of numerous parks, green spots and three cemeteries over a century-old. The greenery includes 910 monuments of nature and groups of protected trees in the form of beech, oak, maple and lime-lined avenues.


The city is situated in a lake region of forests and plains. There are 15 lakes inside the administrative bounds of the city (13 with areas greater than 1 ha). The overall area of lakes in Olsztyn is about 725 ha, which constitutes 8.25% of the total city area.

Lake Area (ha) Maximum depth (m)
Lake Ukiel (a.k.a. Jezioro Krzywe) 412 43
Lake Kortowskie 89.7 17.2
Lake Track (a.k.a. Trackie) 52.8 4.6
Lake Skanda 51.5 12
Lake Redykajny 29.9 20.6
Lake Długie 26.8 17.2
Lake Sukiel 20.8 25
Lake Tyrsko 18.6 30.6
Lake Stary Dwór 6.0 23.3
Lake Siginek 6.0 insufficient data
Lake Czarne approximately 1.3 insufficient data
Lake Żbik approximately 1.2 insufficient data
Lake Pereszkowo approximately 1.2 insufficient data
Lake Mummel approximately 0.3 insufficient data
Lake Modrzewiowe 0.25 insufficient data


High Gate, part of the medieval fortifications of the Old Town
Our Lady Queen of Poland Church in Olsztyn

Olsztyn's population includes 3280 Germans and 1283 Ukrainians.[citation needed]

Administrative divisionEdit

City hall (built 1912–16)

Olsztyn is divided into 23 districts:

District Population Area Density
Brzeziny 1,456 2.25 km2 (0.87 sq mi) 647.1/km²
Dajtki (German: Deuthen) 5,863 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi) 781.7/km²
Generałów 6,500 no data no data
Grunwaldzkie 6,027 1.46 km2 (0.56 sq mi) 4,128.1/km²
Gutkowo (German: Göttkendorf) 2,256 7.2 km2 (2.8 sq mi) 313.3/km²
Jaroty 29,046 4.82 km2 (1.86 sq mi) 6,026.1/km²
Kętrzyńskiego 7,621 4.83 km2 (1.86 sq mi) 1,577.8/km²
Kormoran 16,166 1.1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) 14,696.4/km²
Kortowo (German: Kortau) 1,131 4.22 km2 (1.63 sq mi) 268/km²
Kościuszki 6,704 1.18 km2 (0.46 sq mi) 5,681.4/km²
Likusy (German: Likusen) 2,286 2.1 km2 (0.8 sq mi) 1,088.6/km²
Mazurskie 4,615 5.98 km2 (2.31 sq mi) 771.7/km²
Nad Jeziorem Długim 2,408 4.23 km2 (2 sq mi) 569.3/km²
Nagórki (German: Bergenthal) 12,538 1.69 km2 (0.65 sq mi) 7,418.9/km²
Pieczewo (German: Stolzenberg) 10,918 2.24 km2 (0.86 sq mi) 4,874.1/km²
Podgrodzie 11,080 1.35 km2 (0.52 sq mi) 8,207.4/km²
Podleśna 10,414 9.93 km2 (3.83 sq mi) 1,048.7/km²
Pojezierze 13,001 2.39 km2 (0.92 sq mi) 5,439.7/km²
Redykajny (German: Redigkainen) 1,555 6.1 km2 (2.36 sq mi) 254.9/km²
Śródmieście 3,448 0.58 km2 (0.22 sq mi) 5,944.8/km²
Wojska Polskiego 6,759 5.03 km2 (2 sq mi) 1,343.7/km²
Zatorze 6,988 0.45 km2 (0.17 sq mi) 15,528.9/km²
Zielona Górka 1,015 6.44 km2 (2.49 sq mi) 157.6/km²

There are many smaller districts: Jakubowo (German: Jakobsberg), Karolin, Kolonia Jaroty, Kortowo II, Łupstych (German: Abstich), Niedźwiedź (German: Bärenbruch), Piękna Góra, Podlesie, Pozorty (German: Posorten), Skarbówka Poszmanówka, Słoneczny Stok, Stare Kieźliny, Stare Miasto, Stare Zalbki, Stary Dwór (German: Althof), Track. These do not have council representative assemblies.


Stefan Jaracz Theatre (built 1925)
Museum of Nature





Astronomical observatory


Death metal act Vader, regarded as one of the first and most successful death metal bands from Poland.


Michelin tyre company

The Michelin tyre company (former Stomil Olsztyn) is the largest employer in the region of Warmia and Masuria.[37] Other important industries are food processing and furniture manufacturing.




Currently a bus network with 36 bus lines exists, including 6 suburban lines and 2 night-time lines.[38]


In 1939, due to poor economic situation throughout the interwar period and city's growing population, a trolleybus line began operation, partially replacing the original tram network. Olsztyn was a third city in Poland having this method of transportation at that time. During the Second World War the cars were mainly driven by women.

The trolleybus network consisting of 4 lines was decommissioned on the 31st of July 1971.[39]


Olsztyn has train connections to Warsaw, Gdańsk, Szczecin, Poznań, Bydgoszcz, Iława, Działdowo and Ełk. Olsztyn Główny is the main railway station in the city. Plans exist to demolish current building and replace it with new infrastructure[40], contrary to previous information about current building being renovated.[41]


Tram network in Olsztyn re-opened in December 2015

Historically, city's first tram line was built in 1907 and gradually expanded over the years. It ceased operation in 1965.[42]

In 2006 authorities considered reintroduction of trams in the city to address transport problems and subsequently concluded feasibility studies on the matter in 2009.[43] A 11 kilometres (7 miles) long tram network was built between 2011–2015. The contract was signed in 2011 and construction commenced in 2012.[42] It was a first new tram system built in Poland in 55 years; 15 low-floor Tramino trams were ordered from Solaris in September 2012.[44] There are currently 3 tram lines in operation.[38]

A 6 kilometres (4 miles) long extension is planned and Turkish manufacturer Durmazlar had been selected to supply 24 trams for the network.[45]


The region and city is served by Olsztyn-Mazury Airport with scheduled international passenger flights. It is located in Szymany, 10 km off Szczytno and 58 km south of the city of Olsztyn. The airport operates flights to London, Dortmund, Lviv, Cracow and Burgas.[46]


Main library building of the Olsztyn University


KOS Orlik - A public football field near the 18th Primary School


Members of the Sejm elected from Olsztyn constituency in 2005:

Members of Senate elected from Olsztyn constituency in 2005:

Notable residentsEdit

Statue of Nicolaus Copernicus in front of the castle
Plaque commemorating Feliks Nowowiejski on his former home

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Olsztyn is twinned with:

Olsztyn belongs to the Federation of Copernicus Cities, an association of cities where Copernicus lived and worked, such as Bologna, Frombork, Kraków, and Toruń. The main office of the federation is situated at Olsztyn Planetarium and Astronomical Observatory, located on St. Andrew's Hill (143 m) in a former water tower erected in 1897.


  1. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2 June 2019. Data for territorial unit 2862000.
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  3. ^ "Olsztyn History". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  4. ^ "Local history – Information about the town – Olsztyn – Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  5. ^ o.o., StayPoland Sp. z. "Olsztyn – Tourism – Tourist Information – Olsztyn, Poland -". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  6. ^ "Presentation of castle and museum trail, cultural – historical attractions of the Baltic Sea region". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  7. ^ Budziłło, Elzbieta. "Olsztyn – Copernicus city with 15 lakes". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
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  12. ^ "Zabytki Olsztyn Atrakcje Historii Zwiedzanie Miasta w Centrum". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
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  15. ^ a b c d e f "Historia Olsztyna" (in Polish). Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  16. ^ Höhne, Manfred. "Historia Olsztyna – Prusy Wschodnie". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Historia Olsztyna – Castles of Poland". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  18. ^ Historia Pomorza: (1815–1850), Gerard Labuda, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, page 157, 1993
  19. ^ "Olsztyn – Gołębnik w środku miasta. Atrakcje turystyczne Olsztyna. Ciekawe miejsca Olsztyna". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
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