Controlled-access highways in Poland are part of the national roads network and they are divided into motorways and expressways. Both types of highways feature grade-separated interchanges with all other roads, emergency lanes, feeder lanes, wildlife crossings and dedicated roadside rest areas. Motorways differ from expressways in their technical parameters like designated speed, permitted road curvature, lane widths or minimal distances between interchanges. Moreover, expressways might have single-carriageway sections in case of low traffic densities (as of 2024, such sections constitute 3.5% of the highway network).

Polish highway network:
  Completed
  Opened with lower speed limits
  Construction
  Design (as part of design-build)
  Tender
  Environmental decision obtained
  Planned
Full planned highway network
Development of the highway network in Poland since 1932:
  Completed
  Under construction
  Planned
Total length of highways by year

The development of modern highways began in the 1970s, but proceeded very slowly under the communist rule and for the first years afterwards – between 1970 and 2000 only the total of 434 km of highways were constructed (5% of the planned network).[1] Further 1050 km (13% of the network) were opened from 2001 to 2010, followed by 2773 km (34% of the network) constructed between 2011 and 2020.[2] It is planned to open about 3000 km (about 37%) in the 2020s, while the last 10% would be completed after 2030.[3]

As of February 2024, there are 5115,6 km[4] of motorways and expressways in operation (62% of the intended network), while contracts for construction of further 1030 km[5][6] (13% of the network) are ongoing.

Except for the single-carriageway expressways, both types of highways fulfill the definition of a motorway as characterized by OECD, WRA or Vienna Convention. Speed limits in Poland are 140 km/h on motorways and 120 km/h on expressways (100 km/h in case of single-carriageway expressway sections). Some motorway stretches are tolled.

Technical parameters edit

  •   Motorways are public roads with controlled access which are designated for motor vehicles only, and feature two carriageways with at least two continuous lanes each, divided by a median. They have no one-level intersections with any roads or other forms of land and water transport and have wildlife crossings constructed above the road. They feature emergency lanes and feeder lanes, and are equipped with dedicated roadside rest areas. Motorways are the only roads in Poland which use blue background on road signs - others use green road signs.
  •   Expressways share most of the characteristics of motorways, differing mainly in that:
  1. Expressways are designated for lower speed than motorways. For example, the road curvature can be higher and the lanes are usually narrower (3.5 m vs 3.75 m). Emergency lanes can also be narrower (2.5 m vs 3 m) and in exceptional situations expressways might not have them at all.
  2. Expressways can have a single carriageway on sections with low traffic density.
  3. Motorways can have interchanges only with main roads and the distance between interchanges is typically not less than 15 km (or 5 km near major cities), while expressways typically have more frequent interchanges. In exceptional situations, expressways might not have dedicated feeder lanes on interchanges.

Formally, expressways are also allowed to admit a one-level junction with a minor public road in exceptional cases,[7] however in 2020 the last such remaining junction in Poland was reconstructed into a two-level interchange.[8][9][10]

Speed limits edit

Maximum speed (km/h)
Vehicle   Motorway   2-lane expressway   1-lane expressway
Private car, motorbike, van up to 3.5 t (does not apply if towing trailer) 140 120 100
Bus meeting additional technical requirements 100
Bus; a vehicle over 3.5 t or towing trailer or carrying dangerous materials 80
Vehicle having equipment more than 1.5 m forward of the driver's seat 60

Motorbike (including towing trailer) carrying a child up to 7 years-old

40
Not allowed on motorways: pedestrians, bikes, mopeds, agricultural vehicles. Minimal speed on motorways is 40 km/h unless there are any extraordinary circumstances (e.g., snow, ice, or a car broken down). It is forbidden to stop except extraordinary situations, or travel backwards. Towing is not allowed on motorways, but is permitted on expressways.

List of motorways and expressways edit

In 2004, the government published a document defining the planned highway network of length about 7,200 km (4,474 mi).[11] Notable changes introduced in later amendments include re-routing S8 and adding S61 instead (a change related to the Rospuda Valley conflict),[12] introducing S16, S52 and A/S50,[13] as well as extending S5,[14] S8[15] and S10.[16][17][13]

The planned network consists of 16 major highways (over 200 km of intended length): A1, S3, S5, S7, S11, S17, S19, S61 running north to south and A2/S2, A4, S6/A6, S8/A8, S10, S12, S16, S74 running west to east, as well as 9 shorter highways:[a][b][20][21][22][23][3]

  
1) Highways and major sections completed
Sign Route Location Total length Existing Years of construction
  Gdańsk (S6) - Grudziądz (S5) - Toruń (S10) - Łódź (A2/S8) - Gliwice (A4) -  /  (Ostrava)   566.6 km 566.6 km 100% 2005 – 2022
[c]
 
 
Main section:
 /  (Berlin) - S3 - Poznań (S5/S11) - Łódź (A1/S14) - Warsaw (S7/S8/S17)
  489.7 km[d]   454.9 km
  34.8 km  
100% mainly
2001 – 2013
[e]
  Main section:
Szczecin (A6) - Gorzów Wlkp. - Jordanowo (A2) - Zielona Góra - Lubin - Legnica (A4)
  301.9 km[f] 301.9 km 100% 2008 – 2021
[g]
   /  (Dresden) - Legnica (S3) - Wrocław (A8) - Opole - Gliwice (A1) - Katowice (S1) - Kraków (S7) - Rzeszów (S19) -  /  (Lviv)   669 km 669 km
of which 103 km substandard: no hard shoulder
100% 1976 – 2016
  Main section:
Grudziądz (A1) - Bydgoszcz (S10) - Poznań (A2/S11) - Wrocław (A8)
  340.3 km[h] 340.3 km 100% 2009 – 2022
[i]
 
 
Main section:
Wrocław (A4) - Łódź (A1) - Piotrków T. - Warsaw (A2/S7) - Ostrów M. (S61) - Białystok (S19)
  548.2 km[j]   525.5 km
  22.7 km  
100% 2008 – 2019
[k]
  S8 - Pabianice - Zgierz - A2 Łódź
(western bypass)
40.2 km 40.2 km
of which 0.5 km substandard: an at-grade roundabout
100% 2010 – 2023
  Main section:
Warsaw (A2) – Lublin (S12/S19)
  150 km[l] 150 km 100% 2010 – 2020
[k]
   /  (Berlin)Krzyżowa (A4)   76.5 km 76.5 km
of which 5.6 km substandard: no hard shoulder
100% 2004 – 2006
2020 – 2023
[m]
  Elbląg /Kaliningrad Oblast   52.2 km 52.2 km
single carriageway
50% 2006 – 2008
[n]
  Olsztyn (S16) – Olsztynek (S7)   20.3 km 20.3 km 100% 2009 – 2019
  Warsawairport – S2 Warsaw 4.8 km 4.8 km 100% 2009 – 2013
  KatowiceSosnowiec Upper Silesia 5.9 km 5.9 km 100% 1978 – 1985
  
2) Highways in development
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation[o] Of which under active construction Scheduled year(s) of opening[6] Tender In predesign[p]
  Pyrzowice (A1) - Mysłowice (A4) - Bielsko-Biała (S52) - Zwardoń -  /  (Žilina)   144 km 72 km
+ 17 km single carriageway
55.9%
(61.8%)
4.8 km
+ 3.7 km single carriageway
2025
(+ 44 km)
dual carriageway road
(94.1%) + 7 km
(reconstruction of the 2x2 road to a highway; 1 lane per each direction is open to traffic)
2024
+ 39.5 km
(new route)
+ 27 km
(new route)
2025
  Eastern section:
Warsaw (S17) –  /  (Minsk)
  168.2 km 35.1 km 20.9% 100.8 km 2024, 2025, 2028? 32.3 km
  Northern section:
ŚwinoujścieSzczecin (A6)
  85.4 km 50.9 km
+ 5.4 km 1st carriageway
62.8% 29.1 km
+ 5.4 km 2nd carriageway
2024
Southern section:
Legnica (A4) –  /  (Prague)
66.8 km 47.7 km [q] 71.4% 19.1 km
 
 
Main section:
 /  (Berlin) - Szczecin[r] - Goleniów (S3) - Koszalin (S11) - Słupsk - Gdańsk (A1)[s]
  402.4 km[t]   28.1 km  
  217.2 km
+ 9.4 km 1st carriageway
62.2% 147.7 km
+ 9.4 km 2nd carriageway
2024, 2025
  Gdańsk (A1)[s] - Elbląg (S22) - Olsztynek (S51) - Warsaw (S8)   approx. 674 km 276 km 82.7%
45 km
(reconstruction of the 2x2 road to 2x3 highway; 2+2 lanes are open on the whole length, except for Vistula bridge where 2+1 lanes are available with the middle lane's direction changing based on the times of day)
2025, 2027,  2032? 13 km (reconstruction
+ new route)
(+ 58 km)
dual carriageway road
(100%)
Warsaw (S2) - Radom (S12) - Kielce (S74) - Kraków (A4) 258.1 km
91.6% 23.6 km
2024, 2025
Kraków (A4) – Rabka-Zdrój (planned extension to  / ) 31.8 km 56% (2030?), 2038?[u] approx. 25 km (new route)
(+ 25 km)
dual carriageway road
(100%)
  Eastern section:
Lublin (S17/S19) - Chełm -  /  (Kyiv)
  103.7 km[v] 29.2 km 28.2% 68.8 km 14 km 2025, 2027,
2030?
5.7 km
 
Via Carpatia
 /  (Minsk) - Białystok (S8) - Lublin (S12/S17)   572.5 km 18.5 km
1st carriageway
2.9% 187.6 km
+ 13.7 km 2nd carriageway
15.5 km 2025, 2026,
2027?, 2028?
42.3 km
+ 4.8 km 2nd c/w
69.4 km
Lublin (S12/S17) – Rzeszów (A4) 141.7 km
+ 16.3 km 1st carriageway
with interchanging 2+1 lanes
94.8%
(100%)
16.3 km
2nd carriageway
2026
Rzeszów (A4) –  /  (Košice) 11.4 km 11.8% 73.6 km 42.6 km 2025, 2026
tunnels: 2026, 2029?
11.6 km
 
part 2
Kraków-Balice (A4) – Kraków‑Mistrzejowice (S7) Kraków
(northern bypass)
18.3 km 5.8 km 31.4% 12.5 km 2024
 
Via Baltica
Ostrów Mazowiecka (S8) - Łomża - Ełk (S16) - Suwałki -  /  (Kaunas)   210.7 km 197.8 km 93.9% 12.9 km 2024/2025[w]
 
3) Highways partially in development
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In reali­sation Of which under active construction Tender Predesign complete In predesign[p] Planned comple­tion [23][3]
  Szczecin (A6) - Piła (S11) - Bydgoszcz (S5) - Toruń (A1) - Płock - S7   approx. 417 km 50.2 km
+ 17.5 km
1st carriageway
14.1% 40 km
+ 10.9 km 2nd carriageway
112 km 37.8 km 2032
+ 39.5 km
+ 6.6 km 2nd c/w
+ approx. 120 km
  Koszalin (S6) - Piła (S10) - Poznań (A2/S5) - Ostrów Wlkp. - Kępno (S8) - Tarnowskie Góry - A1   556.5 km 154.4 km
+ 10.5 km
1st carriageway
28.7% 25 km 67.1 km
+ 4.2 km 2nd c/w
77 km 2030
+ 222.5 km
+ 6.3 km 2nd c/w
  Eastern section:
Lublin (S12/S19) - Zamość -  /  (Lviv)
  126 km 9.6 km
+ 2 km 1st carriageway
8.4% 47.7 km 44.3 km 22.3 km 2028
+ 2 km 2nd c/w
  Sulejów (S12) - Kielce (S7) - Sandomierz - Nisko (S19)   approx. 207 km 6.7 km 3.2% 78.6 km 9.7 km 30 km 92 km 2030
  
4) Planned highways
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation Of which under active construction Tender Predesign complete In predesign[p] Planned comple­tion [23][3]
  Eastern extension:
Ostróda (S7) – Grudziądz (A1)
  approx. 104.3 km 14.3 km 13.7% approx. 90 km 2033
Western extension:
Bolków (S3) – Świdnica – S8
approx. 50 km 0 km 0% approx. 50 km 2031
  Western extension:[r]
Kołbaskowo (A6) – Goleniów (S3)
Szczecin
(western bypass)
50.8 km 0 km 0% 1.5 km 49.3 km 2030
  Southern extension:
KłodzkoWrocław (A8)
(planned extension to  / )
  approx. 82.4 km 5.1 km 6.2% 32.5 km 36.3 km 2031,
mainly 2027
+ approx. 8.5 km
  Western section:
Piotrków Tryb. (A1) - Sulejów (S74) - Radom (S7) - Lublin (S17)
  185 km 16.4 km
+ 6.0 km
1st carriageway
10.7% 29.1 km 133.5 km
+ 6.0 km 2nd c/w
2030
  Olsztyn (S51) - Ełk (S61) - Białystok (S19)   approx. 245 km 29.7 km
+ 20.1 km
1st carriageway
16.2% 16.5 km 19.7 km
+ 20.1 km 2nd c/w
77.5 km 2032
+ approx. 81.5 km
  Marki (S8) – Lubelska (A2/S2) Warsaw
(eastern bypass)
17.3 km 3.5 km 20.2% 13.8 km 2032[x]
 
 
CPK (A2) - Mińsk M. (A2) - CPK Warsaw
(2nd ring road)
approx. 265 km 0 km 0%   approx. 100 km
  approx. 165 km
2035
   /  (Olomouc) - Cieszyn - Bielsko-Biała (S1) - Wadowice - Głogoczów (S7)   98 km 37 km 37.8% 61 km 2031

In total
Note: Figures are kept consistent as of the last full update, 16 October 2023[a]

Highway type Planned length Existing In realisation[o] Of which under active construction Tender Predesign complete In predesign No progress
  approx. 2,086 km (1,296 mi) 1853 km 88.83% 100.8 km 100.8 km approx.
132.3 km
  approx. 6,030 km (3,747 mi) 3090.1 km
+ 177.6 km km
1st carriageway
52.72% 870 km
+ 3.7 km 1st c/w
+ 55.7 km 2nd c/w
443 km
+ 3.7 km 1st c/w
+ 14.8 km 2nd c/w
397.7 km
+ 24.3 km
2nd carriageway
1.5 km approx.
1493.1 km
+ 20.9 km
2nd carriageway
73 km 2nd carriageway[y]
Total approx. 8,116 km (5,043 mi) 4943.1 km
+ 177.6 km
1st carriageway
62.00% 970.8 km
+ 3.7 km 1st c/w
+ 55.7 km 2nd c/w
543.8 km
+ 3.7 km 1st c/w
+ 14.8 km 2nd c/w
397.7 km
+ 24.3 km
2nd carriageway
1.5 km approx.
1625.4 km
+ 20.9 km
2nd carriageway
73 km
2nd carriageway
 
A4 in Zabrze: section with 2x3 lanes
 
A1/A2 Łódź Północ interchange
 
S5 near Bydgoszcz with 2x2 lanes: the most common highway type
 
A1/A4 Gliwice Sośnica interchange
 
S22 near Kaliningrad Oblast border: a single-carriageway expressway; space reservation for the 2nd carriageway can be seen on the right

As of 2024, the operational sections of highways utilize the following cross-sections:

  • 7% (354 km) – motorways and expressways with 2x3 or (occasionally) 2x4 or 2x5 lanes,
  • 89.5% (4589 km) – motorways and expressways with 2x2 lanes,
  • 3.5% (178 km) – single-carriageway expressways, of which: 109 km with 1+1 lanes, 53 km with 1+1 lanes and dual-carriageway fragments (2x2) around the interchanges, 16 km with interchanging 2+1 lanes.

All single-carriageway expressways are constructed with allocated space for a possible upgrade to dual-carriageway and all bridges above such highways are prepared to accommodate the second carriageway. Most of those sections are planned to be widened to full profile by 2033, the exceptions being S1 (near the Slovak border) and S22 (near the border with Kaliningrad Oblast) where widening is currently not expected.[3]

Tolls edit

 
The word Płatna indicates a tolled motorway.
 
Motorways with tolled sections

Since 2023, almost all highways are free for vehicles up to 3.5 tons of permissible maximum weight[25][26] (for a passenger car with a trailer, the joint permissible maximum weight of the car and the trailer must not exceed 3.5 tons[27]). On some sections, the old infrastructure for toll collection is still in place.

The privately-owned sections of A2 and A4 are tolled. In the closed system, there are toll stations on every interchange both entering and exiting the tolled section; the driver receives a ticket upon entering the motorway and pays on the exit, with the price dependent on the distance driven. In the open system, two toll stations are located at the ends of the section; a person driving the whole distance pays at both gates, while a person entering or leaving the motorway mid-section pays only at one gate. The following sections are tolled:

  • A2 RzepinPoznań-West (managed by AWSA): 133 km, 48 PLN ($12), closed system. (The bypass of Poznań is free. In particular, it means a person driving through S5 or S11 does not need to pay for using the common section of A2.)
  • A2 Poznań-EastSługocin (managed by AWSA): 85 km, 60 PLN ($16), open system.
  • A4 MysłowiceKraków-Balice (managed by Stalexport): 52 km, 26 PLN ($7), open system; it is possible to pay automatically using electronic toll collection by the Autopay mobile app,[28][29] which allows one to save much time by choosing the "fast gates" for e-toll, instead of waiting in the queue to the regular gates that support both manual and electronic toll collection. (The bypass of Kraków is free. In particular, it means a person driving through S7 does not need to pay for using the common section of A4.)
 
A sign of road toll for vehicles over 3.5 tons.

Vehicles over 3.5 tons and buses edit

Using e-Toll is obligatory for buses as well as all vehicles with maximum permissible weight exceeding 3.5 tons (including the trailer) while driving on the Polish roads (not just the highways). More details can be found on the e-Toll website.[30]

Traffic volumes edit

Traffic volumes in Poland note rapid increase since the fall of communism in 1989: the annual average daily traffic recorded in 2020 amounts to over 360% of the average traffic recorded in 1990.[31][32] With the increasing traffic, the length of overburdened single-carriageway national roads[33] had also been steadily increasing until reaching the maximum of 1389 km in 2010.[34] Due to the large number of highway sections opened between 2010 and 2020, in that decade the length of overburdened roads has fallen down for the first time in history, from 1389 km in 2010 to 1121 km in 2020.[32]

The latest general measurement was conducted in 2020, although some measurement days were moved to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic which would have caused the results from 2020 to be unreliable.[35] The following highways recorded the highest volumes:[36]

Most busy highways in Poland (absolute numbers)
No Section Vehicles / day Notes
1

S8 in Warsaw (partially joint with S7)

S8 on section of Warsaw southern bypass (joint with S2, S7)

198'000

114'000

Highest AADT on sections with 5 lanes per direction: 198k (S7/S8), 114k (S2).
Highest AADT on sections with 3 lanes per direction: 179k (S7/S8), 97k (S2).
S8 in Warsaw serves both the transit and local traffic, and long jams form on it during rush hours.

2 S86 113'000 S86 serves mainly local traffic between Sosnowiec and Katowice and is not part of Poland's transit network. 3 lanes per direction.
3 A4 in Katowice 105'000 A4 serves both the transit traffic (2 lanes per direction) and local traffic (2 lanes per direction).
Most busy highways in Poland (per number of lanes)
No Section Vehicles / day / number of lanes Notes
1

S8 in Warsaw (partially joint with S7)

179'000 / 2x3 lanes

S8 in Warsaw serves both the transit and local traffic, and long jams form on it during rush hours.

2 S6, Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia bypass 93'000 / 2x2 lanes

Some decrease in traffic on S6 is expected after Tricity Outer Bypass (S7) is opened in mid 2025.

3 A4, Kraków western bypass 85'000 / 2x2 lanes Some decrease in traffic on A4 is expected after Kraków north-eastern bypass (S7/S52) is opened in mid 2025. Widening to 3 lanes per direction is planned in the future (after 2030).

The other highest and lowest recorded AADT values were:

Category Section Vehicles / day Notes
Most busy regular national roads in Poland
Note: Measurements are not performed on national roads within the borders of major cities
Most busy dual-carriageway national road DK7 north of Warsaw 63'000 2 lanes per direction with at-grade intersections and traffic lights. New parallel route of S7 is planned to be opened in the future (around 2032).
Most busy single-carriageway national road DK44 west of Kraków 36'000 Widening to 2 lanes per direction is planned in the future (after 2030).[37]
Most busy single-carriageway national road within the planned highway network DK19 north of Lublin 28'500 S19 is in realization (design-build), expected to be opened in late 2025.
Least busy highways in Poland
Least busy single-carriageway highway S22 near  /Kaliningrad Oblast 800 The results cannot be considered fully reliable, because the measurement has been conducted while major restrictions in entering European Union via its external border were in force because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[32]
Least busy dual-carriageway highway A4 near  /  1'800
Least busy highway excluding near-border sections S11 Szczecinek bypass 3'900 – 6'400

Substandard highways edit

 
The substandard section of A4 west of Wrocław

Motorways and expressways constructed before 1999 do not have to fulfill technical parameters listed in the ordinance. As of 2024, one notable case of a substandard highway remains:

  • A4 on the section KrzyżowaWrocław (103 km (64 mi)) was constructed in years 1934 – 1937 (then the territory of Nazi Germany) and renovated in years 2002 – 2006. The road received new high quality surface but the geometry was kept unchanged and many overpasses above the motorway were kept. In effect, this part has no emergency lanes and the speed limit is decreased to 110 km/h. Its full reconstruction (and widening to three lanes per direction) is scheduled for years 2026 – 2030.[38]

Notable historical cases are:

  • S3 near Szczecin (19 km) was opened in 1979 and it featured two at-grade road intersections, as the last such expressway section in Poland, until the reconstruction in years 2019 – 2020.[8][10]
  • A6 near Szczecin (29 km) was constructed by Nazi Germany and kept using the original surface made of concrete slabs until the reconstruction conducted in years 1996 – 1999 and (easternmost fragment) 2017 – 2021.[39]
  • A18 (70 km) had its southern carriageway constructed by Nazi Germany. The northern carriageway was constructed in 2004 – 2006, while southern carriageway kept using the original concrete slabs until the reconstruction conducted in years 2020 – 2023.

History edit

Before World War II edit

 
The network planned prior to WWII
 
Pre-WWII surface on A6 before the reconstruction (photo from 2009)

The first plans of creation of a national highway network in Poland were conceived in the interwar period:

Plans

The main promoter of this concept was Professor Melchior Wladyslaw Nestorowicz of the Warsaw University of Technology, who organized three Road Congresses, during which a group of specialists discussed the creation of the network. On March 5, 1939, in the trade magazine Drogowiec, Professor Nestorowicz proposed a very ambitious plan for the construction of almost 5,000 kilometres of category I and II roads, based on similar programmes in Germany and Italy.[40] Nestorowicz sketched a map of the future system with the following routes:

First class roads would, according to the plans, consist of the following motorways (totalling some 2,500 km (1,553.4 mi):

Second class roads would consist of the following motorways, totalling another 2,295 km (1,430 mi):

In 1934, Nazi Germany started the construction of their motorway system, parts of which today form A18 and A4 to Wrocław (Breslau), as well as A6 Szczecin bypass and S22 (parts of the planned motorway to Königsberg). About half of them were constructed as single-carriageway with the intention of adding a second carriageway in later years. However, after 1938, warfare expenses meant little money would be invested into any infrastructure and only one 9 km single-carriageway piece west of Gliwice (now A4) was constructed.

In Poland, a 28 km stretch between Warlubie and Osiek (now DW214) was constructed in 1937 – 1939 in the motorway standard of the time (today not considered a highway) with a concrete surface, which was designed by Italian engineer Piero Puricelli. The motorway was planned to reach Gdynia, but the outbreak of the Second World War halted the plans.

Highway sections in service before 1976
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
  Krzyżowa ( ) – Krzywa 12.3 km (7.6 mi) 1934 17 October 1937
Krzywa – Wrocław 91 km (56.5 mi) 27 September 1936
Wrocław – Brzeg (Owczary) 34.1 km (21.2 mi) 1938 Southern carriageway only
Ujazd (Nogowczyce) – Łany 9.1 km (5.7 mi) 1940 1942
Łany – Kleszczów (Gliwice) 8.8 km (5.5 mi) 1936 1938
    – Szczecin-Zachód 2.6 km (1.6 mi) 1934 27 September 1936
Szczecin-Zachód – Rzęśnica 26.6 km (16.5 mi) 1938
    – Iłowa 37.2 km (23.1 mi) 1936 1938 Southern carriageway only
IłowaGolnice 32 km (19.9 mi) 1935 17 October 1937
Golnice – Krzyżowa ( ) 5.9 km (3.7 mi) 1936 1938
  Elbląg – Grzechotki 51.4 km (31.9 mi) 1934 1938 Western carriageway only
Total 316.9 km (196.9 mi)
of which 178.5 km (110.9 mi) single carriageway
Note: Signage of the roads at the time of opening was different.

1945 – 1972 edit

The Potsdam conference defined the borders for communist Poland, which were very different from the pre-1939 ones. It received the so-called Regained Territories from the former Third Reich with the aforementioned motorway sections (some of them with first carriageway only). Most of the motorway bridges were destroyed by the warfare, but only a few were repaired or rebuilt in the first post-war years. The bridge over Ina river was reconstructed in 1972, and those on S22 only between 1996 and 2003.

Apart from the bridges, almost all the motorways were left in the same condition as they were in 1945 until the mid-1990s. The only road left from Nazi times that was completed by the People's Republic of Poland was a one-carriageway small section between Łęczyca and Lisowo (15 km of what is now DW142), which was built on the previous works of Nazis.

Plans

At the post-war year there were very ambitious plans to make a motorway network for the whole Poland. For example, engineer Eugeniusz Buszma has published his propositions to the network in the magazine "Drogowiec" (1946, issue 1):

  1. East – West (SłubiceWarsawBiałystok) – 680 km
  2. North – South (Gdynia – Warsaw – Balkans) – 650 km
  3. Silesia – Baltic I (GdańskŁódźKatowice) – 460 km
  4. Pomeranian (Gdańsk – Szczecin) – 280 km
  5. Silesian (Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków) – 190 km
  6. Mazurian (Kaliningrad – ElblągMalbork) – 20 km
  7. Silesia – Baltic II (Bydgoszcz – Wrocław) – 260 km
  8. Łódź – Wrocław – (Prague) – 310 km
  9. Katowice – (Vienna) – 60 km
  10. Poznań – Szczecin – 200 km
  11. RadomLublin – (Lviv) – 220 km

In total, the mileage, according to the proposal, would total more than 3,300 km (2,050 mi).

After the addition of the sections built by the Third Reich the total network length had to be approx. 3700 km. In 1963 the Motorization Council at the Council of Ministers had presented the similar plan plus the motorways: Warsaw-Kraków-Zakopane, Kraków-Przemyśl, Warsaw-Bydgoszcz-Koszalin, Poznań-Koszalin i Warsaw-Terespol (approx. 1250 km). None of those plans were realized, however.

Despite announcing such pompous plans, no motorway was opened in the meantime.

In the 1970s edit

 
S6 in Gdynia, part of Tricity bypass which was opened (at first as single carriageway) in 1977, making it the oldest expressway in Poland.

Only in the 1970s did any works start. In 1972 it was planned to build:

Plans
  • the Gliwice-Kraków motorway (now A4)
  • the second carriageway of the Wrocław-Gliwice motorway (also A4)
  • the Warsaw-Katowice motorway (so-called "Gierkówka", now the S8/A1 road), in the near future

The plans were expanded in 1976 by the following sections:

In 1973 – 1976, "Gierkówka" dual carriageway from Warsaw to Katowice (281 km (175 mi)) was built. Originally planned as a motorway, it was in the end constructed by adding another carriageway to the existing road, hence going through many villages and crossing with local roads. The part from Piotrków Trybunalski to Częstochowa (78 km) was constructed on a new route in a motorway alignment, but nonetheless the majority of the crossings between the highway and the other roads were constructed as one-level intersections with no viaducts or overpasses.

Highway sections opened in the 1970s
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening
  Piotrków Trybunalski – Częstochowa
substandard (many one-level intersections), constructed on motorway alignment, not signed as a highway
78 km (48 mi) 1973 1976
  Tri-city bypass (eastern carriageway)
substandard (two one-level intersections, then reconstructed when adding a second carriageway in the 1980s)
37.7 km (23.4 mi) 1973 1977
Rzęśnica (end of post-German A6 motorway) – Goleniów
substandard (one-level intersections)
19.3 km (12.0 mi) 1976 1979
Total 57 km (35.4 mi)
of which 37.7 km (23.4 mi) single carriageway

In the 1980s edit

 
A4 near Zalas, opened in 1983 (then renovated to modern standards in 2000, photo after renovation)

Near the end of the 1970s the first construction of motorways started and continued to the next decade. The roads opened in the 1980s were the first motorways and expressways which generally meet the contemporary standards (at least with respect to their more important attributes), although in multiple cases the poor quality of their construction forced major renovations to be performed as soon as within the first 20 years of operation.[41][42]

The major routes planned as motorways were A1, A2 and A4, while other main routes were planned as expressways. The implementation of these plans, however, came at a very slow pace: throughout the 1980s, only an average of 20 km (12 mi) of highways in the whole country were being opened per year.

Highway sections opened in the 1980s
average: 20.5 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
  Tuszyn-Piotrków Trybunalski 16.1 km (10.0 mi) 1978 18 December 1989 Reconstructed 2019 – 2021
  Września-Sługocin (Golina) 35.7 km (22.2 mi) 1977 9 October 1985 Renovated 2002 – 2003
Sługocin - Konin West 13.5 km (8.4 mi) 1986 10 November 1988
  Chrzanów - Kraków (Balice I) 29.6 km (18.4 mi) 1976 3 January 1983 Renovated 1999 – 2000
Jaworzno - Chrzanów 6.1 km (3.8 mi) 1978 22 November 1986
Kraków bypass (section Balice I - Tyniec) 7.8 km (4.8 mi) 1979 8 December 1988
  Dąbrowa Górnicza - Tychy 34.7 km (21.6 mi) 1978 1983
  Tri-city bypass (to Straszyn) 32.4 km (20.1 mi) 1978 1984 Second carriageway
  Kielce bypass 22.9 km (14.2 mi) 1974 1984 First carriageway
  Katowice - Sosnowiec 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 1978 1985 First completely done expressway
Total 205.6 km (127.8 mi) of which 55.3 km (34.4 mi) single carriageway

In the 1990s edit

In the III Republic of Poland, planned S3 was promoted to motorway A3 (the decision was later reversed) and a plan was introduced (also later reversed) of constructing motorway A8 Łódź – Wrocław – Bolków (now S8/A8/S5). Szczecin bypass (A6) and section Olszyna – Krzywa (then named A12, now A4/A18) were promoted to motorways, even though at that time the majority of their lengths was in bad shape, laid with the original concrete surface from the 1930s with no significant works having been performed on any of them throughout the whole communist period.

Highway sections opened in the 1990s
average: 15 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
  Mysłowice - Jaworzno 15.9 km (9.9 mi) 1986 29 November 1990 Northern carriageway
4 September 1991 Southern carriageway
Kraków bypass (section Tyniec - Skawina) 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 1988 1993
Kraków bypass (section Skawina - ul.Kąpielowa) 5.4 km (3.4 mi) 1993 27 October 1995 A4 had a crossroad with ul. Kąpielowa till 2002, when the bridge was built over it.
Jędrzychowice  - Zgorzelec 1.8 km (1.1 mi) 1992 15 July 1994
Katowice Francuska - Mysłowice 11.1 km (6.9 mi) 1989 30 October 1996
Katowice Mikołowska - Katowice Francuska 1.9 km (1.2 mi) ? 10 November 1999
Krzyżowa - Krzywa 10.2 km (6.3 mi) 1995 Renovated
   -Podjuchy 12.7 km (7.9 mi) 1996 1999 Renovated
  Olszyna -Królów 9.6 km (6.0 mi) ? 1993 Northern carriageway added (+ 350 m (383 yd) renovated southern carriageway at the border)
Golnice - Krzyżowa 5.9 km (3.7 mi) 1995 Renovated both carriageways
  Cieszyn -Cieszyn-East 5.2 km (3.2 mi) 1991 1995
  Sulechów - Zielona Góra (Niedoradz) 26.8 km (16.7 mi) 1985 1995 Western carriageway only
  Świecie bypass 13 km (8.1 mi) 1994 1998 Single carriageway; dual carriageway near the interchanges
  Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki bypass 14.6 km (9.1 mi) 1990 1999
Miłomłyn bypass 5.1 km (3.2 mi) 1995 1997 Eastern carriageway only
  Radzymin bypass 8.1 km (5.0 mi) 1996 1998
Total 151.8 km (94.3 mi) of which 28.8 km (17.9 mi) reconstructed, 48.4 km (30.1 mi) single carriageway

In the 2000s edit

 
A4 (Kraków southern bypass), opened in 2003
 
A2 near Poznań, opened in 2004 (later widened to 2x3 lanes in 2019)
 
S8 near Oleśnica, opened in 2006
 
S1 in Bielsko-Biała, opened in 2006

As of the beginning of 2000, the vast majority of national and international traffic routes were served by regular national roads with at-grade intersections and pedestrian crossings, most of them leading through the centres of cities, towns and villages, and most of them single carriageway. Only the following number of highways was present:

  • about 275 km (171 mi) of modern dual carriageway motorways and expressways (3.5% of the network as planned nowadays),
  • about 90 km (56 mi) of single carriageway expressways,
  • about 125 km (78 mi) of not-resurfaced Nazi German motorways from the 1930s,
  • about 150 km (93 mi) of not-resurfaced Nazi German motorways on sections where only the first carriageway had been constructed.

Before Poland received the EU membership edit

At the beginning of the 21st century, the tempo of highway construction started to increase. The main focus was on the west-east motorways A4 and A2. In 2002, a long-awaited renovation of the A4 from Krzywa to Wrocław (93 km) has started, which included laying new high quality surface in place of the Nazi German concrete slabs, reconstruction of all the pre-WWII bridges on the motorway and renovation of the viaducts above the motorway.

This is also the period when Poland started introducing motorway tolls, first in 2000 for the A4 section between Mysłowice and Kraków.

Highway sections opened in 2000 – 2003
average: 57 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
  Poznań Komorniki - Poznań Krzesiny 11.2 km (7.0 mi) 1998 13 September 2003
Poznań Krzesiny - Września 37.3 km (23.2 mi) 2002 27 November 2003
  Bielany Wrocławskie - Brzeg (Owczary) 34.1 km (21.2 mi) 1997 16 December 2000 Southern carriageway reconstructed, northern carriageway constructed
Brzeg (Owczary) - Dąbrówka Górna 56.6 km (35.2 mi)
Dąbrówka Górna - Nogowczyce 34.3 km (21.3 mi) 26 July 2001
Nogowczyce - Kleszczów 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 2001 4 December 2003 Southern carriageway reconstructed, northern carriageway constructed
Chorzów - Katowice Mikołowska 4.4 km (2.7 mi) 1998 2001
Kraków bypass (section ul.Kąpielowa - Wieliczka) 7 km (4.3 mi) 2000 3 September 2003
  Śmigiel bypass 4.1 km (2.5 mi) ? 2002 First carriageway
  Straszyn-Rusocin 5.4 km (3.4 mi) 2000 2001 Second carriageway
  Białobrzegi bypass 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2001 2003
  Ostrów Mazowiecka bypass 7.6 km (4.7 mi) 2000
Total 227.6 km (141.4 mi) of which 9.5 km (5.9 mi) single carriageway

Poland in European Union edit

1 May 2004 was a crucial day for the history of motorway construction and that is when the length of highway constructions increased the most. One of the major advantages of signing the European Union access document was that Poland could get access to large funds for co-financing the construction of new roads and upgrades of the existing road infrastructure.

These years, the existing scattered pieces of highways began to converge into the basis of the future network:

A large number of expressway bypasses of towns were also constructed at this time. On many of them, only one carriageway was built, with the allocated space prepared for easy construction of the second carriageway later.

Highway sections opened in 2004 – 2010
average: 151 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
  Gdańsk (Rusocin) - Grudziądz 24.2 km (15.0 mi) 2005 2007
64.7 km (40.2 mi) 2008
Sośnica - Żory 15.6 km (9.7 mi) 22 January 2007 20 October 2009
7.5 km (4.7 mi) 2007 15 December 2010
  Nowy Tomyśl - Poznań Komorniki 50.4 km (31.3 mi) 2002 October 2004
Konin - Łódź (Stryków) 103.7 km (64.4 mi) 2004 July 2006
  Krzywa - Bielany Wrocławskie 93 km (57.8 mi) 2002 2004–2006
(in sections)
Renovated both carriageways
Sośnica - Chorzów Batory 15.7 km (9.8 mi) 2002 January 2005
Kleszczów - Sośnica 19.1 km (11.9 mi) 2003 October 2005
Zgorzelec   - Krzyżowa 49.7 km (30.9 mi) 2006 August 2009
Wieliczka - Targowisko 19.5 km (12.1 mi) 2007 2009
  Szczecin Klucz - Szczecin Kijewo 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2005 2007 Renovated both carriageways
  Olszyna   - Golnice 71.5 km (44.4 mi) 2004 2006 Constructed the northern carriageway alongside the pre-WWII southern carriageway
    - Zwardoń - Milówka 12.0 km (7.5 mi) 2002 - 2007 2004 - 2010
(in sections)
Single carriageway; then signed S69
Żywiec - Przybędza 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2005 2007
Pyrzowice airport - Podwarpie 12.0 km (7.5 mi) 2005 2006 Single carriageway
  SzczecinGorzów Wielkopolski 81.6 km (50.7 mi) 2008 2010
Gorzów Wielkopolski bypass 11.9 km (7.4 mi) 2003 2007 Single carriageway
Międzyrzecz bypass 6.3 km (3.9 mi) 2004 2006
Nowa Sól bypass 18 km (11.2 mi) 2006 2008
  Szubin bypass 4.5 km (2.8 mi) 2004 2006 Single carriageway
  Słupsk bypass 16.3 km (10.1 mi) 2008 2010 Single carriageway; dual carriageway near the interchanges
  Jędrzejów bypass 5.8 km (3.6 mi) 2003 2005 Partially (2.7 km) single carriageway
Nowy Dwór Gdański bypass 2.5 km (1.6 mi) 2005 2007
Elbląg bypass 4.2 km (2.6 mi) 2005 2007
Grójec bypass 8.3 km (5.2 mi) 18 October 2006 19 September 2008
Białobrzegi - Jedlińsk 15.7 km (9.8 mi) 6 July 2006 30 June 2008
Myślenice - Lubień 16.2 km (10.1 mi) 2004 2009
Kielce bypass (northern part) 7.1 km (4.4 mi) 2007 2009
Płońsk bypass 4.7 km (2.9 mi) 28 September 2007 3 June 2009
SkurówBiałobrzegi 17.8 km (11.1 mi) 2007 2010
Kraków eastern bypass (first fragment) 2.8 km (1.7 mi) 2007 2010
  Oleśnica bypass 7.2 km (4.5 mi) 2004 2006
Wyszków bypass 12.8 km (8.0 mi) 27 February 2006 14 November 2008
Wyszków - Radzymin 17.3 km (10.7 mi) 8 December 2006 31 July 2009
Wrocław - Kobierzyce 7 km (4.3 mi) 2007 31 December 2010
  Toruń bypass (fragment) 12.4 km (7.7 mi) 2004 2005 Single carriageway; later incorporated into A1
Kobylanka bypass 13.8 km (8.6 mi) 2005 2007 Partially (7 km) single carriageway
Stargard bypass 13.5 km (8.4 mi) 2008 2009
Bydgoszcz bypass (fragment) 10.4 km (6.5 mi) 2008 2009
Wyrzysk bypass 7.8 km (4.8 mi) 2008 2009 Single carriageway
  Poznań - Kórnik 14.1 km (8.8 mi) 2006 2009
Ostrów Wlkp. bypass (northern part) 6.1 km (3.8 mi) 2008 2009 Single carriageway
  Piaski bypass 4 km (2.5 mi) 2002 2004
Puławy bypass 12.7 km (7.9 mi) 2005 2007 Partially (8.7 km) single carriageway
  BarczewoBiskupiec 20.1 km (12.5 mi) 2008 2010 Single carriageway
  Garwolin bypass 12.8 km (8.0 mi) 2005 2007
  Międzyrzec Podlaski bypass 6.3 km (3.9 mi) 2005 2008 Single carriageway
  Elbląg - Grzechotki / Kaliningrad Oblast 51.6 km (32.1 mi) April 2006 December 2008 Single carriageway; constructed in place of a partially destroyed motorway from the 1930s
  Cieszyn   - Bielsko-Biała (Komorowice) 28 km (17.4 mi) 2002 - 2005 2005 - 2007
(in sections)
Then signed S1
Total 1,055.6 km (655.9 mi) of which 276.6 km (171.9 mi) single carriageway, 100.7 km (62.6 mi) reconstructed

2011 – 2015 edit

 
Rędziński bridge on A8 in Wrocław, opened in 2011
Length of highways opened in 2011 – 2015
Year Length Notes
2011 313 km (194 mi)
2012 639 km (397 mi) Of which 195 km (121 mi) were opened before Euro 2012 championship
2013 298 km (185 mi)
2014 279 km (173 mi)
2015 34 km (21 mi)
Total 1,563 km (971 mi) Of which 26 km (16 mi) first carriageway, 23 km (14 mi) second carriageway

The sections opened in 2011 – 2015 belonged to the following highways:

2016 – 2020 edit

After the peak of investments before Euro 2012, very few new contracts for road construction have been signed in 2012 and 2013, which resulted in a small number of sections getting opened in 2015 and 2016 (large share of which were the last delayed fragments originally scheduled for a Euro 2012 opening). In particular:

  • In 2016, the last delayed fragment of   between Kraków and Ukraine was opened, making A4 the first major Polish highway completed on its whole length, as well as the first complete border-to-border highway connection.
  • Also in 2016, the delayed bypass of Łódź was finished, making   completed on its whole route except for those sections where national road 1 had already been a dual carriageway (see In the 1970s), allowing for a significantly lower priority of constructing the remaining stretch compared to other highways.

Since 2014, the number of signed contracts has risen again, resulting in the number of road openings having risen again since 2017.

 
Bridge over Vistula on S7 in Kraków, opened in 2017
Length of highways opened in 2016 – 2020
Year Length Notes
2016 123 km (76 mi)
2017 295 km (183 mi)
2018 318 km (198 mi)
2019 410 km (255 mi)
2020 135 km (84 mi)
Total 1,281 km (796 mi) Of which 13 km (8 mi) first carriageway, 81 km (50 mi) second carriageway

The sections opened in 2016 – 2020 belonged to the following highways:

2021 – present edit

 
The tunnel section of S2 in Warsaw, opened in 2021
Length of highways opened, or to be opened, in 2021 – 2025
by the contract completion date
Year Length Notes
2021 375 km (233 mi)
2022 267 km (166 mi)
2023 245 km (152 mi)
2024 142 km (88 mi) Sections already opened and ongoing constructions[43]
2025 526 km (327 mi) Ongoing constructions[6]
Total 1,555 km (966 mi) Of which 7 km (4 mi) first carriageway, 111 km (69 mi) second carriageway

The sections opened, or planned to get opened, in 2021 – 2025 belong to the following highways:

  •   : + 106 km (66 mi)
  •  : + 104 km (65 mi) (S3 is scheduled to get completed in 2024)
  •  : + 200 km (124 mi) (S6/A6 is scheduled to get completed in 2025 on its original route from Germany to Gdańsk; western bypass of Szczecin will be constructed later as an alternative parallel route)
  •  : + 196 km (122 mi) (S7 on the section WarsawKraków is scheduled to get completed in 2025)
  •  : + 291 km (181 mi) (S19 "Via Carpathia" on the section LublinRzeszów was completed in 2022, except that its older fragment with 2+1 lanes will remain so until 2026)
  •  : + 183 km (114 mi) (S61 "Via Baltica" is scheduled to get completed in 2025)
  •  ,  ,  ,  ,  : + 60–80 km each (A1 was completed in 2022; S5 on the section Grudziądz (A1) – Poznań was completed in 2022; reconstruction of the second carriageway of A18 was completed in 2023; S1 is scheduled to get completed in 2025)
  •       : + 119 km (74 mi) in total

Total length of motorways and expressways in Poland (end of the year) edit

Year Highways, total length
1936 (then Nazi Germany) 92 km
1937 (then Nazi Germany) 104 km and 38 km first carriageway
1938–1945 (then Nazi Germany) 133 km and 135 km first carriageway (further below not considered as a motorway until addition of the second carriageway)
1939–1945 (Poland) 28 km (today not considered as a highway)
1945–1976 133 km
1977 169 km
1978 169 km
1979 190 km
1980 190 km
1981 190 km
1982 190 km
1983 255 km
1984 278 km
1985 321 km
1986 327 km
1987 327 km
1988 348 km
1989 366 km
1990 381 km
1991 399 km
1992 399 km
1993 403 km
1994 405 km
1995 440 km
1996 453 km
1997 456 km
1998 490 km
1999 502 km
2000 592 km
2001 630 km
2002 639 km
2003 727 km
2004 781 km
2005 848 km
2006 1013 km
2007 1083 km
2008 1282 km
2009 1454 km
2010 1560 km
2011 1865 km
2012 2495 km
2013 2805 km
2014 3100 km
2015 3131 km
2016 3252 km
2017 3510 km
2018 3811 km
2019 4214 km
2020 4337 km
2021 4690 km
2022 4933 km
2023 5116 km
2024 5258 km (forecast[6])
2025 5776 km (forecast[6])
2026 6006 km (forecast[6])
2027 6180 km (forecast[6])
2028 6570 km (plans[3][23])
2030 approx. 7000 km (plans[3][23])
2033 approx. 8000 km (plans[3][23])
After 2035 approx. 8175 km – full network (plans[3])

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Major changes in the network (e.g. opening new fragments of roads, signing all contracts for a planned road section) are accounted continuously, while a general update including all the details is done once per year (last: 16 October 2023). 'In total' length statistic is kept consistent as of the last general update, and might hence not be the exact sum of the current state of the table.
  2. ^ Some highways can overlap. The table shows data without overlapping sections such that each fragment is counted exactly once, in accordance with how they are attributed in the ministry ordinance,[18] i.e. each common section is attributed to the road with the lower number (in case of two expressways overlapping) or to a motorway (in case of a motorway and an expressway overlapping), except for S12/S17 west of Lublin which is recorded as S17 in the sources.[19]
  3. ^ First sections constructed in 1973 – 1976 as a dual carriageway road with at-grade intersections and pedestrian crossings (65 km) and 1978 – 1989 as a short motorway fragment (17 km). In 2019 – 2022, they were reconstructed into a modern motorway.
  4. ^ Aggregate length for A2: 622.1 km (Completed: 78%, in realisation: 16%)
  5. ^ First 48 km constructed 1977 – 1988, reconstructed to modern standard 2002 – 2003.
    Eastern half of S2 in Warsaw constructed 2017 – 2021.
  6. ^ Aggregate length for S3: 454.9 km (Completed: 85.8%, in realisation: 14.2%)
  7. ^ The 1st carriageway on three sections (62 km in total) constructed 1985 – 2008.
  8. ^ Aggregate length for S5 including Ostróda and Bolków extensions (added to the plans in 2015/2019): 508 km (Completed: 70.3%)
  9. ^ The 1st carriageway on three short sections (bypasses of some towns) constructed 1994 – 2006.
  10. ^ Aggregate length for S8 including Kłodzko extension (added to plans in 2019): 616 km (Completed: 87.5%)
  11. ^ a b Short fragments (bypasses of some towns) constructed earlier in the 2000s.
  12. ^ Aggregate length for S17: 322.5 km (Completed: 57%, in realisation: 19.5%)
  13. ^ The southern carriageway was constructed between 1935 and 1938 by Nazi Germany. The northern carriageway was constructed alongside it between 2004 and 2006, but the road was not marked as a motorway (except for a short fragment with both carriageways reconstructed), as only the west-bound traffic could use the motorway-quality carriageway, while the east-bound traffic kept using the old carriageway with concrete slabs from the 1930s. The southern carriageway was reconstructed to mordern motorway standard between 2020 and 2023 and the whole route was then designated as a motorway.
  14. ^ In place of a largely destroyed Nazi German motorway (also single-carriageway) from the 1930s.
  15. ^ a b Sections under active construction and sections under a joint Design & Build contract.
  16. ^ a b c
      In design (tender included), if it is being conducted as part of the predesign process rather than as part of a design-build contract.
      In the late predesign phase, i.e. after having obtained environmental decision (0–2 years to finish).
      In the process of obtaining environmental decision (including if a non-final decision has been issued and is being appealed from).
      In the early predesign stage (Polish: Studium Korytarzowe and STEŚ).
  17. ^ A circa 3 km long section south of Lubawka interchange has been finished, but remains closed until its continuation into the Czech Republic, the D11 motorway, is opened.
  18. ^ a b The national road 6 is currently routed through the Szczecin Southern Bypass (motorway A6) and then through expressway S6. Ultimately, after completion of the Szczecin Western Bypass, this new route will become S6 (it is not clear if A6 then retains its number and there will be two parallel routes with number 6, or if renumbering takes place). Until S6 gets rerouted, the existing route 6 is accounted jointly in the table.
  19. ^ a b According to the ordinance, a fragment of S6 (1st Tricity bypass) is ultimately to become a section of S7 after 2nd Tricity bypass (S6) is constructed. Until the actual relabelling takes place, this fragment is being accounted to S6 and not to S7 in the table.
  20. ^ Aggregate length for S6 including the alternative routes – 2nd (western) bypass of Szczecin and 2nd (outer) bypass of Gdańsk: 425 km (Completed: 56%, in realisation: 29.5%)
  21. ^ Section Kraków – Myślenice. By 2030, the existing dual-carriageway DK7 is planned to get upgraded with removing all at-grade intersections and pedestrian crossings. A 2x3 expressway (on a new route alignment) would be constructed around 2038, as the last section of the currently-planned highway network.[24]
  22. ^ Aggregate length for S12: 328.6 km (Completed: 27.6%, in realisation: 14.2%)
  23. ^ Łomża bypass: 1st carriageway to be opened mid-2024, 2nd carriageway mid-2025
  24. ^ Or later, depending on the status of revocation of the environmental decision.
  25. ^ Single carriageway expressways which are currently not planned for widening to dual carriageways: 52.2 km of S22, 20.8 km of S1

References edit

  1. ^ Here and in the following figures, construction of 1st or 2nd carriageway is accounted as half-length for consistency of the summed results. Sections constructed by Nazi Germany are accounted for the dates of their reconstruction to modern highways.
  2. ^ https://www.gov.pl/web/gddkia/mapa-stanu-budowy-drog4, more details: History
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rządowy Plan Budowy Dróg do 2030 roku". www.gov.pl.
  4. ^ "Autostrady :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Strona Główna". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  5. ^ Including joint design–build contracts. Of these 563 km (350 mi) in active construction.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "List of ongoing road contracts signed by GDDKiA".
  7. ^ The definitions and technical parameters of highways are defined in the Public Roads Act of 21 March 1985 (with later amendments): "Ustawa z dnia 21 marca 1985 r. o drogach publicznych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl. and the ministry ordinance of 2 March 1999 (with later amendments)."Obwieszczenie Ministra Infrastruktury i Budownictwa z dnia 23 grudnia 2015 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu rozporządzenia Ministra Transportu i Gospodarki Morskiej w sprawie warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać drogi publiczne i ich usytuowanie". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  8. ^ a b "S3 Miękowo - Rzęśnica :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  9. ^ "Miekowo Rześnica". Miekowo Rześnica.
  10. ^ a b "Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Portal Gov.pl". Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad.
  11. ^ "Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 15 maja 2004 r. w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  12. ^ "Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 20 października 2009 r. zmieniające rozporząsdzenie w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  13. ^ a b "Dziennik Ustaw 2019 r. poz. 1819". www.dziennikustaw.gov.pl.
  14. ^ to Ostróda in 2015 and to Bolków in 2019
  15. ^ to Kłodzko in 2019
  16. ^ to Wołomin in 2015
  17. ^ "Zmiany w rozporządzeniu w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych - Ministerstwo Infrastruktury i Budownictwa". mib.gov.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  18. ^ http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/DocDetails.xsp?id=WDU20180000741: Appendix 2, footnote 1 (in Polish)
  19. ^ "WYNIKI_GPR_2015_DK.pdf" (PDF).
  20. ^ "Zestawienie realizacji autostrad i dróg ekspresowych w Polsce". Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Mapa budowy dróg ekspresowych i autostrad". Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  22. ^ "Map of construction of Polish highways - SISKOM & SSC". ssc.siskom.waw.pl. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Map of construction of Polish highways - GDDKiA". gov.pl. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  24. ^ "Nowa Zakopianka - w oczekiwaniu na wariant społeczny - Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Portal Gov.pl".
  25. ^ "Toll-free travel on motorway sections managed by GDDKiA (A2 Konin-Stryków and A4 Wrocław-Sośnica) for light vehicles from 1 July 2023" (in Polish). e-TOLL. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  26. ^ "Cała autostrada A1 bezpłatna dla samochodów osobowych i motocykli - Ministerstwo Infrastruktury - Portal Gov.pl".
  27. ^ "Via Toll".
  28. ^ "Autopay - Comfortable automatic payments - Autopay".
  29. ^ "Koniec stania przy bramkach. Autopay na państwowych autostradach od 1 grudnia - Autopay".
  30. ^ "Types of vehicles for which toll is collected".
  31. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ a b c https://www.gov.pl/attachment/f49c90ff-eb1c-469c-8ab4-04bf91ac7db0[bare URL PDF]
  33. ^ The measurement analysis defines a regular single-carriageway road as overburdened if recorded average annual traffic exceeds 15'000 vehicles per day, see "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ https://www.archiwum.gddkia.gov.pl/userfiles/articles/g/GENERALNY_POMIAR_RUCHU_2010/0.1.1.5_Synteza_GPR_2010.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  35. ^ "Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Portal Gov.pl".
  36. ^ "Generalny Pomiar Ruchu 2020/2021 - Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Portal Gov.pl".
  37. ^ "W kwietniu przetarg w sprawie drogi między Ruczajem a Skawiną. Co z tramwajem?". 25 July 2023.
  38. ^ "Umowa na analizę dla rozbudowy A4 Wrocław – Krzyżowa podpisana! :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  39. ^ "A6 Szczecin Dąbie - Rzęśnica :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  40. ^ "Zamów domenę". domains24.pl.
  41. ^ "Historia - Autostrada Wielkopolska SA".
  42. ^ "Historia przedsięwzięcia". Stalexport Autostrada Małopolska S.A.
  43. ^ "Budowa dróg – sztafeta rozłożona na lata - Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Portal Gov.pl".

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