Płońsk (Polish: [pwɔj̃sk] (listen); Yiddish: פּלאָנסק, romanized: Plonsk) is a town in north-central Poland with 22,500 inhabitants (2010). It is situated in the Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999) at the river Płonka; previously, it was in Ciechanów Voivodeship (1975–98). The city is noted for being the birthplace of Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion.
Town center, 2019
|Gmina||Płońsk (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Andrzej Józef Pietrasik|
|• Total||11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+48 023|
According to archaeological research, the Płońsk stronghold was built in the late 10th century within the early Polish state. Dating back to 1155, is the first historical record confirming the existence of Płońsk. Around the castle a group of inhabitants was formed, most of whom initially worked on the land. As a result of the fragmentation of medieval Piast-ruled Poland, it was part of the duchies of Masovia and Płock, and then it was a royal town of the Polish Crown, administratively located in the Płock Voivodeship in the Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown. In 1400, Siemowit IV of Masovia, granted it town rights under Chełmno law, then merchants and craftsmen started to come to the town.
In the early twentieth century, the population of 10,000 was equally divided between Poles and Jews. It was a centre of the garment industry. The Jews lived mostly within the city, whilst the Poles were more scattered and tended to live in the countryside. Many of the Jewish residents of Płońsk immigrated to Palestine for Zionist reasons, spurred on by the idea of building a Jewish homeland.
During the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939, Germany invaded the town and the Einsatzgruppe V entered the town to commit various crimes against the populace. Under German occupation the town was annexed directly to Nazi Germany and was renamed Plöhnen. The Germans established and operated a court prison in the town. In 1940, the occupiers expelled around 1,000 Poles, whose houses and workshops were then handed over to German colonists as part of the Lebensraum policy. In September 1940, Jews from the town and the surrounding areas were imprisoned in a ghetto. Soon a typhus epidemic broke out. A hospital, a bathhouse for the sick, a pharmacy, and a folk kitchen were organized in the ghetto. In total, 12,000 Jews were prisoners of the ghetto and from October 1942, they were sent to the Auschwitz extermination camp. In 1943 in Berlin, the Germans sentenced six members of the local Polish resistance movement, some to death. On January 16–18, 1945, shortly before retreating, the German police carried out a massacre of 78 Poles in the town.
The church and the old monastery of Calced Carmelites were founded before 1417 by the Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia and his wife Aleksandra, sister of Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło. The old Sienkiewiczówka manor, which was home of Polish novelist and Nobel Prize laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz in the 1860s, is located in the Poświętne district. There he wrote his first unpublished novel Ofiara.
Sports and cultureEdit
In 2018, local Poles held a celebration in Ben-Gurion's honor for the 70th anniversary of the re-establishment of the State of Israel.
- "Population. Size and structure by territorial division. As of June 30, 2010" (PDF). Central Statistical Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
- Segev, Tom (2018 - 2019 translation Haim Watzman) A State at Any Cost. The Life of David Ben-Gurion. Apollo. ISBN 9-781789-544633 p.48
- Memoirs: David Ben-Gurion (1970), p. 36
- Tomasz Gąsowski. "Obrona Płońska (14–17 sierpnia 1920)". TwojaHistoria.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 6 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 54.
- Wardzyńska (2009), p. 224
- Wardzyńska, Maria (2017). Wysiedlenia ludności polskiej z okupowanych ziem polskich włączonych do III Rzeszy w latach 1939-1945 (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 395. ISBN 978-83-8098-174-4.
- Katarzyna Olszewska. "Z historii płońskiej konspiracji". plonszczak.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 6 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Uczczono pamięć ofiar zbrodni na Piaskach". Plonsk.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 6 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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