Barczewo [barˈt͡ʂɛvɔ] (until 1946 Wartembork; German: Wartenburg in Ostpreußen) is a town in Olsztyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland. It is situated 20 km northeast of Olsztyn, in the historic region of Warmia. As of December 2021, the town has a population of 7,483.[3]

Barczewo skyline
Townhouses in the Old Town
Town Hall
  • From top, left to right: Barczewo skyline
  • Townhouses in the Old Town
  • Town Hall
Coat of arms of Barczewo
Barczewo is located in Poland
Barczewo is located in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Coordinates: 53°50′N 20°41′E / 53.833°N 20.683°E / 53.833; 20.683
Country Poland
Voivodeship Warmian-Masurian
 • MayorAndrzej Maciejewski
 • Total4.58 km2 (1.77 sq mi)
146 m (479 ft)
 (31 December 2021)[3][4]
 • Total7,483
 • Density1,634/km2 (4,230/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
Area code+48 89
Car platesNOL
National roads
Voivodeship roads
Primary airportOlsztyn-Mazury Airport

Name Edit

The German name of the town ("Wartenburg") has its origins from the town of Wartenburg (Elbe).[5] In Polish the town was known historically as Wartembork, Wartenberg, Wartenbergk, Wathberg, Bartenburg, Warperc, Wasperc, Wartbór or Wartbórz.

In the aftermath of World War II, the town was transferred from Germany back to Poland. Commission for the Determination of Place Names decided to change the town's name. It was briefly named Nowowiejsk, after local composer Feliks Nowowiejski, in September 1946. In December that year the Commission settled on another name, Barczewo, honouring Polish national activist who fought against Prussian oppression of Poles in Warmia, Walenty Barczewski (1865–1928).[6]

History Edit

Brick Gothic St. Anne church in the Old Town
Church of St. Anna (Inner view)

The town was first located in 1325 but was soon after destroyed by Lithuanians. The rebuild town was granted city rights in 1364. It was known at the time as Wartberg.[6]

In 1440 the town joined the Prussian Confederation, at the request of which Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon signed the act of incorporation of the region to the Kingdom of Poland in 1454.[7] In 1466, after the Second Peace of Toruń, the town was confirmed as part of Kingdom of Poland.[8] It was the place of fights of the Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521. In April 1520 a battle was fought in the vicinity, in November 1520 the town was successfully defended by the Poles, and in January 1521 the Teutonic Knights came back and launched artillery fire on the town, but eventually withdrew.[6] During the Deluge, Brandenburg forced occupied the town in 1656.[6] During the Great Northern War, Polish and Swedish troops marched through the town.[6] In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1807, the town was occupied by France.[6]

According to German statistics Poles constituted 72% of population in 1825[9] and 62% in 1861;[10] Gerard Labuda and August von Haxthausen give the number of 1500 Poles and 590 Germans living in the town in 1825.[11][9] The local monastery was secularised in 1810, in 1819/1820 Prussian authorities decided to close down the monastery that has been described as "the stronghold of Polishness." After the death of Father Tyburcjusz Bojarzynowski, last leader of the monastery, in 1834 it has been converted into a state prison.[5][12] According to Wojciech Zenderowski [pl] this was part of Prussian repressions against Poles as the monastery was seen as particularly problematic by Prussian authorities for being a center of Polish resistance.[13]

A Jewish Synagogue was built in 1847, and a Jewish cemetery from the 19th century exists as well.[14] During the January Uprising in 1860s in the Russian Partition of Poland, the town was the local centre of supplying medicine, food and even firearms to Polish rebels, with the Polish society in the town becoming active in war effort and led by August Sokołowski [pl].[15] In 1885 a mass rally was organised by Poles, demanding among others that Polish children should be allowed to use their language in education[16] In 1886 a bookstore with Polish books and publications was opened in the town and came into conflict with German authorities who wanted it to remove Polish language signs.[17]

Barczewo Town Hall in 1988

In the plebiscite of 1920 3,020 inhabitants voted to remain in Weimar German East Prussia, 140 votes supported reborn Poland.[6][18] In the interwar era the town was the residence of the fictional Kuba spod Wartemborka, a pseudonym of a figure in Polish press in Warmia created by Seweryn Pieniężny (1890-1940) [pl] which ridiculed Germanisation efforts against Poles in the region.[19][20] Polish organisations continued to thrive in the town, up until Second World War; as Nazi Party was elected to power in Germany, repressions intensified, eventually many Polish activists were either imprisoned or, like Pieniężny, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and prisons.[6][21] During that war, the remaining Jewish community was murdered in the Holocaust.[14] During the war, the Germans operated a Nazi prison in the town, with several forced labour subcamps in the region,[22] including one in the town itself.[23] Many inhabitants fled the town since 21 January 1945, and the last German units withdrew during the night of 30–31 January.[6] The town was occupied by Soviet troops without a fight on 31 January 1945. The Russians then plundered the town and carried out mass deportations of remaining people into the USSR, especially to Siberia.[6] On 22 May 1945 the town, now destroyed at 60%, was handed over to Polish officials. After 173 years, the town was reintegrated with Poland,.[6] On 9 March 1946 the prison in Barczewo has also been transferred to Polish authorities. Between 1965 and his death in 1986 it held the former Gauleiter and President of East Prussia Erich Koch. After introduction on Martial law in Poland Barczewo prison also seen opposition activists detained including Władysław Frasyniuk, Adam Michnik, Stefan Niesiołowski, Leszek Moczulski, Romuald Szeremietiew and Józef Szaniawski.[24]

Historical population Edit

  • 1825: 2,090 including by mother tongue 1,500 Poles (72%) and 590 Germans (28%).[9]
  • 1837: 2,550 including by mother tongue 1,794 Poles (70%) and 756 Germans (30%).[9]
  • 1861: 3,272 (77 Jews)
  • 1880: 4,499 (111 Jews)
  • 1933: 4,818 (40 Jews)
  • 1939: 5,841 (23 Jews)[14][25]

Sites of interest Edit

Memorial plaque to Polish composer Feliks Nowowiejski at his birthplace, now the Feliks Nowowiejski Museum

There is a preserved historic Old Town in Barczewo, with several distinctive monuments, including the Brick Gothic St. Anne church, and the Gothic-Renaissance-Baroque Saint Andrew church, which contains a Mannerist cenotaph of Andrew Báthory and Balthasar Báthory, cousins of Polish King Stephen Báthory. The Feliks Nowowiejski Museum,[26] dedicated to Polish composer and organist Feliks Nowowiejski is located at his birthplace and family home in the Old Town. There are also remains of the old Barczewo Castle.

Transport Edit

The Polish National road 16 and Voivodeship road 595 pass through the town. There is also a train station.

Sports Edit

The local football club is Pisa Barczewo.[27] It competes in the lower leagues.

Notable people Edit

International relations Edit

Twin towns - sister cities Edit

Barczewo is twinned with:[28]

References Edit

  1. ^ "Burmistrz". (in Polish). Bulletin of Public Information. Retrieved 2022-08-30.
  2. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-08-30. Category K1, group G441, subgroup P1410. Data for territorial unit 2814014.
  3. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-08-30. Category K3, group G7, subgroup P1336. Data for territorial unit 2814014.
  4. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-08-30. Category K3, group G7, subgroup P2425. Data for territorial unit 2814014.
  5. ^ a b Jackiewicz-Garniec, Malgorzata; Garniec, Miroslaw (2009). Burgen im Deutschordensstaat Preussen (in German). p. 76.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Archived April 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (in Polish)
  7. ^ Górski, Karol (1949). Związek Pruski i poddanie się Prus Polsce: zbiór tekstów źródłowych (in Polish). Poznań: Instytut Zachodni. pp. XXXVII, 54.
  8. ^ Górski, p. 99
  9. ^ a b c d von Haxthausen, August (1839). Die ländliche verfassung in den einzelnen provinzen der Preussischen Monarchie (in German). Königsberg: Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 78.
  10. ^ Zabytkowe ośrodki miejskie Warmii i MazurLucjan Czubiel, Tadeusz Domagała, page 81, 1969
  11. ^ Historia Pomorza: (1815-1850)gospodarka, społeczeństwo, ustrójGerard Labuda Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, page 163, 1993
  12. ^ Na przełomie lat 1819-1920 postanowiono rozwiązać klasztor, który był twierdzą polskości. W 1821 r., dokonano sekularyzacji, zmuszając zakonników do opuszczenia klasztoru. Wraz ze śmiercią ostatniego gwardiana, o. Tyburcjusza Bojarzynowskiego (1830), ostatni zakonnicy opuścili klasztor, który tego samego roku całkowicie opustoszał Archived April 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Wojciech Zenderowski, „Wiadomości Barczewskie”, 1999, 86, s. 11
  14. ^ a b c "". Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  15. ^ Dzieje Warmii i Mazur w zarysie, Tomy 1-2, Jerzy Sikorski, Stanisław Szostakowski, Ośrodek Badań Naukowych im. Wojciecha Kętrzyńskiego w Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, page 300, 1981.
  16. ^ Przebudzenie narodowe Warmii, 1886-1893 Andrzej Wakar, Wydawnictwo Pojezierze, page 23, 19821
  17. ^ Słownik pracowników książki polskiej, Tom 1, Irena Treichel Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, page 97, 1972
  18. ^ Charakterystyka zasobów i analiza stanu dziedzictwa kulturowego i krajobrazu kulturowego Gminy Barczewo (in Polish). Dziennik Urzedowy Województwa Warminsko-Mazurskiego. p. 31.
  19. ^ Słownik biograficzny katolicyzmu społecznego w Polsce: Tom 2 Ryszard Bender, Ośrodek Dokumentacji i Studiów Społecznych, page 187 1994
  20. ^ Teoretyczne, badawcze i dydaktyczne założenia dialektologii Sławomir Gala, Łódzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe, page 332 - 1998
  21. ^ "Seweryn Pieniężny". (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2019-03-02. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  22. ^ "Zuchthaus Wartenburg". (in German). Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  23. ^ "Außenkommando "Ostwallbau" des Zuchthauses Wartenburg (Ostpr.)". (in German). Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  24. ^ "Zakład Karny".
  25. ^ verwaltungsgeschichte (in German)
  26. ^ "THE FELIKS NOWOWIEJSKI MUSEUM". Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  27. ^ "Pisa Barczewo - strona klubu" (in Polish). Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  28. ^ "Hagen - miasto partnerskie". (in Polish). Miasto Barczewo. Retrieved 2022-08-30.

External links Edit