Mysłowice [mɨswɔˈvʲit͡sɛ] (German: Myslowitz) is a city in Silesia in Poland, bordering Katowice. The population of the city as of 2022[update] is 72,124.
|Coordinates: 50°14′N 19°8′E / 50.233°N 19.133°ECoordinates: 50°14′N 19°8′E / 50.233°N 19.133°E|
|• City mayor||Dariusz Wójtowicz|
|• City||65.6 km2 (25.3 sq mi)|
(1 january 2022)
|• Density||1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
41-400 to 41-412
|Area code||+48 32|
|Primary airport||Katowice Airport|
It is located in the center of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union in the Silesian Highlands, on the Przemsza and Brynica rivers (tributaries of the Vistula). It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999, previously in the Katowice Voivodeship, and before then, the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. Mysłowice is one of the cities comprising the 2.7 million conurbation – Katowice urban area and within the greater Silesian metropolitan area with a population of about 5,294,000.
Mysłowice is one of the oldest cities in Upper Silesia. Located at the confluence of the White and Black Przemsza rivers, it is situated on an important trading route from Wrocław to Kraków. The earliest traces of the modern settlement date back to the 11th and 12th century, when it was part of Piast-ruled Poland. The first mention of a parish priest is found in a document from 1306. In 1360, Mysłowice was already referred to as a town. The previously existing village was granted city rights around 1260.
Over the centuries the ownership of the city changed frequently, as did the borders between different countries. After the foundation of the German Empire in 1871 the area became known as Dreikaisereck ("triangle of the three emperors"), as it was situated at the point where the Austrian, German and Russian Empires adjoined. After World War I, in 1918, Poland regained independence, and in 1919, local Polish miners organized large protests in Mysłowice. On August 15, 1919, the German Grenzschutz opened fire on protesting Polish miners and their families. Seven miners, two women and a teenage boy were killed, and many people were wounded. The event, known as the "Mysłowice massacre", sparked the First Silesian Uprising against Germany. In 1921, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was held, in which 56% of the residents of Myslowitz voted to remain in Germany and 44% voted to rejoin Poland, while the overwhelming majority in the present-day districts (then surrounding villages) of Brzezinka, Brzęczkowice, Dziećkowice, Kosztowy, Krasowy and Wesoła opted to reintegrate with Poland, with the result ranging from 77.3% voting for Poland in Brzęczkowice to 96.7% in Wesoła. After the Silesian Uprisings in 1922, Mysłowice and the rest of East Upper Silesia became part of the newly restored Second Polish Republic.
During the German occupation of Poland (World War II), the Germans operated a Nazi prison in the town. Many Polish children passed through the prison during the implementation of the Nazi genocidal policy towards Polish families in Silesia. In the Wesoła district, the Germans also established and operated a forced labour camp for Jews and a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp. In the final stages of the war, most prisoners of the subcamp were evacuated by the Germans in a death march to Gliwice and then deported to Germany, while the remaining sick prisoners were mostly murdered by the SS. A dozen or so prisoners managed to hide and survived the massacre, and were taken care of by Polish miners afterwards.
In 1951, city limits were expanded, and Brzezinka and Brzęczkowice were included as new districts.
Mysłowice is subdivided into 14 districts:
- Brzęczkowice and Słupna
- Janów Miejski–Ćmok
- Mysłowice Centrum
- Stare Miasto (Old Town)
- Szopena–Wielka Skotnica
Mysłowice is home to a university-level institution called Górnośląska Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Kard. Augusta Hlonda (August Hlond College of Pedagogy) located at ul. Piastów Śląskich 10.
Mysłowice has eight Junior High Schools and five Secondary and vocational schools. There are at least 20 kindergartens located in Mysłowice, residing at location with greater density of children. On top of that, there are also 17 primary schools operating in the city.
There are some buildings in Mysłowice which prove the medieval origin of the town. Farna Church, located near the market square, is the oldest and probably the only brick church in Mysłowice. Saint Cross Church is another brick building, maintained in baroque and classicistic style; according to Catholic tradition, it is the oldest place of religious worship in the town. There is also a Jewish cemetery in the town. The origins of the place trace back to the 18th century, when Jews decided to buy a tract in order to create their own graveyard.
The Off Festival is an annual music festival started in 2006 by musician Artur Rojek (however, in 2010 it was moved to Katowice). Bands from Mysłowice include Myslovitz formed 1992 (named after their hometown), as well as Lenny Valentino (1998–2001).
As of 2017, the city was the location of one of five Amazon logistics centres in Poland, which serves customers across Europe.
- August Hlond (1881–1948), cardinal, Archbishop of Poznań and Gniezno, Primate of Poland
- Georg Koßmala (1896–1945), Wehrmacht general
- Albert Norden (1904–1982), East German politician
- Jerzy Chromik (1931–1987), long-distance runner
- Ireneusz Pacula (born 1966), former ice hockey player and coach
- Mariusz Puzio (born 1966), former ice hockey player
- Jolanta Fraszyńska (born 1968), film and theatre actress
- Artur Rojek (born 1972), musician, former guitarist and lead singer of the Polish alternative rock group Myslovitz
- Piotr Bajtlik (born 1982), actor
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
Mysłowice is twinned with:
- Enz (district), Germany
- Frýdek-Místek, Czech Republic
Former twin towns:
- Sokolinaya Gora (Moscow), Russia
In February 2022, Mysłowice severed its partnership with Moscow's Sokolinaya Gora district as a reaction to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
- ^ "Local Data Bank" (PDF). Statistics Poland. Retrieved 31 December 2022. Data for territorial unit 2470000.
- ^ https://stat.gov.pl/download/gfx/portalinformacyjny/pl/defaultaktualnosci/5515/3/16/1/polski_rocznik_demograficzny_2022.pdf
- ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) "Project 1.4.3". Archived from the original on 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ L.Musioł (1956). Parafia mysłowicka. Uzupełnienie i sprostowanie do pracy ks. Kudery: Historia parafii mysłowickiej.
- ^ a b c d "Strzały w Mysłowicach doprowadziły do wybuchu I powstania śląskiego". PolskieRadio24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ "Landsmannschaft der Oberschlesier in Karlsruhe". 2016-03-04. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2021-07-20.
- ^ "Results of the Upper Silesia plebiscite in Pless/Pszczyna County" (in German). Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
- ^ "Schweres NS-Gefängnis Mislowitz". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ Kostkiewicz, Janina (2020). "Niemiecka polityka eksterminacji i germanizacji polskich dzieci w czasie II wojny światowej". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 56.
- ^ "Zwangsarbeitslager für Juden Fürstengrube". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ a b c "Fürstengrube". Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 17 marca 1951 r. w sprawie zniesienia i zmiany granic niektórych powiatów oraz utworzenia i zmiany granic niektórych miast, stanowiących powiaty miejskie w województwie katowickim., Dz. U. z 1951 r. Nr 18, poz. 147
- ^ "Jednostki pomocnicze" (in Polish). BIP Miasta Mysłowice. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- ^ "Rojek zabiera festiwal z Mysłowic". Tvn24.pl. 2010-02-25. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- ^ Marcin Goettig (2017-02-20). "Amazon to open its fifth logistics center in Poland". Reuters.
- ^ "Miasta partnerskie". myslowice.pl (in Polish). Mysłowice. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
- ^ "Mysłowice gotowe na przyjęcie rodzin z Ukrainy. Miasto zerwało współpracę z okręgiem Municypalnym Sokola Góra miasta Moskwa" (in Polish). Retrieved 13 March 2022.
Media related to Mysłowice at Wikimedia Commons
- http://www.myslowice.pl Official site of Mysłowice
- https://web.archive.org/web/20081016003036/http://m-ce.net/ Site of Mysłowice
- http://www.m-ce.pl The Website of Myslowice (Polish, some content in English)
- Jewish Community in Mysłowice on Virtual Shtetl
- http://www.myslowice.zobacz.slask.pl Myslowice, Silesia (Polish, some content in English)