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The autostrada A4 in Poland is a 672.75 km (418.03 mi) long east-west motorway that runs through southern Poland, along the north side the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains, from the Polish-German border at Zgorzelec-Görlitz (connecting to the German A4 autobahn), bypassing Wrocław, Opole, Strzelce Opolskie, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów, Dębica and Rzeszów to the Polish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets. The motorway is a part of the European route E40. The A4 parallels national road 94 (which connects with German Bundesstraße 6).

Autostrada A4 shield}}

Autostrada A4
Route information
Part of E40
Length672.75 km (418.03 mi)
Major junctions
FromBundesautobahn 4 number.svg A4 - border Germany-Poland at Görlitz-Zgorzelec
 A18-PL.svg A18 near Krzyżowa

S3-PL.svg S3 near Legnica (planned)
A8-PL.svg A8 near Wrocław
A1-PL.svg A1 near Gliwice
S1-PL.svg S1 near Mysłowice
S7-PL.svg S7 near Kraków

S19-PL.svg S19 near Rzeszów
Toborder Poland-Ukraine at Korczowa-Krakovets - M10-UA.svg M10
Location
Regions:Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Podkarpackie Voivodeship
Major citiesWrocław, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Rzeszów
Highway system
National roads in Poland

History of constructionEdit

Some western stretches of this motorway were initially built as a Reichsautobahn by Nazi Germany in the 1930s under her pre-war borders. After World War II and the takeover of Poland by the communist regime, with new borders, the existing roads received minimal maintenance and upgrades and became notorious for their poor quality, a phenomenon similar to that observed in East Germany. Extensive reconstruction, especially of the section between Legnica and Wrocław, has removed all traces of the old concrete road surface, but some aspects of 1930s standards of construction remain; for example, the aforementioned stretch does not have an emergency lane, a feature that is to be added in the future.

The section between Kraków and Katowice was built from the 1980s to 1996 and the section from Wrocław to Katowice between 2000 and 2005. In August 2009 construction of the last western part of the motorway from the border with Germany to the junction with A18 motorway was completed. Also completed in 2009 was the first portion of the motorway east of Kraków (ending on national road 75 junction, near Szarów). In July 2016 the missing 41 km between Rzeszów and Jaroslaw was completed. This was the final stretch of missing motorway to be completed. So in 2016 the entire length of the A4 from the German border to the Ukrainian border was completed, making the A4 the second complete motorway in Poland.

The original plan was to finish the rest of the motorway by about 2013, but because of the UEFA decision to host the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship in Poland and Ukraine and the resulting need to improve the road infrastructure connecting the two countries, the date for opening the motorway to traffic was moved up to June 2012. This ambitious target was not attained after multiple delays, some caused by the floods of 2010.[1]

Sections of the motorwayEdit

Motorway section Length Constructed Note
Jędrzychowice (border) - Zgorzelec 1.7 km (1.1 mi) 1994–1996 heavy-load trucks only in 1994, all cars since 1996
Zgorzelec - Krzyżowa 50 km (31 mi) 2007–2009 opened 2009
Krzyżowa - Bielany Wrocławskie 99 km (62 mi) 1933–1937 repavement started in 90's finished 2006 without emergency lane
Bielany Wrocławskie - Przylesie(Brzeg) 40.7 km (25.3 mi) 1997–2000 single carriageway motorway built in 1936-1938; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Przylesie(Brzeg) - Nogowczyce 84.5 km (52.5 mi) 2000–2003 some construction before 1945; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Nogowczyce - Kleszczów 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 2001–2003 single carriageway motorway built in 1936-1942, it continued from Kleszczów into Gliwice and today that section is National Road 88, while modern motorway bypasses Gliwice to the south; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Kleszczów - Katowice-Murckowska 43 km (27 mi) 1996–2005 parts opened 1996 - 2005; Kleszczów - Gliwice-Sośnica part tolled since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Katowice-Murckowska - Balice 60 km (37 mi) 1983–1996 opened in parts 1983-1996, private operator and tolls since 2000
Balice - Szarów 44 km (27 mi) 1988–2009 first sections signed as motorway in 2002
Szarów - Tarnów 57 km (35 mi) 2010–2013 opened to traffic in November, 2012, in part with single carriageway only.[2] Both carriageways were fully opened in May, 2013.[3]
Tarnów Północ - Dębica Wschód[4] 34.8 km (21.6 mi) 2010–2014 Opened Oct 30, 2014. Wisloka River viaduct (1.3 km) single carriageway only, the second carriageway opened a day later on Oct 31., 2014[5][6]
Dębica (interchange Dębica Wschód) - Rzeszów (Zachód)[7] 37 km (23 mi) 2010–2013 opened in October, 2013
Rzeszów (Zachód) - Rzeszów (Centralny)[8] 4.0 km (2.5 mi) 2010–2013 opened in October, 2013
Rzeszów (Centralny) - Rzeszów(Wschód)[9] 6.9 km (4.3 mi) 2010–2012 opened in September, 2012
Rzeszów(Wschód) - Jarosław[10] 41.2 km (25.6 mi) 2010–2016 originally planned to finish in 2012, delayed until 2014, then contractor abandoned the contract in January 2014 when 70% complete due to dispute with the government over financing. New contract was awarded in September,[11] with construction beginning in October 2014. Opened in July, 2016.[12]
Jarosław - Radymno 24.5 km (15.2 mi) 2010–2013 Jarosław Wschód - Radymno: opened in May, 2013; Jarosław Zachód - Jarosław Wschód: opened in December, 2013.
Radymno - Korczowa[13] 22.6 km (14.0 mi) 2010–2013 originally planned to finish in 2012,[14] opened December 23, 2013[15]
 
Inscription made by Soviet soldiers in 1945: Водрузим над Берлином знамя победы (We shall hoist the flag of victory over Berlin); A4 west of Wrocław.
 
A4 west of Wrocław with repaved concrete surface
 
Gliwice-Sosnica A1 and A4 motorways and national road 44 junction near Gliwice - the largest motorway junction in Europe, opened 2009-2010
 
A4 in Zabrze, opened 2005
 
A4 near Kraków (Zalas), opened 1980
 
A4 near Kraków, opened 2002-2003

Route descriptionEdit

Route
Number of exit, facility Kilometers   A 4  E 40
  (1) (0) Border crossing PL-DE Jędrzychowice
  (2) (1.8) Zgorzelec   DK 30   DK 94
Rest area(1) (7.8) Żarska Wieś, restaurant and motel eastbound, petrol station both ways
  (3) (17.9) Godzieszów   DW 296  DK 94(access through DW296)
Parking area(1) (26) Czerna; parking only
  (4) (44.6) Bolesławiec   DW 297
Rest area(2) (46.2) Kraśnik Dolny(eastbound only), restaurant, motel and petrol station
  (5) (49.8) Krzyżowa   A18 
  (6) (56) Krzywa (secondary road to Szczytnica, restaurant and petrol station)
  (7) (62) Krzywa   DK 94
 (8) (66.6) Jadwisin
  (9) (73) Chojnów   DW 324
Parking area(2) (76.6) near Strupice
 (10) (79.9) Lubiatów
  (11) (83.6) Złotoryja   DW 364
  (12) (91.9) Legnica  DK 3   S3(tender)
  (13) (97) Legnickie Pole (exit and entrance only eastbound)
 (14) (99.6) Mikołajowice
 (15) (104.7) Wądroże Wielkie
 (16) (112.1) Budziszów  
 (17) (115.9) Udanin
Rest area(3) (119.7) eastbound only; parking, restaurant, and shower facilities
 (18) (120.1) Jarosław (Dolnośląskie)
  (19) (120.6) Kostomłoty   DK 5(heading to Bolków, Lubawka)
  (20) (137.4) Kąty Wrocławskie  
  (21) (147.4) Pietrzykowice   DK 35(access through )
  (22) (150.3) Wrocław-Południe   A8   S8  
  (23) (153.1) Bielany Wrocławskie   DK 5   DK 98
Toll booth(1) (156)
  (24) (164.3) Wyjazd 164(no name) (Krajków)
Parking area(3) (166)
  (25) (178.5) Wyjazd 178(no name) (Brzezimierz)
Rest area(4) (183.7) Witowice(restaurant)
(193.1) Entrance to wójewodstwo Opolskie
  (26) (193.7) Wyjazd 194  DK 39 (access through ),  (Przylesie)
Parking area(4) (200.3) Jankowice Wielkie(eastbound only)
Rest area(5) (218.7) Młyński Staw(Motel and petrol station)
  (27) (222) Prądy   DK 46
Parking area(5) (237.2) Przysiecz
  (28) (244.1) Wyjazd 241(Dąbrówka)   DK 45
  (29) (251.2) Wyjazd 248(Krapkowice, Gogolin) 
Rest area Góra Św. Anny(eastbound)/Wysoka(westbound)(6) (264.2) Shower,restaurant and petrol station, KFC
  (30) (272.1) Wyjazd 269(Olszowa) 
  (31) (278) Szymiszów   DK 88(Wyjazd 275)
(281) Entrance to wójewodstwo śląskie
  (32) (287.2) Łany   DK 40(Wyjazd 287)
  (33) (295.8) Kleszczów   DK 88
Rest area(7) (299.7) Rachowice(restaurant, petrol station)
  (34) (303.5) Gliwice - Ostropa 
  (35) (310.1) Gliwice - Bojków   DK 78
Toll booth(2) (311.7) Gliwice
  (36) (315.5) Gliwice - Sośnica   DK 44   A1
  (37) (320.8) Ruda Śląska - Wspólna
  (38) (324) Ruda Śląska - Wirek 
Rest area(8) (326.9) Halemba (restaurant, petrol station and shower)
  (39) (331.5) Chorzów - Batory (exit to Batorego str.)
  (40) (334.1-335.6) Katowice - Mikołowska   DK 81(through Mikołowska, brymowska and Kościuszki str., irregular form interchange[16])
  (41) (337.2) Katowice - Francuska
  (42) (339.5) Katowice - Murckowska   DK 86
  (43) (345.8) Mysłowice
  (44) (348.7) Brzęczkowice   S1 (from here to Balice I interchange concurrency with  )
Toll booth(3) (350.6) Mysłowice
  (45) (359) Jaworzno - Jeleń 
Rest area(9) (361.2) Zastawie(westbound)/Kępnica(eastbound)(petrol station, motel, TIR, restaurant, carwash)
 (46) (364.6) Byczyna(entrance eastbound, exit westbound only), entrance to wójewodswo małopolskie  DK 79
 (47) (388.4) Balin
  (48) (370.6) Chrzanów   DK 79
  (49) (380.9) Rudno, exit and entrance eastbound & westbound
Rest area(10) (397.5) (petrol station, motel, restaurant, carwash)
Toll booth(4) (399.2) Kraków
  (50) (400.2) Balice I   S7 (north bypass, incomplete)
  (51) (401.7) Balice II 
  (52) (406.4) Kraków - Mirowska 
  (53) (408.1) Kraków - Tyniec
  (54) (411.6) Kraków - Sidzina   DK 44
  (55) (416.1) Zakopiańska  DK 7   S7(in faraway plans)
  (56) (418.2) Kraków - Łagiewniki
  (57) (424) Kraków - Wieliczka   DK 94
  (58) (427.3) Kraków - Bieżanów   S7
  (59) (443.5) Szarów/Targowisko   DK 75(indirect access to  DK 94)
Rest area(11) (448.3) Kłaj(restaurant and petrol station)
  (60) (457.1) Bochnia
  (61) (466.9) Brzesko (indirect access to  DK 94 through  DK 75)
  (62) (487.5) Tarnów Zachód 
  (63) (500.8) Tarnów Północ   DK 73
(516.2) Entrance to wójewodstwo podkarpackie'
  (64) (530.5) Dębica <Zachód
  (65) (536.9) Dębica Wschód 
  (66) (551.6) Ropczyce - Sędziszów
Rest area(12) (564.9) Bratkowice, facilities(parking and toilet); further planned
  (67) (570.3) Rzeszów Zachód   S19
  (68) (574.4) Rzeszów Północ   DK 9 
  (69) (581.2) Rzeszów Wschód   S19   DK 94   DK 97 
  (70) () Łańcut   DW 877
  (71) () Przeworsk   DW 835
  (72) (622.5) Jarosław Zachód   DK 94
  (73) (631.7) Jarosław Wschód   DW 880
  (74) (646.7) Przemyśl   DK 77
  (75) (666.3) Korczowa   DK 94
  (672.75) Border checkpoint PL-UA Korczowa
  M10  E40
Those interchanges signed in bold are in the toll road system existing now. Those interchanges underlined are planned to become part of it(some progress was already made on it).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nowak: autostrad na Euro 2012 nie będzie".
  2. ^ Budowa autostrady A4 pod Tarnowem na finiszu
  3. ^ http://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/12401/Dwie-jezdnie-na-A4-miedzy-Brzeskiem-a-Wierzchoslawicami Dwie jezdnie na A4 między Brzeskiem a Wierzchosławicami
  4. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Krzyż - w. Dębica Pustynia
  5. ^ http://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/16919/Dwoma-jezdniami-po-estakadzie-na-odcinku-A4-Tarnow-Debica
  6. ^ http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,100896,16842239,Znamy_date_otwarcia_odcinka_A4_Tarnow___Debica_.html
  7. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Dębica Pustynia - w. Rzeszów Zachód
  8. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Rzeszów Zachód - w. Rzeszów Centralny
  9. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 w. Rzeszów Centralny - w. Rzeszów Wschód
  10. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 Rzeszów Wschód - Jarosław (w. Wierzbna)
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ "Radio Rzeszow". Archived from the original on 2016-05-06. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
  13. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 Radymno - Korczowa
  14. ^ Podkarpacie: Mobilizacja na budowie A4 Radymno – Korczowa
  15. ^ Autostradą A4 do granicy - GDDKiA announcement
  16. ^ "Mapy Google". Mapy Google. Retrieved 2015-11-06.

External linksEdit