August Hlond (July 5, 1881 – October 22, 1948) was a Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, who was Archbishop of Poznań and Gniezno in 1926 and Primate of Poland. He was then appointed as the Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw in 1946.
August Cardinal Hlond
Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw
Primate of Poland
Hlond c. 1938.
|Church||Roman Catholic Church|
|Archdiocese||Gniezno & Warsaw|
|See||Gniezno & Warsaw|
|Appointed||March 4, 1926|
|Term ended||October 22, 1948|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Pace (1927-1948)|
|Ordination||September 23, 1905|
by Anatol Wincenty Novak
|Consecration||January 3, 1926|
by Aleksander Kakowski
|Created cardinal||January 20, 1927|
by Pope Pius XI
|Birth name||August Hlond|
|Born||July 5, 1881|
Brzęczkowice, German Empire (now Mysłowice, Poland)
|Died||October 22, 1948 (aged 67)|
|Buried||St. John's Cathedral, Warsaw|
|Denomination||Roman Catholic Church|
|Residence||Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Warsaw|
|Parents||Jan Hlond & Maria Hlond|
|Coat of arms|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Title as Saint||Venerable|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
|See||Poznań, Gniezno and Warsaw|
He was the only member of the College of Cardinals to be arrested and taken into custody by the Gestapo during World War II, and for the final years of his life was a critic of the Soviet-backed Communist regime in Poland.
Early life and ordinationEdit
Second son of a railway worker, he was born in the Upper Silesian village Brzęczkowice (German: Brzenskowitz), then ruled by Germany, now part of Mysłowice (German: Myslowitz), on 5 July 1881. At twelve-years-of-age, Hlond went to Turin, Italy to study for the priesthood in the Salesian Congregation. He later studied a doctorate of philosophy in Rome, returned to Poland to complete Theology, and was ordained in Cracow in 1905.
In 1909 Hlond was sent to Vienna to be headmaster at a boy's secondary school. He remained in the city for 13 years, and working with spiritual and charitable organisations for Poles, and becoming Provincial of the Salesians for Austria, Hungary and Germany in 1919. Following the break up of Austria-Hungary after World War I, Pope Pius XI appointed Hlond as Apostolic Administrator for Polish Upper Silesia in 1922, and Hlond became the first Bishop of the Diocese of Katowice in 1925.
Bishop and cardinalEdit
Hlond was consecrated as Bishop of Katowice on January 3rd, 1926. He succeeded Cardinal Dalbor, as Primate of Poland soon after and in 1927, was appointed as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Pace by Pope Pius XI. Through the tumultuous 1930s, Hlond condemned "escapism" and called on the Church should challenge the evil realities of the times, and, speaking 12 languages, became an influential member of the College of Cardinals on the international stage.
World War IIEdit
The invasion of predominantly Catholic Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 ignited the Second World War. The Nazi plan for Poland entailed the destruction of the Polish nation, which necessarily required attacking the Polish Church, particularly in those areas annexed to Germany. In the territories annexed to Greater Germany, the Nazis set about systematically dismantling the Catholic Church - arresting its leaders, exiling its clergymen, closing its churches, monasteries and convents. Many clergymen were murdered. Elsewhere in occupied Poland, the suppression was less severe, though still harsh. The Papal Nuncio to Poland, Fillipo Cortesi had abandoned Warsaw along with the diplomatic corps, after the invasion. Other channels existed for communications, including Cardinal Hlond.
On 18 September 1939, at the request of the Polish Government, Hlond left Poland, with part of the Army, in order to reach Rome and report on the actions of the Nazis in Poland, and inform the world via Vatican radio and press. Hlond submitted an official account of the persecutions of the Polish Church to the Vatican, reporting seizures of church property and abuse of clergy and nuns in the annexed regions:
Many priests are imprisoned, suffering humiliations, blows, maltreatment. A certain number were deported to Germany... Others have been detained in concentration camps... It is not rare to see a priest in the midst of labour gangs working in the fields... Some of them have even been shut up for the night in pigsties, barbarously beaten and subjected to other tortures... The Canon Casimir Stepczynski... was forced in company with a Jew to carry away the human excrement... the curate who wished to take the place of the venerable priest was brutally beaten with a rifle butt— Excerpts from Cardinal Hlond's report to the Vatican.
Hitlerism aims at the systematic and total destruction of the Catholic Church in the rich and fertile territories of Poland which have been incorporated into the Reich... It is known for certain that 35 priests have been shot, but the real number of victims... undoubtedly amounts to more than a hundred... In many districts the life of the Church has been completely crushed, the clergy have been almost all expelled; the Catholic churches and cemeteries are in the hands of the invaders... Catholic worship hardly exists any more... Monasteries and convents have been methodically suppressed... [Church properties] all have been pillaged by the invaders.— Excerpts from Cardinal Hlond's report to the Vatican
In 1939 Hlond spent several months in Rome for the conclave of 1939. In January 1940, Vatican Radio broadcast Hlond's reports of German persecution of Jews and the Catholic clergy in Poland. These reports were included in the report of the Polish government to the Nuremberg Trials after the war.
In March 1940, Hlond went on a pilgrimage to Lourdes, in France. Following the Fall of France, he remained in the country, staying at the Benedictine Abbey at Hautecombe, in Savoy, where remained, unable to leave, until Himmler ordered the Gestapo to arrest him in February 1944 (the only member of the Sacred College of Cardinals to be arrested by the Nazis). The Gestapo held him at their headquarters in Paris for two months, and, with the Soviet armies now driving the Nazis back from Russia, attempted to have him declare public support for the German war against the Soviet Union, in order to secure his release. The Gestapo offered to make Hlond Regent of Poland, but, according to The Tablet, "The withdrawal of all German troops from Poland was necessary, the Cardinal implacably insisted, before he could even discuss any matter whatsoever with a German officer." Hlond remained in the custody of the Gestapo, first at a convent at Bar-le-Duc, until the Allied advance forced the Germans to shift him to Wiedenbrtick, in Westphalia, where he remained for seven months, until released by American troops in 1945. The Americans flew Hlond to Paris, and then to Rome on April 25, finally returning to war ravaged Poland on 20 July 1945.
Hlond reported in August 1941 to the Cardinal Secretary of State, Luigi Maglione, that the Polish people believed Pope Pius XII had abandoned them. This was said in light of the Nazi persecution of the Polish church and clergy.
After the warEdit
Pope Pius XII appointed Hlond as Archbishop of Warsaw, on 4 March 1946 and he was installed on May 30th, amid immense crowds of supporters. The Polish Church faced great challenges: thousands of Polish clergy had been killed by the Nazis, and the Church and the Soviet-sponsored new regime in Poland were soon to clash. Hlond set about placing bishops on the empty Sees and reconnecting the Church with Rome.
He spoke out against the Communist persecution of the Church. He issued a series of Pastoral Letters on behalf of the Polish Church regarding the new Poland, but these faced censorship at the hands of the new regime, and the government launched a nationalisation of church schools. In a May 1947 Pastoral Letter, Hlond wrote that ""Since the days of St. Peter, the Church has not been subjected to a persecution such as that to which she is subjected today". Following Hlond's death in 1948, The Tablet wrote that "the nations of Eastern Europe which lie today beneath the police-regimes imposed from Moscow lost their most powerful spokesman".
Death and burialEdit
Relations with ethnic GermansEdit
Hlond has been accused of overstepping his authority by forcing German Nazi supporters to resign their church posts in 1945 in favor of Poles, thereby supporting the Polish integration of formerly eastern German territories that had been given to Poland by the Allies as compensation for territory taken by the Soviet Union. Maximilian Kaller was one of the bishops who was removed from his diocese and deported to West Germany. Kaller is now in process of beatification. Another bishop forced out was Carl Maria Splett, Bishop of Danzig.
Relations with JewsEdit
In 1936, Cardinal Hlond, as Primate of Poland issued a pastoral letter on Catholic moral principles. The long (5600-word) letter covered Catholic ethics policy, ethics principles and a section on "sins" (Z Naszych Grzechów) that addressed Christian shortcomings to love one's neighbours in accordance with God's law. The latter section included a brief discussion of the "Jewish problem" (Problem żydowski):
So long as Jews remain Jews, a Jewish problem exists and will continue to exist (...) It is a fact that Jews are waging war against the Catholic church, that they are steeped in free-thinking, and constitute the vanguard of atheism, the Bolshevik movement, and revolutionary activity. It is a fact that Jews have a corruptive influence on morals and that their publishing houses are spreading pornography. It is true that Jews are perpetrating fraud, practicing usury, and dealing in prostitution. It is true that, from a religious and ethical point of view, Jewish youth are having a negative influence on the Catholic youth in our schools.
Hlond tempered these remarks with an admission that "not all Jews are this way" and forbade assaults on Jews or attacks on their property:
There are very many Jews who are believers, honest, just, kind, and philanthropic. There is a healthy, edifying sense of family in very many Jewish homes. We know Jews who are ethically outstanding, noble, and upright. One may love one's own nation more, but one may not hate anyone. Not even Jews. (...) it is forbidden to demolish a Jewish store, damage their merchandise, break windows, or throw things at their homes (...) it is forbidden to assault, beat up, maim, or slander Jews. One should honor and love Jews as human beings and neighbors
Yet, despite a warning to Catholics not to take an anti-Jewish moral stance, interspersed in the letter's words of friendship was an explicit condemnation of Jewish culture and also Judaism for its rejection of Jesus Christ.
It is good to prefer your own kind when shopping, to avoid Jewish stores and Jewish stalls in the marketplace (...) One should stay away from the harmful moral influence of Jews, keep away from their anti-Christian culture, and especially boycott the Jewish press and demoralizing Jewish publications. (...) We do not honor the indescribable tragedy of that nation, which was the guardian of the idea of the Messiah and from which was born the Savior. When divine mercy enlightens a Jew to sincerely accept his and our Messiah, let us greet him into our Christian ranks with joy.
Hlond's letter was criticized by Polish Jewish groups who saw it as offering support and a rationalization for antisemitism. What also caught the attention of historians was the remark about not hating anyone, "not even Jews", implying "not even enemies". Were Jews to be loved as neighbours or enemies?
However, while Hlond promoted the expulsion of German civilians after World War II, he had always consistently condemned the Nazi persecution of the Jews. Controversy was caused by Hlond's reaction to the Kielce pogrom, that took place in Polish town of Kielce on July 4, 1946. While condemning murders, Hlond denied the racist nature of this crime. He saw pogrom as a reaction against Jewish bureaucrats serving Communist regime. This position was echoed by Cardinal Sapieha, who was reported to have said that the Jews brought it on themselves.
The process of beatification commenced in 1992 and he was granted the title of Servant of God. Professor Franz Scholz, a German theologian, as well as many others have expressed their opposition to the proposed beatification of Cardinal Hlond. Scholz opposes his actions against post-war German expellees and civilians from territories ceded by Allies to the Polish Republic.
Documentation (a Positio) was submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints (CCS) in 2008 and on 9 March 2017 a group of nine theologians approved naming Hlond "Venerable" with 8 votes in favor and 1 abstention. The members of the CCS approved the cause on 15 May 2018 and Pope Francis confirmed Hlond's heroic virtue allowing Hlond to be named as Venerable on 19 May. The American Jewish Committee questioned the pope's decision to name Hlond as Venerable in a letter sent to Cardinal Kurt Koch (the letter was also sent to the CCS and to Cardinal Pietro Parolin) in which the AJC noted that Hlond was anti-Semitic in his writings and not only failed to stop a 1946 pogrom he blamed the Jewish victims for it.
The current postulator for this cause is the Salesian priest Pierluigi Cameroni.
|New title|| Bishop of Katowice
| Archbishop of Poznań
| Primate of Poland
| Archbishop of Warsaw
| Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Pace
- August, Cardinal Hlond; The Tablet; Page 4, 30th October 1948
- Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; p 60
- Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; pp. 71-72
- The Nazi War Against the Catholic Church; National Catholic Welfare Conference; Washington D.C.; 1942; pp. 34-51
- Orczykowski, Andrzej. "Wędrówka ku świętości". niedziela.pl. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Hlond, August (1936) List pasterski: O Katolickie zasady moralne. 29 February 1936.
- Modras, Ronald (1994). The Catholic Church and Antisemitism: Poland, 1933-1939. Overseas Publishers Association N.V. p. 346. Reprinted 2004 by Routledge.
- Levy, Richard S. (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. ABC-CLIO. pp. 310–11.
- Banki, J.H.; Pawlikowski, J.T. (2001). Ethics in the Shadow of the Holocaust: Christian and Jewish Perspectives. Sheed & Ward. p. 92.
- Kent, Peter C. (2002). The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: The Roman Catholic Church and the Division of Europe. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 128.
- Phayer, Michael (2000). The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965. Indiana University Press.[page needed]
- "Promulgation of Decrees of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, 21.05.2018" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to August Hlond.|
- Martin Rudner report of letter by Polish Primate Cardinal August Hlond's
- Central Eastern Review:, Jedwabne for Hlond's anti-Jewish statement and Minorities in Poland
- Literature by and about August Hlond in the German National Library catalogue
- "August Hlond". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney.
- Stanislaw Zimniak. "HLOND, August Josef". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). nur Internet. Bautz.
- Newspaper clippings about August Hlond in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)